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Anatomy Review Test 4 Part 3

Physiology of the Respiratory System

Respiratory Physiology
o External Respiration
Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Pulmonary gas exchange
o Transport of gases by the blood CVS
o Internal respiration
Systemic tissue gas exchange
Cellular respiration
o Regulation of respiration

Pulmonary Ventilation
o Respiratory cycle (ventilation, breathing)
Inspiration moves air into the lungs
Expiration moves are out of the lungs
o Mechanism of pulmonary ventilation
Pulmonary ventilation mechanism must establish two gas
pressure gradients
One in which the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
is lower then the atmospheric pressure to produce
inspiration
One in which the pressure in the alveoli of the lungs is
higher then the atmospheric pressure to produce
expiration
Pressure gradients are established by changes in the size of
thoracic cavity that are produced by concentration and
relaxation of muscles
Inspiration- contraction of the diaphragm produces
inspiration- as it contracts, it makes the thoracic cavity larger
Compliance- ability of pulmonary tissues to stretch, this
making inspiration possible
Expiration- a passive process that begins when the inspiratory
muscles are relaxed, which decreases the size of the thorax
Increasing thoracic volume increases the intrapleural
pressure and this increases alveolar pressure above the
atmospheric pressure
Air moves out of the lungs when alveolar pressure
exceeds the atmospheric pressure
Elactic Recoil- tendency of pulmonary tissues to return
to a smaller size after having been stretched occurs
passively during expiration

Pulmonary Capacities Alveolar ventilation- volume of inspired air that reaches


the alveoli
Anatomical dead space- passageways occupied by air
that does not participate in gas exchange
Physiological dead space- anatomical dead space plus
any alveoli not able to perform gas exchange (as in
pulmonary disease)
Alveoli must be properly ventilated for adequate gas
exchange
Pulmonary Airflow
Forced expiratory volume (FEV) or forced vital capacity
(FVC)- volume of air expired per second during forced
expiration (as a percentage of VC)

Pulmonary Gas Exchange


o Exchange of gases in the lungs- takes place between alveolar air and
blood flowing through lung capillaries
Four factors determine the amt of oxygen that diffuses into the
blood
The oxygen pressure gradient between alveolar air and
blood
The total functional surface area of the respiratory
membrane
The respiratory minute volume
Alveolar Ventilation

How Blood Transports Gases


o Oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported as solutes and as parts of
molecules of certain chemical compounds
o Transport of carbon dioxide
A small amount of CO2 dissolves in plasma and is transported
as a solute (10%)
Less than one-fourth of blood carbon dioxide combines with
NH2 (amine) groups of hemoglobin and other protiens to form
carbaminohemoglobin
Carbon dioxides association with hemoglobin is accelerated by
an increase in blood PO2
More than two-thirds of the carbon dioxide is carried in plasma
as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

Systemic Gas Exchange


o Exchange of gases in tissue takes place between arterial blood flowing
through tissue capillaries and cells

Regulation of Pulmonary Function


o Respiratory control centers- the main integrators controlling the
nerves that affect the inspiratory and expiratory muscles are located
in the brainstem
o Arterial blood PO2 presumably has little influence if it stays above a
certain level