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SECTION 9: HFU and HGU

Hydro Finishing Unit


Hydrotreating of dewaxed lube oil stocks is needed to remove chemically active compounds that
affect the color and color stability of lube oils. The Lube Oil Fraction Reduce from MEK Process
still contain trace amount of compounds which are not suitable for long life lubricating oils.
These undesirable compounds combined with O2 at elevated temperatures encounter in engines
and machinery to produce sludge. These compounds can not be successfully removed via
extraction process, therefore these compounds are hydrogenated in a process called hydro
finishing. Most hydrotreating operations use cobaltmolybdate catalysts and are operated at a
severity set by the color improvement needed. Organic nitrogen compounds seriously affect the
color and color stability of oils, and their removal is a major requirement of the operation. The
process flow is the same as that for a typical hydro treating unit. Representative operating
conditions are:

Ahsan Jalal
NRL # 60275

Usually finished oil yields are approximately 98% of dewaxed oil feed.
The hydro finisher is a hydrogenation process in which hydrogen gas chemically combines with
Sulphur to form Hydrogen sulphide present in the feed. Hydrogenation process also saturates the
olefins of the feed stock which improve the colure of product. The reaction takes place under
high pressure and temperature in presence of the catalyst.
The following reactions are taking place in the reactor,

Desulphurization:
The hydrogen gas combines with the sulphur compound, present in the feed stock and
hydrogen sulphide is produced. e.g.
C20H41-S-H +H2--------> C20H42 + H2S

Olefin Saturation:
The Olefin groups of hydro carbons are present in the feed stock. The olefins are
unsaturated hydrocarbons. During the process the hydrogen is added to unsaturated
hydrocarbons to saturate it. E.g.
R-CH2=CH2 + H2----------> CH3-CH3

Denitrification:
Nitrogen is also present in the feed stock; it combines with Hydrogen to form Ammonia.

Oxygen removal:
Oxygen is also present in the feed it combines with hydrogen to form water.

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SECTION 9: HFU and HGU

Process Parameters:
The hydro finishing chemical reaction take place at transfer line (T/L) temperature of 515 oF to
525 oF. In the rector temperature is 473 oF to 492 oF. The heat of the reaction is provided by a
furnace, located before the reactor. The process reaction takes place under high temperature and
pressure. The system pressure is 500 to 535 Psi, this pressures is control by PRC-2.The system
pressure make up by compressors K2 A/B and storage hydrogen bottle (V3, V4 & V5). Normally
the feed to reactor have 250-300 SCF of hydrogen gas for every barrel of feed.
Process description:
The unit is designed to hydro tread the feed WFO (Wax free oil) pumped to the unit from the
storage tank.The hydrogen coming from HGU (hydrogen generation unit). Hydrogen gas mix
with WFO after FRC-1 (at feed pump 16 P-1).The WFO and hydrogen gas is pre heated in shell
side of exchanger 16 E-1 (tube side E-1 is outlet of 16 P-2 after dryer) then again heated in the
shell side of exchanger of 16 E-2 (Tube side is reactor effluent).It is further heated in a furnace to
gain the final reaction temperature of 515 oF to 525 oF. Now the stream is introduce in the reactor
where the Chemical reaction takes place. The reactor top temperature is 473 oF to 492 oF and bed
temperature is 470 oF to 493 oF. Stream comes out from the bottom of the reactor at
451oF.Stream cooled in tube side of 16 E-2 and introduced into separator 16 V-1. The reactor top
temperature of the separator, Hydrogen gas = hydrogen Sulfide remain on top the oil layer. Gas
leaves from the top of the separator to Compressor 16 K-1 A/B followed by air cooler E-3, where
gas recycles. The Oil leaves, from the bottom of the separator to Stripper 16 C-1. The Hydrogen
WFO collected in the separator, still contains light Hydrocarbons, H2 and H2S, which do not
separate from stream. The heat necessary to separate light Hydrocarbons from the stream at the
rate of 1040 Lbs/h at temperature of 930 to 940o F. The undesirable products are comes out from
the stream due to high bottom temperature and lower pressure of the stripper and travel up the
stripper column in the shape of vapors. The condensation takes place as the vapors pass through
water cooler and the collected into hot well V-8. The non condensable vapors are flare in the
atmosphere. Then pump 16 P-2, pumped to Air cooler 16 E-4 A/BC/D. The Hydro finished
products stored in storage tanks.

Ahsan Jalal
NRL # 60275
Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU)

The hydrogen used in the process of hydro finishing is generated in HGU. The units involve in
HGU are as follows

Carbon Drum
Reformer
CO converter
Absorber (for the absorption of CO2 gas)
Methanator

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SECTION 9: HFU and HGU

Process description:
Natural gas is first passed through the carbon drum where the sweetening of natural gas is done
by the removal of sulphur contents present in the natural gas. Steam is used as reforming agent in
the reformer. The steam is entered at about 700 oC. The catalyst used in reformer is nickel oxide
along with MgCl2 and Al2CO3. The gaseous stream coming out of reformer has temperature of
about 920 oC .The composition of this stream is as follows
H2=74%, CO2=4% & CO=22%.
After that it is introduced into CO converter where almost all of CO is converted in to CO2. The
next unit is CO2 absorber where 30% solution of MEA (Mono ethanol amine) is used to remove
CO2 from stream. After passing this stream through CO2 absorption column, it still contains
small amount in methanator and hydrogen free from CO2 is send into hydrogen bottle.

Ahsan Jalal
NRL # 60275

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