Anda di halaman 1dari 11

GREAT BUILDINGS

JPT Review Center

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE
(circa 1200 BC AD 1st Century)

The Great Pyramid


the Pyramid of Khufu is the largest
in the world, measuring 230m (756
ft)

Temple of Luxor
or Southern Sanctuary at
Luxor, Egypt, 18th dynasty
king
dedicated to Amon-Re, king
of the Gods
built of sandstone for the
quarries of Gebel Silsila

GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Abu Simbel
dedicated chieftly to ReHarakhti, God of the rising sun
built during the reign of Ramses
II (1304 1237 BC)

(circa 300 30 BC)

Parthenon
447-438

Architect: Itchinus and Callicrates with


Phidias

Location: Athens, Greece


Style: Ancient Greek Doric
on the historic Acropolis. Doric
exemplar

Pyramid of King Zoser


Architect: Imhotep
earliest pyramidal structure of
the ancient world, the Step
Pyramid (c.2630 BC) of King
Zoser at Saqqara, Egypt
consist of six terraces of
receding sizes with a one staba

Erechtheum
421 405

Architect: Mnesicles
Location: Athens, Greece
Style: Ancient Greek, Ionic
has Caryatid Porch with figural
columns. On the Acropolis, uses grade
change.

Epidaurus Theater
Architect: Polykleitos
Location: Epidauros, or Epidhavros,
Greece

Style: Ancient Greek


and the quality of its acoustics
make the Epidaurus theatre one of
the great architectural
achievements of the fourth century.
the largest and best preserved
ancient theaters in Greece.
can accommodate 14,000
spectators.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
(300BC 365 AD)

The Pantheon
118 - 126

Architect: Acrippa
Location: Rome, Italy
Style: Ancient Roman
great domed hall with oculus
oculus a single circular opening
one of the great spiritual buildings of
the world
it was built as a Roman temple and
later consecrated as a Catholic Church
revived the use of brick and concrete
in temple Architecture

TrO
jans Forum
100 112

Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus


Location: Rome, Italy
Style: Roman
composed of an arc of arched arcade

most magnificent and architecturally most pleasing


largest known forums

Colosseum
70 82

Architect: Vespacian and Domitian


Location: Rome, Italy
Style: Ancient Roman
three-quarter columns and
entablatures, Doric in the first story,
Ionic in the second, and Corinthian in
the third, face the three tiers of
arcades
largest Roman Amphitheater
designed to hold 50,000 spectators
had approximately eighty entrances so crowds could arrive and leave
easily and quickly

AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE
White House
Architect: James Hoban
Location: Washington, D.C.
Date: 1793 to 1801, burned 1814,
porticos 1824 to1829
Style: Georgian Neoclassical
official residence of the president of
the United States of America, for the
last 200 years

Capitol of the United States


Architects: Thornton-Latrobe-Bulfinch
Location: Washington, D.C.
Date: 1793 to 1830
Style: Neoclassical
meeting place of the U.S. Congress,
the national assembly of the United
States of America, consisting of the
House of Representatives and the
Senate

National Gallery of Art


Architect: John Russel Pope
houses one of the finest collections of painting, sculptures, and graphic
arts in the world

Washington Monument
Architect: Robert Mills
Location: Washington, D.C.
Style: Neo-Egyptian
the obelisk is the only remnant of the
original blue print that remains
with George Marsh, competition 1836.
standard Egyptian proportion of 10:1
height to base

University of Virginia
1826

Architect: Thomas Jefferson


Location: Charlottesville, Virginia
Building Type: University campus
Style: Classical, Neo-Palladian
ideas of symmetry and use of brick
arcades connect buildings around
central lawn
curving brick walls surround campus

Massachusetts State House


Architect: Charles Bulfinch - first native-born professional American
architect
classical elements are pilasters, porticos and domes

designed in a Gothic Revival materials at English and French Gothic


Style

Connecticut State Capitol


Architect: Richard Upjohn
Monticello
1768 to 1782

Architect: Thomas Jefferson


Location: Charlottesville, Virginia
Building Type: House
Style: Colonial Georgian
Remodeled1796 to 1808
beautiful hilltop home is a classical
example of the late 18th Century
American architecture and a
national historic landmark

New York City Hall


Architect: Pierre Lenfant
Style: French Renaissance - Georgian Style
one of the most historical architecturally distinguished building in New
York

Fallingwater
1934, 1938, 1948

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania
Building Type: house
Style: Expressionist Modern
cantilevers dramatically over rock
outcropping and rushing stream
sends out free-floating platforms
audaciously over a small waterfall
and anchors them in the natural
rock

Saint Patricks Cathedral


Architect: James Renwick
Location: New York
shaped like a Latin cross
the largest Roman Catholic Cathedral in the United States

Guggenheim Museum
1956 to 1959

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: New York, New York
Building Type: art museum
Style: Modern
a gift of pure architectureor rather
of sculpture
based on organic forms that the
architect found in seashells and snails

Coonley House
1908

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Riverside. Illinois
Style: Prairie style
Building Type: house
Construction System: wood frame with
stucco
a large, sophisticated prairie house

Ennis House
1923

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Los Angeles, California
Building type: house
Style: Deco Modern
Construction system: bearing masonry,
concrete blocks
the last of the four Los Angeles textile
block house

Johnson Wax Building


1936 to 1939 and 1944

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Racine, Wisconsin
Construction system: precast
concrete and brick
Style: modern
unique structural expression in
open hall, tower with rounded
corners
the tower is totally enclosed and
does not allow for horizontal
expansion of work space
articulated by dendriform columns capable of supporting six times the
weight imposed upon them, a fact Wright had to demonstrate in order
to obtain a building permit

Larkin Building
1904, demolished 1950

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Buffalo, New York
Building Type: commercial offices
Construction system: brick masonry
Style: Early modern
large four-storey central atrium
the first entirely air-conditioned
modern office building on record

Wingspread
1937

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright


Location: Wind Point, Wisconsin
Building type: large house
Style: neo-Vernacular
living room, dining room, kitchen,
family sleeping rooms, guest rooms,
were separate unites grouped
together and connected by
corridors

Golden Gate Bridge


1933 to 1937
Architect: Joseph Strauss
Location: San Francisco, California
Building type: suspension bridge
Construction system: steel frame, steel
cables
Styles: Structural Modern with some Art
Deco details
one of the longest bridge in the world
a powerful and elegant human
structure in an equally beautiful
natural location
overall bridge length of 9266 feet, or
2824 meters
bridge main span length of 4200 feet, or 1280 meters

FRENCH ARCHITECTURE
The Louvre
1546 to 1878
Architect: Pierre Lescot
Location: Paris, France
Building type: palace, art museum
Construction system: cut stone bearing
masonry
Style: French Renaissance
also designed by Catherine de Medici,
J.A. du Cerceau II, Claude Perrault,
etc.
I.M. Pei: design the glass pyramid,
which serves as the main public entrance

continues to the Citys Western edge

Palais Royal
commissioned by Cardinal Richeliev
original name is Palais Cardinal
17th century
Daniel Buren: stripped columns

Sacre-coeur
located at the hill of Montmartre which is the highest point in the city of
paris
1874: Paul Abadie
1910: completed by Lucien Magne

Hotel de Ville
largest renaissance building
16th and 17th century
Italian designer Domenico de Cortona
1871: burned, renovated in 2 years

Arc de Triomphe
Napoleon, the French emperor decided
to build a very big arch of triumph,
which stands at the top of the Champs
Elysees

Tuileries
the Tuileries Garden of
Paris is part of the
Triumphal way, which
begins at the Louvre and

Pompidou Centre
1972 to 1976
Architect: Richard Rogers and Renzo
Piano
Location: Paris, France
Building Type: modern art museum
Construction system: high-tech steel
and glass
Style: High-tech modern
a cost of $100,000,000, with an
average attendance of approximately
seven million people a year
massive structural expressionist cast
exoskeleton, "exterior" escalators
enclosed in transparent tube

Notre Dame de Paris


1163 to 1250
Architect: Maurice de Sully
Location: Paris, France
Building Type: church, cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry,
cut stone
Style: Early Gothic
one of the most celebrated Gothic
cathedrals in France
twin towers marking the entrance
probably the most famous image in
French Gothic art

Paris Opera House


1857 to 1874

Architect: Charles Garnier


Location: Paris, France
Building type: theater, opera house
Construction system: masonry, cut
stone

Style: Neo-Baroque
polychrome faade, opulent staircase
commission by competition

masterpiece of 19th century architecture


one of the largest and most opulent theaters in the world
false ceiling painted by Marc Chagall

Elysee Palace
1718

Architect: Claude Mollet


official residence of the president of France

Hotel de Invalides
Napoleons tomb is within the structure
founded by Louis XIV for disabled soldiers
late 17th century

La Madeleine
Architect: Napoleon I
church of Ste. Marie Madeleine
constructed as a church in 1842
surrounded by 52 Corinthian columns

Sorbonne
most famous building at the University of Paris

Chartres Cathedral
1194 to 1260
Location: Chartres, France
Building type: cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Gothic exemplar
the elevation was in three tiers as it
had no gallery and the vaulting was
quadripartite, which eliminated the
need for alternating supports
supreme monument of High Gothic
art and architecture

Amiens Cathedral
1220
145 meters long
largest French Gothic Cathedral ever
built
intricate faade completed during the
15th century

Notre dame du Haut


1955

Architect: Le Corbusier
Location: Ronchamp, France
Building type: church
Construction system: reinforced
concrete
Style: Expressionist Modern
soft-form composition, deep windows
with colored glass (wall thickness 4' to
12')
Le Corbusiers dramatic pilgrim church

Rheims Cathedral
one of the greatest monument of
Gothic art and architecture
construction commerced by Jean
dOrbais and was completed by
Robert de Coucy
a work of remarkable unity and
harmony

Eiffel Tower

Villa Savoye
1928 to 1929

Architect: Le Corbusier
Location: Poissy, France
Building type: house
Construction system: concrete and
plastered unit masonry
Style: modern
an early and classic exemplar of the
"International Style", which hovers
above a grass plane on thin concrete
pilotti, with strip windows, and a flat
roof with a deck area, ramp, and a
few contained touches of curvaceous
walls

1887 to 1889

Architect: Gustave Eiffel


Location: Paris, France
Building Type: exposition observation

GERMAN ARCHITECTURE

tower

Burgtheater

Construction system: exposed iron


Style: Victorian Structural Expressionist
dominates the sky line of Paris
one of the most famous landmarks in
the world
built for the Paris Exposition of 1889

1874 to 1888

Architect: Gottfried Semper with


Karl von Hasenaver

Berlin Opera House


(STAATSOPER)
Architect: Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorf

Wurzburg Residenz
Architect: Balthazar Neumann
one of the best structure of
the Baroque-Rococo period

Einstein Tower
1919 to 1921

Architect: Erich Mendelsohn


Location: Potsdam, Germany
Building type: laboratory, observatory
Construction system: bearing

Construction system: masonry, cut stone


Style: Victorian Ionic faade, Classical Revival
Includes one of the world's great library rooms. Glazed roof over
restored courtyard by Norman Foster

Salisbury Cathedral
1220 to 1258
Location: Salisbury, England
Building type: Cathedral (church, temple)
Construction system: bearing masonry,
cut stone
Style: English Gothic
Cathedral of Saint Mary
an outstanding example of the Early
English architectural style
tallest in England 404ft (123m)
use of Purbeck marble to create a
strongly coloured scheme

Queens House
1616 to 1635

masonry, concrete over brick


Style: Expressionist Early Modern
curvaceous, streamlined form
designed to hold Einstein's own
astronomical laboratory
this 'sarcophagus of architectural
Expressionism' is one of the most
brilliantly original buildings of the
twentieth century

Architect: Inigo Jones the greatest of

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE

Somerset House

British Museum

Architect: William Chambers


Location: London, England
Building type: government offices and art

1823 to 1847

Architect: Sir Robert Smirke


Location: London, England
Building type: art and historical
museum, library

English Classical architect


Location: Greenwich, England
Building type: large house
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Palladian, Late English Renaissance
was built by Jones for Anne of
Denmark, wife of James I

1776 to 1786

school

Construction system: cut stone masonry


Style: Neoclassical

Home of Royal Academy of the Arts. Corinthian orders above arched


courtyard apertures, rusticated base

Saint Pauls Cathedral


1675 to 1710

Architect: Sir Christopher Wren


Location: London, England
Building type: church
Construction system: masonry, brick,
timber and cut stone
Style: Late renaissance to Baroque
the dome peaks at 366 feet above
pavement
a masterpiece of Baroque architecture
largest cathedral in England

Glasgow School of Art


1897 to 1909

Architect: Charles Rennie Mackintosh


Location: Glasgow, England
Building type: college
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: art and crafts, art nouveau
imaginative synthesis of elements of
Art Nouveau and Scottish Architecture

Chiswick House
1729

Durham Cathedral

Architect: Lord Burlington


Location: Chiswick, England
Building type: large house
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Palladian

1093 to 1280
Location: Durham, England
Building type: church, cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry, cut
stone
Style: Romanesque
one of the most impressive Norman
Romanesque style in Europe
had a reciprocal influence on the
architecture of Normady
the rib vault covering of Durham Cathedral
is the oldest example that has survived

also known as Burlington House

Westminster Palace
1836 to 1868

Architect: Sir Charles Barry


Location: London
Building type: seat of government,
government center

Construction system: cut stone bearing


masonry
Style: English Gothic Revival
Big Ben: the clock tower best known
is a great symbol of London
originally seat of kings as a royal
residence

Buckingham Palace
Architect: sir George Goring
built during the reign of king
James I

CHINA, TURKEY, ITALY, INDIA AND SPAIN ARCHITECTURE


Pisa Cathedral
Temple of Heaven
Location: China
700 acre enclosure built by the
Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle
(Yung-Io)
means Perpetual Help

Hagia Sofia
532 to 537

Architect: Isidoros and

103 to 1350
Location: Pisa, Italy
Building type: church complex
Construction system: bearing masonry,
cut stone, white marble
Style: Romanesque
"Pisa Cathedral with Baptistery,
Campanile and Campo Santo,
together form one of the most famous
building groups in the world
the cathedral complex includes the
famous Leaning Tower, La Torre Pendente
white marble with colonnaded facades

Florence Cathedral

Anthemios

1296 to 1462

Location: Istanbul, Turkey


Building type: church
Construction system: bearing

Architect: Arnolfo di Cambio


Location: Florence, Italy
Building type: domed church, cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Italian Romanesque

masonry
Style: Byzantine
a tremendous domed space
built as the new Cathedral
of Constantinople by the
Emperor Justinian
a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture
additional minarets when the church became a mosque

Cathedral of Siena
Location: Southern Italy
incorporated Gothic elements
in a strongly Mediterranean
design

1296: Cathedral begun on design by


Arnolfo di Cambio
1357: Project continued on a modified
plan by Francesco Talenti
1366-7: Talenti's definitive design
emerged calling for an enormous
octagonal dome
1418: competition for construction of dome.
1420: technical solution for vaulting proposed by Brunelleschi
approved and construction begun
The Duomo dome added by Brunelleschi
1436 church consecrated

10

Krak des Chevaliers


1150 to 1250
Location: Syria

Casa Mila

Building type: fort


Style: Medieval

Architect: Antonio Gaudi


Location: Barcelona, Spain
Building type: multifamily housing
Construction system: masonry and

crusader castle
the best preserved and most
wholly admirable castle in
the world

Alhambra
1338 to 1390
Location: Granada, Spain
Building type: palace
Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Moorish (Islamic)
palace of Nasrid Dynasty
the most beautiful remaining example
of Western Islamic Architecture
built as a cathedral in the mid-1200s
hall of justice: noted from its
elaborate stalactite (maqarnas)
decoration

1905 to 1910

concrete
Style: Art Nouveau
expressionistic, fantastic, organic
forms in undulating facade and roof
line
light court
it could be compared with the steep
cliff walls in which African tribes build their cave-like dwellings

Sagrada Familia
1882 to 1926

Architect: Antonio Gaudi


Location: Barcelona, Spain
Building type: church
Construction system: masonry
Style: Expressionist
Church of the Holy Family
uncompleted during Gaudis lifetime
crowned by four spires

Casa Batllo
1905 to 1907

Architect: Antonio Gaudi


Location: Barcelona, Spain
Building type: apartment building
Construction system: concrete
Style: Expressionist or Art Nouveau
uses animal styles al through-out the
structure

Taj Mahal
1630 to 1653

Architect: Emperor Shah Jahan


Location: Agra, India
Building type: Islamic tomb
Construction system: bearing masonry,
inlaid marble
Style: Islamic
onion-shape domes, flanking towers,
built for wife Mumatz Mahal
located on the Jumna River
museum for Mogul emperors consort

11