STRUCTURAL JOURNAL 2010 aci

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STRUCTURAL JOURNAL 2010 aci

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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for Concrete Plates

by E. Rizk and H. Marzouk

Different codes have different formulas to calculate crack spacing slabs. An accurate estimate of the crack spacing and crack

and crack width developed in flexural members. Most of these width of thick concrete plates used for offshore and nuclear

formulas are based on the analysis of results of tested beams or power plant structures can result in the reduction of

one-way slabs. Crack control equations for beams underestimate steel reinforcement. The saving of steel reinforcement to

the crack width developed in plates and two-way slabs. It seems

satisfy the crack width limitations can be estimated in

that little attention has been paid in determining the crack spacing

and width in reinforced concrete plates. The behavior of reinforced millions of dollars for a single project (for example, Hibernia

concrete plates and two-way slabs is different from beams or one- oil platform). The proposed equation combines the known

way slabs; therefore, the methods developed for beams cannot be bond stress effect with the contribution of splitting bond

directly applied to plates and two-way slabs. In this paper, a new stress in the transverse direction due to the action of two-way

analytical equation is proposed for calculating the crack spacing slabs. The proposed equation gives a good estimate for crack

for plates and two-way slabs. A special focus will be given to thick spacing in plates and two-way slabs with concrete covers (Cc

concrete plates used for offshore and nuclear containment structures. < 2.5db). The proposed method can also be modified and

The proposed equation takes into account the effect of steel rein- used for plates with thick concrete covers (C = 2.5 – 5.0db).

forcement in the transverse direction through the splitting bond

stress. The new equation provides good estimates for crack spacing

in plates and two-way slabs with different concrete covers. Eight PREVIOUS RESEARCH

full-scale two-way slabs were designed and tested to examine the Crack width models clearly illustrate that the crack

effects of concrete cover and bar spacing of normal- and high- spacing and width are functions of the distance between the

strength concrete on crack spacing. The different code expressions reinforcing steel. Therefore, crack control can be achieved

are evaluated with respect to the experimental results. by limiting the spacing of the reinforcing steel. Maximum

bar spacing can be determined by limiting the crack width to

Keywords: bond stress; crack spacing; plate; transverse reinforcement. acceptable limits.

Crack-control equations for beams underestimate the The Canadian offshore code CSA-S474-042 provides the

crack width developed in plates and two-way slabs.1 The following expression for calculating the average crack

behavior of reinforced concrete plates and two-way slabs is spacing. This is the same equation used by the Norwegian

different from that of one-way slabs and beams; hence, the code NS 3473E3

methods developed for beams cannot be directly applied to

plates and two-way slabs. The expression for crack spacing ′ hef b/As

Sm = 2.0(Cc + 0.1S) + k1k2dbe (1)

is based on the beam theory in several codes, such as the

Canadian offshore code CSA-S474,2 Norwegian Code NS where Sm is the average crack spacing, mm; Cc is concrete

3473E,3 and the European CEB-FIP4 model code. With the cover, mm; S is bar spacing of outer layer, mm; k1 is the

extensive use of thick concrete plates and slabs with thick coefficient that characterizes bond properties of bars; k1 = 0.4 for

concrete covers for offshore and nuclear containment deformed bars; and k1 = 0.8 for plain bars—this is related to

structures, the development of new formulas is needed to the deformed rips on reinforcing bars; k2 is the coefficient to

predict crack spacing and width for plates and two-way account for strain gradient; k2 = 0.25(ε1 + ε1)/2ε1, where ε1

concrete slabs. This paper examines the different approaches and ε2 are the largest and the smallest tensile strains in the

and codes for estimating the crack spacing. Little attention effective embedment zones; dbe ′ is the bar diameter of outer

has been paid in determining the crack spacing and width in layer, mm; hef is the effective embedment thickness as the

reinforced concrete thick plates. A lack of available research greater of a1 + 7.5dbe′ and a2 + 7.5dbe′ but not greater than the

data on the prediction of crack properties results in unnecessary tension zone or half slab thickness, mm; a1 and a1 are the

overdesign of steel reinforcement to satisfy conservative distances from the centers of the bars to the surface of the

crack requirements in codes for offshore structures. This concrete, mm (refer to Fig. 1); b is the width of the section,

investigation presents a unique experimental work. Crack mm; and As is the area of reinforcement within the effective

spacing of eight reinforced concrete specimens relevant to embedment thickness (mm2).

the offshore structures had been examined. Furthermore, the

results were evaluated with regard to the available codes.

ACI Structural Journal, V. 107, No. 1, January-February 2010.

MS No. S-2008-254.R3 received February 13, 2009, and reviewed under Institute

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE publication policies. Copyright © 2010, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved,

This paper provides a rational method for designers to including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

Pertinent discussion including author’s closure, if any, will be published in the November-

calculate crack spacing for plates and two-way concrete December 2010 ACI Structural Journal if the discussion is received by July 1, 2010.

bond stress, MPa; ρs,ef is the effective reinforcement ratio

E. Rizk is a PhD Candidate and Research Assistant at Memorial University of

Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada, and is an Assistant Lecturer at Menoufiya (As/Ac, ef); Ac, ef is the effective area of concrete in tension

University, Shibin el Kom, Egypt. He received his BSc and MSc from Menoufiya limited by slab width and height equal to the lesser of 2.5

University in 1999 and 2005, respectively. His research interests include cracking

and minimum reinforcement of offshore structures and shear strength of two-way

(c + φ/2) or (h – c)/3 (mm2); and Srm is the average crack

concrete slabs. spacing, mm.

A reevaluation of cracking data5 provides a new equation

ACI member H. Marzouk is Chair of the Civil Engineering Department at Ryerson

University, Toronto, ON, Canada. He received his MSc and PhD from the University based on the physical phenomenon for the determination of

of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. He is a member of ACI Committees 209, the flexural crack width of reinforced concrete members.

Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete, and 213, Lightweight Aggregate and Concrete. His This study shows that previous crack width equations are

research interests include structural and material properties of high-strength and

lightweight high-strength concrete, offshore design, creep, and finite element analysis. valid for a relatively narrow range of covers up to 63 mm

(2.5 in.). Frosch (1999) introduced this phenomenon into a

new expression that was adopted by ACI 318-99.6 For crack

The crack spacing provided in Eq. (1) can be divided into control in beams and one-way slabs, ACI 318-996 requires

two terms. Term A is a function of concrete cover and bar the spacing of reinforcement closest to a surface in tension

spacing (A = 2.0[Cc + 0.1S]). Term B relates to the type of not exceed

bar, the diameter, and type of stress (B = k1k2d be ′ hef b/As).

The CEB-FIP4 model code crack spacing expression is 95,000

recommending a different approach compared to other codes S = ------------------ – 2.5C c (5)

fs

(CSA2 and NS3). Meanwhile, the bond effect of CEB-FIP4

is treated in a different manner. For a cracked reinforced

concrete section, an increase in loading will result in an where fs is the calculated stress in reinforcement at service

increase in steel strain. This will cause an elongation of the load = unfactored moment divided by the product of steel

reinforcing bar in which the bar ribs will tend to move area and internal moment arm. Alternatively, fs can be taken

toward the nearest crack relative to the surrounding concrete. as 0.60 f y; C c is the clear cover from the nearest surface

The stress in the steel caused by steel strain will be reduced in tension to the flexural tension reinforcement; and S is

due to the bond stress τbk between the steel and surrounding the center-to-center spacing of the flexural tension reinforce-

tensile concrete. Therefore, instead of using the factor k1 to ment nearest to the surface of the extreme tension face.

account for the bond effect, the CEB-FIP4 model code uses the

bond stress τbk directly in the expression as shown in Eq. (2) Crack control in plates and two-way slabs

The cracking width in plates and two-way slabs is

σ s2 – σ sE controlled primarily by the steel stress level and spacing of

- ϕs

l s, max = 2 --------------------- (2) the reinforcement in two perpendicular directions. In addi-

4τ bk

tion, the clear concrete cover in plates and two-way slabs is

nearly constant (20 mm [0.8 in.]) for most interior structural

For stabilized cracking slabs, whereas it is a major variable in the crack control

equations for beams. Analysis of data on cracking in plates

ϕs and two-way slabs1 has provided the following equation for

l s, max = -----------------

- (3) predicting the maximum crack width

3.6ρ s, ef

The CEB-FIP4 model code provides the following expression w = kβf s I (6)

for calculating the average crack spacing for stabilized cracking

where the terms under the square root are collectively termed

2 the grid index, and k is a fracture coefficient (k = 2.8 × 10–5)

S rm = --- l s, max (4) for uniformly loaded restrained two-way action square slabs

3

and plates. For concentrated loads or reactions or when the

ratio of short to long span is less than 0.75 but larger than 0.5,

where ls,max is the length over which slip between the steel

a value of k = 2.1 × 10–5 is applicable. For span aspect ratios

reinforcement and concrete occurs (approximating crack

less than 0.5, k =1.6 × 10–5; β = 1.25 (chosen to simplify

spacing in stabilized cracking), mm. Steel and concrete

calculations, although it varies between 1.20 and 1.35); and

strains, which occur within this length, contribute to the

fs is the actual average service-load stress level or 40% of the

width of the crack; σs2 is the steel stress at crack, MPa; σsE

specified yield strength fy, ksi.

is the steel stress at point of zero slip, MPa; ϕs is the bar

diameter, mm; τbk is the lower fractile value of the average Desayi and Kulkarni7 developed an approximate

method to predict the maximum crack width in two-way

reinforced concrete slabs. The researchers calculated the

maximum crack width based on an estimation of the crack

spacing at any given stage of loading, which is between

that stage and the ultimate load. As a result of the two-way

action of the slabs, when the stretching of bars in Direc-

tion X and the concrete surrounding them is considered,

the bars in the perpendicular direction can be assumed to

bear against the concrete surrounding them. The spacing

of cracks formed in Direction X can be calculated using

Fig. 1—Effective embedment thickness (effective tension area). the following formula

k t ft A ct1 2

α 1 = ------------------------------------------------------------

- (7) --- πd bx fbo smx n x + (8)

( πφ 1 k b f b/s 1 ) + ( φ 2 f bb /s 2 ) 3

contribution of transverse steel reinforcement = k t f ctm A ctx

where fb is the bond strength; kb is the constant to account for

the surface characteristics of the bar and the distribution of The constant kt accounts for the distribution of tensile

bond stress; fbb is the bearing stress; kt is the constant to stress in Section 1-1 on the effective area of concrete Actx and

account for the distribution of tensile stress; and ft is the fctm is the mean tensile strength value of the concrete that is

tensile strength of the concrete. calculated according to the CEB-FIP4 model code.

The diameter of the bars in Direction X is ϕ1 and the The number of bars per unit width in X direction is nx, and

spacing between bars is S1. In Direction Y, the diameter is ϕ2 the peak bond strength is fbo, calculated using the CEB-FIP4

and the spacing between bars is S2. Model Code equation. The CEB-FIP 4 model code

The researchers7 presented an equation to predict crack width (Table 3.1.1) provides the following expression for

in two-way slabs, which considered the bond force on the bars calculating peak bond stress for confined and unconfined

and anchorage forces due to cross wires. The proposed method concrete for different bond conditions

gives a large coefficient of variation, compared to the more

practical equation used by Nawy and Blair.1

Marzouk and Hossin8 tested eight square full-scale f bo = μ f c′ ( MPa ) (9)

specimens to investigate the crack width and spacing of

high-strength concrete slabs, five high-strength concrete For cases where failure is initiated by splitting of the

slabs, and three normal-strength concrete slabs. The structural concrete (unconfined concrete), the coefficient μ is taken

behavior, with regard to the deformation and strength equal to unity and, hence, fbo is calculated as follows

characteristic of high-strength concrete slabs of various

thicknesses and different reinforcement ratios (0.40 to

2.68%), were studied. f bo = 1.0 f c′ ( MPa ) (10)

ANALYTICAL MODEL

The presented theoretical model for calculating crack

spacing for two-way slabs combines the known effect of

bond stress with the splitting bond stress in the transverse

direction, which is due to the action of two-way slabs.

For a concrete section between two successive cracks in a

tensile test specimen, zero bond stresses at the two cracked

sections and at the midpoint can be assumed. Variation of the

bond stress between these two zero-points (between the

midpoint and the nearest cracked section) were established

by many researchers9,10 based on experimental results. In

the present research, it is further assumed that the peak bond

stress occurs at the midsection between the two zero points,

with a parabolic variation. These two assumptions greatly

simplify the mathematical formulation in calculating the

bond stress. The resulting bond stress distribution closely

agrees with the experimental observations.9,10 The resulting

parabolic bond stress distribution between two successive

flexural cracks is shown in Fig. 2(b).

Figure 2 shows a cross section of a slab and the layout of

reinforcement in the Directions X and Y. Stretching the bars

in Direction X with the concrete surrounding the bars will

result in another crack at a Distance x = smx. At the same

time, as a result of the two-way action of the slabs, stretching

the bars in a perpendicular direction results in splitting

circumferential forces in Direction X. A sufficient bond

force is developed at this location (x = smx), which, together

with the splitting stresses along the transverse bars, is just large

enough to induce a maximum tensile stress equal to the

tensile strength of concrete.

The equilibrium forces acting on a concrete Section 1-1 in Fig. 2—Distribution of bond stress, splitting stress and

Direction X are shown in Fig. 2(a) for a unit width of the slab tensile stress over a section: (a) plan of two-way plate;

in Direction Y and (b) cross section of two-way plate.

It should be noted that Eq. (10) is only valid for concrete arbitrarily taking cs = (3.0 – 3.5) db; and db is the bar diameter. For

covers equal to or less than 2.5db (Cc ≤ 2.5db), Cc is the clear a triangular stress distribution, K equals 0.5.11

concrete cover, for plates and two-way slabs with thick The contribution of the transverse splitting bond can be

concrete covers greater than the radius of the effective estimated by considering the equilibrium of forces acting on

embedment zone (Cc > 2.5db), it was found that a value of concrete to the left and right of Section 1-1 (Fig. 2(a)), and

0.75 for the coefficient μ will be more consistent, so Eq. (10) the unit width of the slab in transverse Direction Y

can be written as follows

Contribution of transverse steel reinforcement = K(cs – dby)fsp,tly (14)

f bo = 0.75 f c′ ( MPa ) (11)

The different components of the right hand side of Eq. (14)

can be estimated in the following:

This is due to the fact that such plates act as cross sections The splitting bond stress fsp,t can be assumed to be equal

that contain two separate materials: a reinforced concrete to fctm. The diameter of the effective embedment zone cs =

part and a plain concrete part. 3.0dby. The length of the effective embedment zone ly is

taken equal to the slab unit width. Therefore, Eq. (14) can be

Transverse steel reinforcement and written as follows for a unit width in the Y direction

splitting bond stress

Contribution of transverse steel reinforcement = 0.33(3dby – dby)fctm (15)

The contribution of the transverse steel reinforcement is

considered through splitting bond stress. Consider a concrete

cylindrical prism with a diameter of cs (diameter of effective The contribution of the splitting bond stress determined

embedment zone) containing a bar with a diameter of db, as from Eq. (15) can be substituted into Eq. (8), representing the

shown in Fig. 3(c). The radial components of the forces on equilibrium forces in Direction X to determine the crack

the concrete, shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), cause a pressure p spacing as follows

on a portion of the cross section of the prism. This is equilibrated

by tensile stresses in the concrete on either side of the bar. In 2

--- πd bx f bos mx n x + 0.33 ( 2d by )f ctm = k t fctm A ctx (16)

Fig. 3(a), the distribution of these stresses has been previously 3

assumed to be parabolic; this assumption has been found to

provide more consistent values compared to the experimental The crack spacing formed in Direction X can be estimated

results. Splitting is assumed to occur when the maximum as follows

stress is equal to the tensile strength of the concrete fctm. For

equilibrium in the transverse direction in a prism with a k t fctm A ctx – 0.67 d by fctm

length equal to ly s mx = -------------------------------------------------------

- (17a)

2

--- πd bx f bo n x

3

Pd b l y c d

- = K ⎛ ----s – ----b-⎞ f ctm l y

------------ (12)

2 ⎝2 2⎠ Similarly, the spacing of cracks formed in Direction Y can

be estimated as follows

where K is the ratio of the average tensile stress to the

maximum tensile stress and equals 0.33 for the parabolic k t fctm Acty – 0.67 d bx fctm

stress distribution. A rearrangement gives s my = -------------------------------------------------------

- (17b)

2

--- πd by f bo n y

3

c

P = 0.33 ⎛ ----s- – 1⎞ f ctm (13)

⎝ db ⎠ Equations (17a) and (17b) give the crack spacing in

Directions X and Y, respectively, at a given stage of loading.

The proposed model suggests that increasing bar diameter db

where cs is the diameter of the effective embedment zone will result in decreased crack spacing and, hence, decreased

where the reinforcing bar can influence the concrete bond, crack width. Also, increasing the number of bars (decreasing

which is also known as the diameter of the splitting cylinder, bar spacing) will result in decreasing crack spacing and,

hence, achieving required crack control. To use the previous

expression, values of kt, Actx, Acty, fctm, and fbo must be

estimated. The constant kt is a tensile stress factor that

depends on the distribution of tensile stress on concrete areas

Actx and Acty. The value kt is the ratio of the average tensile

stress area to the actual tensile stress area within the effective

embedment thickness hef. For thick slabs, the tensile stress

distribution within the effective embedment thickness is

trapezoidal and, hence, kt could be assumed equal to 0.67 to

1.0. In the proposed expression, for plates and two-way slabs

having concrete covers of (Cc < 2.5db), tensile stress on the

Fig. 3—Stresses in circular concrete prism subjected to concrete is assumed to be uniformly distributed and, hence,

bond stresses: (a) parabolic stress distribution; (b) triangular kt can be taken as equal to unity.7 For thick plates and two-

stress distribution; and (c) diameter of effective embedment way slabs with thick concrete covers that are greater than

zone. 2.5db and less than 5.0db, tensile stress distribution on the

concrete is assumed to be trapezoidal and, hence, kt can be had different slab thicknesses (250 and 300 mm [10 and 12 in.]),

taken equal to 0.67; this assumption was found to be more different concrete cover thicknesses (60 and 70 mm [2.4 and

convenient. The values of Actx and Acty, which are the effective 2.75 in.]), and different bar sizes (15M and 25 M [No. 5 and

stretched area of concrete in the X and Y direction, are No. 8]) but with the same big bar spacing of 368 mm (14.5 in.).

assumed to be All the specimens of Series I and Series II were designed

to fail in flexure, as recommended by Marzouk and

Actx = hefxb (18a) Hussein.12 The third group (Series III), however, was

designed to investigate the effect of other modes of failure on

Acty = hefyb (18b) crack spacing. The specimens in this series were designed to

fail under pure punching failure mode, as discussed by

Osman et al.13 The third group includes two thick, heavy,

where hef is effective embedment thickness (shown in Fig. 1)

reinforced specimens HS3 (h = 350 mm [14 in.]) and NS5

as the greater of a1 + 7.5d ′be and a2 + 7.5d′be but not greater

(h = 400 mm [16 in.]) with the same 70 mm (2.75 in.) thick

than the tension zone or half slab thickness, mm; and b is the

concrete cover and heavy reinforcement ratio, which is a

width of the section, mm.

typical practice for offshore structures.

Crack spacing for beams and one-way slabs

The proposed equation can be used to calculate the crack Test procedure

spacing for beams and one-way slabs by modifying the peak A typical cross section of the tested specimen is shown in

bond strength fbo, according to the CEB-FIP4 model code Fig. 4. The tested slab was placed in the frame in a vertical

provisions (Table 3.1.1). For cases where failure is initiated position. The test slabs were simply supported along all four

by shearing of the concrete between the ribs (all other bond edges with the corners free to lift. The specimen was initially

conditions), fbo is calculated as loaded up to 10% of the ultimate load. Then, crack gauges

were installed using epoxy glue on the tension surface of the

slab and left for 1 hour to enable the epoxy to dry. The load

f bo = 1.25 f c′ ( MPa ) (19) was released and then reapplied at a selected load increment

of 44.0 kN (10 kips). The tested slabs were carefully

The crack spacing can be estimated as inspected at each load step. The cracks were marked manually

after mapping all the cracks on the specimen. Crack mapping of

k t f ct A ct

s m = ---------------------

- (20)

2 Table 1—Details of test specimens

--- π d b f bon

3 Com-

pressive Bar Bar Concrete Slab Steel

Series Slab strength size, spacing s, cover Cc, thickness, Depth, ratio

where n is the number of bars per unit width. The constant kt No. no. c* f ′ , MPa

mm mm mm mm mm ρ,%

is a tensile stress factor, which depends on the distribution of NS1 44.7 10 210 45 150 105.0 0.48

tensile stress on concrete areas Act. In the present research, a I

NS2 50.2 15 240 40 200 152.5 0.54

value of 0.67 for the coefficient kt was found to be more

NS3 35.0 15 368 60 250 182.5 0.35

consistent for beams and one-way slabs.

HS1 70.0 15 368 60 250 182.5 0.35

II

NS4 40.0 25 368 70 300 217.5 0.73

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

The variables considered in the current investigation are HS2 64.7 25 368 70 300 217.5 0.73

the concrete cover, slab thickness, and bar spacing for HS3 65.4 35 289 70 350 262.5 1.44

III

normal- and high-strength concrete. The selected values for NS5 40.0 35 217 70 400 312.5 1.58

the proposed experimental testing are typical for the possible *NS is normal-strength slabs; and HS is high-strength slabs.

use in Canadian offshore applications. A total of eight Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.

concrete slabs were tested. Five normal-strength concrete

slabs (NS) and three high-strength concrete slabs (HS) were

selected for the experimental investigation of the cracking

behavior study as detailed in Table 1. The slabs’ thicknesses

ranged from 150 to 400 mm (6 to 16 in.) and were designed

to examine the effect of slab thickness on the cracking

behavior. The details of a typical test specimen are shown in

Fig. 4. The test slabs were classified into three series.

The first group (Series I) was designed to investigate the

effect of concrete cover and bar spacing on the crack width.

The group was made of two slabs designated as NS1 (h =

150 mm [6 in.]) and NS2 (h = 200 mm [8 in.]). The slabs had

the same concrete cover (Cc = 40 mm [1.6 in.]), with

different bar spacing. The effect of concrete strength on

crack spacing was not considered because it has a small

influence on the crack spacing in Series I. The second group

(Series II) was designed to investigate the effect of concrete

cover, concrete strength, and corresponding change in steel Fig. 4—Details of typical test specimen HSC2 (thickness

ratio on the average crack spacing. The slabs of this group 300 mm [12 in.]).

the specimen was depicted by means of photographs at each followed by radial cracking extending from the column edge

stage of loading throughout the experiment. These photographs toward the edge of the slab.

were inserted in a computer aided AutoCAD software drafting For the slabs failing in flexure (NS1, NS2, NS3, and HS1),

package on a two-dimensional grid with a scale of one to one. the crack pattern observed prior to punching consisted of one

Cracks were retraced on the computer using AutoCAD, tools, tangential crack, roughly at the column outline, followed by

and the spacing was measured and averaged using the software. radial cracking extending from the column. In all slabs,

It was found that for all the specimens, the first crack forms along flexure yield lines were well developed. This failure can be

the reinforcing bar and passes through the slab center or close to classified as flexure failure. For the slabs failing by flexure-

the slab center. The second crack forms along the punching, the crack pattern observed prior to punching

perpendicular reinforcing bar in the other direction. consisted of almost no tangential crack; radial cracking extending

from the column was the most dominant crack pattern.

Test results Failure patterns of the tested slabs are shown in Fig. 5 to 7.

The first crack of each specimen was visually inspected It was noticed that increasing the concrete cover resulted

and the corresponding load was recorded as the first crack in increased crack spacing. Test results of Series II indicated

load. The yield steel strain was recorded at a value of that increasing the concrete cover from 60 to 70 mm (2.4 to

2000 με, which produced a stress in the steel reinforcing bar 2.75 in.) increased the crack spacing from 245 to 261 mm

equal to 400 MPa (58 ksi). The yield strain was measured at (9.7 to 10.3 in.). The test results of Series I (Specimens NS1 and

a location 150 mm (6 in.) from the center of the slab. The NS2) and Series II indicated that as the bar spacing is increased

value of 2000 με was suggested based on experimental from 210 to 240 mm (8.3 to 9.5 in.), the crack spacing increased

observations of the stress-strain curve of a single reinforcing bar. from 201 to 221 mm (8 to 8.7 in.), respectively.

In all tested slabs, the initial observed cracks were first Series II included two specimens (NS3 and HS1) reinforced

formed tangentially under the edge of the column stub, with low steel reinforcement ratio 0.35%, and two specimens

(NS4 and HS2) reinforced with medium steel reinforcement

ratio 0.7% to fail under flexure mode. All specimens had the

same bar spacing 368 mm (14.5 in.). It is interesting to point

out that the average crack spacing almost equal to 253 mm

(10 in.) was much smaller than the bar spacing.

Series III included two specimens (HS3 and NS5) reinforced

with heavy steel reinforcement ratios 1.44 and 1.58% with

the same 70 mm (2.75 in.) thick concrete cover. Test results

revealed that crack control (crack width) can still be achieved

by limiting the spacing of the reinforcing steel despite using

thick concrete cover. The crack width can be calculated by

multiplying the crack spacing by the steel strain. The steel

strain can be determined at any loading by determining the

neutral axis and assuming linear stress distribution.

DISCUSSION

Verification of proposed model

A total of 12 simply-supported beams and one-way slabs

were subjected to constant sustained service loads for a

period of 400 days by Gilbert and Nejadi.14 The parameters

varied in the tests were the shape of the section b/h, the

number of reinforcing bars, the spacing between bars s, the

concrete cover Cc, and the sustained load level. A comparison

between beam Series 1 and 2 (Table 2) demonstrates that

increasing the clear concrete cover increases the average

crack spacing. This is because the crack spacing srm is

inversely proportional to the effective reinforcement ratio

ρeff. Increasing the bottom cover increases the effective

tension area of the concrete and decreases the effective rein-

forcement ratio, which results in a larger crack spacing. Also,

increasing the tensile reinforcement area decreases crack

spacing and reduces crack width (because crack spacing is

inversely proportional to the effective reinforcement ratio).

Frosch et al.15 tested 10 one-way slabs to determine the

effects of bar spacing and epoxy coating thickness on crack

width and spacing. The primary variables evaluated in the

study were the spacing of the reinforcement and the epoxy

coating thickness. The parameters varied in the tests were the

reinforcing bars type, the spacing between bars s, and the

sustained load level. The measured crack width and spacing

Fig. 5—Crack patterns of Series I: (a) NS1 (thickness were also compared to calculated crack width and spacing.

150 mm [6 in.]); and (b) NS2 (thickness 200 mm [8 in.]). Major conclusions derived from this investigation include:

spacing of reinforcement significantly affected the width and Nejadi;14 10 test results of Frosch et al.,15 with different

spacing of cracks; and as the reinforcement spacing concrete covers and different bar spacing; and 8 test results of

decreased, the spacing of primary cracks decreased and the Marzouk and Hossin,8 with different concrete strengths,

number of primary cracks increased. different concrete covers, and different bar spacing.

To verify the validity of the new proposed model, the For the proposed model, the overall average theory/test

model was applied to predict the average crack spacing of ratio was 1.028 with a standard deviation of 0.149, giving

normalweight concrete test slabs reported in the literature strong support to the ability of the proposed model to evaluate

(that is, tests other than those of the authors). The results

the average crack spacing in tested slabs. It is also worth

indicate that a very good correlation exists between theoretical

and measured average crack spacing values and between emphasizing that the slabs analyzed and presented in Tables

theoretical and calculated average spacing values using 2 to 4 cover many variables that influence crack spacing,

CSA-S474-04 and NS-92 codes were very close to the such as concrete strength, bar spacing, and concrete cover.

experiments with approximately 5% error. In this paper, the Bearing this in mind, as well as the fact that the tests themselves

model has been applied to 30 tests to predict the average crack are one-to-one scale models of the prototype and the inevitable

spacing of beams and one- and two-way concrete slabs. The scatter of test results in concrete behavior, the theoretical

geometry of test slabs, the analysis, and the results are shown model developed herein is an excellent representation of the

in Tables 2 to 4 and include 12 test results of Gilbert and physical behavior of tested specimens.

Fig. 6—Crack patterns of Series II: (a) NS3 (thickness 250 mm [10 in.]); (b) HS1 (thickness 250 mm [10 in.]); (c) NS4

(thickness 300 mm [12 in.]); and (d) HS2 (thickness 300 mm [12 in.]).

Table 2—Comparison between calculated crack spacing values using code formulas with measured

experimental values for test specimens by Gilbert and Nejadi14

Concrete cover Bar spacing s, New proposed Experimental

Slab no. Cc , mm Height h, mm mm fc′ , MPa NS/CSA, mm CEB, mm model, mm results, mm

Beam 1-a 40 348 150 36 179 190 173 192

Beam 1-b 40 348 150 36 179 190 173 186

Beam 2-a 25 333 180 36 151 190 157 149

Beam 2-b 25 333 180 36 151 190 157 163

Beam 3-a 25 333 90 36 105 127 105 109

Beam 3-b 25 333 90 36 105 127 105 104

Slab 1-a 25 161 308 36 184 178 177 131

Slab 1-b 25 161 308 36 184 178 177 128

Slab 2-a 25 161 154 36 124 119 118 92

Slab 2-b 25 161 154 36 124 119 118 131

Slab 3-a 25 161 103 36 100 89 88 89

Slab 3-b 25 161 103 36 100 89 88 117

*

NS is normal-strength slabs; and HS is high-strength slabs.

Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.

(6 in.) bar spacing.

Tables 2 to 4 show a comparison between the calculated

values of crack spacing with the measured experimental

values reported by different researchers.8,14,15 Analysis of

the results given in Tables 2 to 4 indicates that the new

proposed model provides good estimates for crack spacing in

slabs having small and thick concrete covers.

Figures 8 and 9 show a comparison in the calculations for

crack spacing between the new proposed model and different

codes with the measured experimental values by Marzouk

and Hossin.8 Figures 8 and 9 indicate that the crack spacing

values estimated using the presented model, CSA-04, NS-92,

and EC2-04 codes were very close to the experiments

with approximately 5 to 9% error. The codes’ expressions

for crack spacing are based on the beam theory, whereas

the presented model is rational because it is based on two-

way action.

estimates of crack spacing

Table 5 shows a comparison between the calculated values

of crack spacing with the measured experimental values. For

bar spacing greater than 300 mm (12 in.), the Norwegian

code NS 3474 E3 and the Canadian offshore code CSA-S474-042

Fig. 7—Crack patterns of Series III: (a) HS3 (thickness overestimates the average crack spacing by approximately

350 mm [14 in.]); and (b) NS5 (thickness 400 mm [16 in.]). 33%. In general, the calculated average crack spacing was

Table 3—Comparison between calculated crack spacing values using code formulas with measured

experimental values for test specimens by Marzouk and Hossin8

Concrete cover Slab thickness, Bar spacing s, New proposed Experimental

Slab no. Cc , mm mm mm fc′ , MPa NS/CSA, mm CEB, mm model, mm results, mm

NSC1 30 200 150 35.0 125 77 126 134

HSC1 50 200 150 68.5 165 68 187 171

HSC2 60 200 150 70.0 186 63 188 185

HSC3 30 200 200 66.7 146 100 182 163

HSC4 30 200 250 61.2 167 125 184 172

HSC5 30 150 100 70.0 107 56 111 120

NSC2 30 200 240 33.0 204 204 225 223

NSC3 40 150 240 34.0 228 182 230 239

Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.

Table 4—Comparison between calculated crack spacing values using code formulas with measured

experimental values for test specimens by Frosch et al.15

Concrete cover Bar spacing s, New proposed Experimental

Slab no. Cc , mm Height h, mm mm fc′ , MPa NS/CSA, mm CEB, mm model, mm results, mm

B-6 46 203 152 46.6 167 118 136 175

B-9 46 203 229 44.4 213 177 211 229

B-12 46 203 305 44.5 260 236 282 249

B-18 46 203 457 47.4 352 355 411 310

E12-6 46 203 152 46.7 167 118 136 170

E12-9 46 203 229 46.4 213 177 206 226

E12-12 46 203 305 45.7 260 236 278 257

E12-18 46 203 457 46.8 352 355 414 338

E6-9 46 203 229 46.1 213 177 207 203

E18-9 46 203 229 45.9 213 177 207 188

Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.

Table 5—Comparison between calculated crack spacing values using code formulas with measured

experimental values

Concrete Slab thickness, Bar spacing s, New proposed Experimental

Slab no. cover Cc , mm mm mm fc′ , MPa NS/CSA, mm CEB, mm model, mm results, mm

NS1 45 150 210 44.7 211 137 248 201

NS2 40 200 240 50.2 216 176 234 221

NS3 60 250 368 35.0 341 279 320 245

HS1 60 250 368 35.0 341 279 361 263

NS4 70 300 368 70.0 331 225 273 261

HS2 70 300 368 64.7 331 225 304 246

HS3 70 350 289 65.4 276 160 273 264

NS5 70 400 217 40.0 252 145 226 250

Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.

higher than test results, and as both the concrete cover and

bar spacing increased, the crack spacing increased theoretically

and experimentally. For bar spacing less than 250 mm (10 in.),

the CEB-FIB4 model code underestimates the average

crack spacing by approximately 31%, compared to the one

measured during testing.

Most of the available expressions for estimating the crack

spacing and width are based on beams and test results for

one-way slabs. The behavior of reinforced concrete plates

and two-way slabs is different from the behavior of the one-way

beams. A new analytical expression is recommended for plates

and two-way slabs with longitudinal and transverse

reinforcements. The proposed method takes into consideration Fig. 9—Comparison of crack spacing equations at 250 mm

the effects of steel bond in the loading direction and the (10 in.) bar spacing.

contribution of the splitting bond stresses for the transverse steel. k2 = coefficient to account for strain gradient

The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: kt = tensile stress factor

ls,max = length over which slip between steel and concrete occurs; steel

• The proposed method gives a good estimate for crack and concrete strains, which occur within this length, contribute to

spacing in plates and two-way slabs with concrete covers width of crack

equal to (Cc < 2.5db). S = center-to-center spacing of flexural tension reinforcement

• The proposed method can be used for thick concrete nearest to surface of extreme tension face

Smx = crack spacing for cracks normal to x reinforcement

covers (Cc = 2.5 – 5.0db), plates, and two-way slabs Smy = crack spacing for cracks normal to y reinforcement

after reducing one third of the tensile stress constant kt. Srm = average stabilized crack spacing

For two-way slabs with concrete covers larger than ρs,ef = effective reinforcement ratio; and equals area of steel considered

5.0db , however, it can be speculated that the crack spacing divided by area of effective zone where concrete can influence

behaves randomly. This is due to the fact that such slabs crack widths

ρs2 = reinforcement stress at crack location

act as cross sections that contain two separate materials. ρsE = steel stress at point of zero slip

• For bar spacing greater than 300 mm (12 in.), the τbk = lower fractile value of average bond stress

Norwegian code NS 3474 E3 and the Canadian offshore

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