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Anatomy & Physiology Test #3

Cardiac Cycle- a complete heart beat events that occur in the heart
chambers that make up a heart beat.
o Consists of contraction (systole) atria and relaxation (diastole)
ventricle of both atria and both ventricles.
o Atrial Systole
Contraction of atria creates a pressure gradient that pushes
blood out of the atria into the relaxed ventricles.
Due to pressure gradients AV valves are open; SL valves are
closed.
**Blood flows form a high pressure area to a low pressure area **
o Ventricular Diastole
Onset of ventricular systole coincides with R wave of the ECG
and the appearance of the first heart sound.
Occurs between the start of ventricular systole and the opening
of the SL valves.
Ventricular volume remains constant as the pressure increases
rapidly
**Changes in pressure that open & close the 4 heart valves**
o Ejection:
SL valves open and blood is ejected form the ventricles when
the intraventricular pressure exceeds this pressure in the
pulmonary artery and aorta
**Lub= closing AV valve. Dub= closing of SL valve. Murmur abnormal**
Primary Priniciple of Circulation:
o Blood flows because a pressure gradient exists between different
parts of its volume; this is based on Newtons first and second laws of
motion.
o Blood flows from where pressure is high to pressure is low.
Arterial Blood pressure
o Blood Pressure Definition: pressure or force that blood creates
against the blood vessel as it is flowing through.
o Rise during systole, falls during diastole
o Pulse is created because walls of artery expand during systole & recoil
during diastole.
o Primary Determinant: Volume determines blood pressure. If we
increase volume of blood in arteries we increase bP. If we decrease
volume blood in arteries we decrease bP
o 2 Factors Vol. of Blood in arteries
Cardiac Output: regulates volume of blood that is pumped into
arteries
Peripheral Resistance: regulates volume of blood that flows out
of the arteries.

o Cardiac Output: volume of blood pumped out of the heart per unit of
time. (ml/min or L/min)
Cardiac Output: determined by stroke volume and heart rate
Stroke Volume: volume pumped per heart beat
CO= SVxHR
Heart rate and stroke volume determine CO, so anything
that changes either also tends to change CO, arterial
blood volume, and blood pressure in the same direction
o Stroke Volume:
Starlings law of the heart
Within limits the longer or more stretched, the heart
fibers at the beginning of the contraction, the stronger
the contraction.
The myocardium contracts with enough strength to
math its pumping load (within certain limits) with each
stroke- unlike mechanical pumps
o Factors that influence heart rate: SA node normally initiates each
heart beat; however, various factors can and do change the rate of the
heart beat (- FeedBack)
Peripheral Resistance: resistance to blood flow imposed by the
force of friction between blood and the walls of the vessels
2 factors that influence peripheral resistance:
o Blood viscosity: the thickness of blood as a fluid
High plasma protein concentration can
slightly increase blood viscosity
High Hct can increase blood viscosity
o Diameter of arterioles: changes very little under
normal conditions
Vasomotor mechanism: (smooth muscle)
muscles in walls of arteriole may constrict
vessel (vasoconstriction) or dilate vessel
(vasodilation), thus changing diameter of
ateriole
Small changes in blood vessel diameter
cause large changes in resistance, making
the vasomotor mechanism ideal for
regulating blood pressure and blood flow
How resistance influences blood pressure
o Arterial blood pressure tends to vary directly
with peripheral resistance
o Friction caused by viscosity and small diameter
of arterioles and capillaries

Venous Return to the Heart


o Venous Return: amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins
o Gravity: the pull of gravity on venous blood while sitting or standing
tends to cause a decrease in venous return (orthostatic effect)
o Venous Pump:
Respirations: inspiration increases the pressure gradient
between peripheral and central veins by decreasing central
venous pressure and also by increasing peripheral venous
pressure
Skeletal muscle contractions: promote venous return by
squeezing veins through a contracting muscle and milking the
blood toward the heart
o Total Blood Volume: mechanisms that change total blood volume
most quickly are those that cause water to quickly move into or out of
the plasma
Capillary Exchange: governed by Starlings law of the
capillaries
At the arterial end of capillary, outward hydrostatic
pressure is the strongest force; moves fluid out of
plasma and into IF (tissue space)
At the venous end of capillary, inward osmotic pressure
is strongest force; moves fluid into plasma from IF; 90%
of fluid lost by plasma at arterial end is recovered.
Changes in total blood volume: mechanisms that change total
blood volume most quickly are those that cause water to
quickly move into or out of the plasma

Measuring Blood Pressure:


o Relation to arterial and venous bleeding
Arterial bleeding: blood escapes from artery in spurts because
of alternating increase and decrease of arterial blood pressure
Venous bleeding: blood flow slowly and steadily because of
low, practically constant pressure
Pulse:
o Mechanism:
Pulse: alternate expansion and recoil of an artery
o Pulse:
Each pulse starts with ventricular contraction and proceeds as
a wave of expansion throughout the arteries
Gradually dissipates as it travels, disappearing in the
capillaries

Lymphatic System

Overview:
o Two most important functions:
Maintain fluid balance in the internal environment and
immunity; a third function is to collect absorbed fat from the
intestines and transport it to the systemic veins
Lymph vessels act as drains to collect excess tissue fluid and
return it to the venous blood just before it returns to the heart
Lymphatic system: component of the circulatory system; made
up of lymph, lymphatic vessels, and isolated structures
containing lymphoid tissue: lymph nodes, aggregated
lymphoid nodules, tonsils, thymus, spleen and Red Bone
Marrow. (more lymph nodes then anything)
Transports tissue fluid, proteins, fats and other substances to
general circulation
Lymphatic vessels began blindly in the intercellular spaces of
soft tissues; do not form a closed circuit AKA capillary.
o Lymph & Interstitial Fluid
Lymph (lymphatic fluid): once tissue fluid hits lymph cap
called lymph
Interstitial Fluid:
o Lymphatic Vessels:
Lymphatic Capillaries: microscopic blind-end vessels/sac. Wall
consists of a single layer flattened endothelial cells; networks
branch and anastomose freely
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form larger lymphatic and
eventually form the main lymphatic trunks, the right lymphatic
ducts and the thoracic duct.
Lymph from upper right quadrant empties into right lymphatic
duct and then into right subclavian vein. (25% of lymph)
Lymph from rest of the body empties into the thoracic duct,
which then drains into the left subclavian vein; thoracic duct
originates as the cisterna chyli (75% of lymph)
o Structure of lymphatic system:
Similar to veins except lymphatic vessels have thinner walls,
have more valves, and contain more lymph nodes.
One way valves are present every few millimeters in large
lymphatics and even more frequently in small lymphatics
o Functions of lymphatic vessels
Remove high molecular weight substances and even
particulate matter from interstitial fluid
Lacteals absorb fats and other nutrients from the small
intestines

Circulation of Lymph:
o From lymphatic capillaries, lymph flows through progressively larger
lymphatic vessels to eventually reenter blood at the junction of the
internal jugular and subclavian veins.
o Lymphatic pump:
Lymphokinesis: the movement of lymph
Breathing movements and skeletal muscle contractions
establish a fluid pressure gradient, as they do with venous
blood
Lymph Nodes:
o Structures:
Lymph nodes are oval-shaped structures enclosed by a fibrous
capsule
Cortical and medullary sinuses are lined with macrophages
o Location:
Most lymph nodes occur in groups
Groups with greatest clinical importance are preauricular
lymph nodes, submental and submaxillary groups, and
superficial cervical, superficial cubital, axillary, iliac, and
inguinal lymph nodes.
** Only can palpate lymph nodes, when swollen and very superficial**
o Functions:
Defense functions: (immunity)
Filtration
o Mechanical filtration: physically stopping
particles from progressing further in the body
o Biological filtration: biological activity of cells
destroys and remove particles
Phagocytosis
Hematopoesis: lymphoid tissur is the site for the final stages of
maturation of some lymphocytes and monocytes (lymphocyte
formation)
Breast:
o More than 85% of the lymph from the breast enters the lymph nodes
of the axillary region
o Remainder of lymph enters lymph nodes along the lateral edges of the
sternum (parasternum 15%)
Tonsils:
o Mastastisis spread: tonsils throat pharynx & mouth
o Formation a broken ring under the mucous membrane in the mouth
and back of throat.
Palatine Tonsils- located on each side of the throat
Pharyngeal Tonsils- located near the posterior opening of the
nasal cavity connected to pharynx
Lingual Tonsils- located near the base of the tongue

Tubal Tonsils- located near the openings of the auditory tube


o Protect against bacteria that may invade tissues around the openings
between the nasal and oral cavities; bacteria are trapped in tonsillar
crypts and put in close contact with immune system cells
Thymus
o Single, unpaired organ located in the mediastinum, extending upward
to the lower edge of the thyroid and inferiorly as far as the fourth
intercostal cartilage
o Thymus is pinkish gray in childhood; with advancing age, becomes
yellowish as lymphoid tissue is replaced by fat
o Shortly after birth, thymus secretes thymosin and other regulators,
which enables lymphocytes to develop into T-cells
Spleen
o Structure of spleen
Ovoid in shape
White Pulp
Red Pulp
o Functions of the spleen
Defense: macrophages lining the sinusoids of the spleen
remove microorganisms from the blood and phagocytose them
Hematopoiesis: monocytes and lymphocytes complete their
development in the spleen
RBC and platlet destruction: macrophages remove worn out
RBCs and imperfect platelets and destroy them by
phagocytosis; also salvage iron and globin from destroyed
RBCs
Blood Reservoir: pulp of spleen and its sinuses store blood