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Banjir adalah fenomena alam dimana jumlah air melebihi batas normal tanpa diimbangi dengan sarana

pengairan yang cukup seperti sungai sehingga air yang seharusnya mengalir dan terserap ke dalam
tanah malahan tertampung dan banjir terjadi. Di Indonesia banjir sudah sering terjadi di berbagai
tempat dengan penyebab yang berbeda-beda. Misalnya di Jakarta banjir terjadi karena tidak adanya
tempat penyerapan air dan sungai yang sudah beralih fungsi menjadi tempat pembuangan sampah.
Sementara di Wasior, banjir yang terjadi disebabkan karena tingginya intensitas hujan yang turun dan
adanya illegal logging.
Hutan berfungsi sebagai penyimpan air (water saving) karena tumbuhan di dalam hutan menampung
air limpahan. Ketika hutan gundul, maka tidak ada yang menampung air. Selain itu, struktur tanahnya
menjadi rusak sehingga hutan tidak mampu menahan air lebih banyak. Jika terjadi hujan lebat air
tersebut langsung keluar ke bawah dan menyebabkan banjir.
Pendangkalan sungai juga mengakibatkan banjir. Pendangkalan sungai secara alami disebabkan oleh
penampungan tanah di Daerah Aliran Sungai. Tanah dari hutanyang gundul ikut terbawa air hujan dan
mengendap di DAS. Pengendapan non alami disebabkan oleh manusia membuang sampah di sungai dan
menyebabkan sampah menumpuk di DAS. Pengendapan secara alami maupun non alami
mengakibatkan sungai sedikit menampung air dari pegunungan ataupun dari air hujan. Hal ini
menyebabkan sungai meluap dan banjir.
Region that have 2 seasons (near the equator) tend to have raining longer than regions which have 4
seasons. A lot of building and inhabited area construction causes permeating area of water become
decrease. Raining in high intensity and continually along day make permeating area cant accommodate
the excess of water volume. It makes the water overflow and escapes its usual boundaries and terjadilah
banjir. Namun, bukan berarti daerah 4 musim tidak mengalami banjir karena curah hujan rendah.
Daerah tersebut bisa juga mengalami banjir jika tidak ada daerah resapan air sehingga air meluap
mengakibatkan banjir.
Banjir yang terjadi pada suatu tempat akan membawa banyak kerugian mulai dari materi hingga nyawa.
Banjir menyebabkan rusaknya sarana transportasi dan merusak fasilitas. Bagi petani, banjir akan
menyebabkan rusaknya tanaman dan bagi para peternak, sebagian menyebabkan terbunuhnya ternak
mereka. Tak jarang banjir juga memakan korban nyawa dan membawa kesedihan.

Flood is a natural phenomenon where the amount of water exceeds normal limits without offset with
adequate irrigation facilities such as the river so that water should flow and be absorbed into the soil
instead accommodated and the flooding occurred. In Indonesia, flood has often occurred in different
places with different causes. For example in Jakarta flood occurred in the absence of the absorption of
water and rivers that have been converted to a landfill. While in Wasior, flood is caused by high intensity
rainfall and the presence of illegal logging.

Forests serve as water storage (water saving) because the plants in the forest to accommodate overflow
of water. When forests are bald, then nothing that holds water. In addition, soil structure is damaged so
that forests are not able to hold more water. In the event of heavy rain the water directly out to the
bottom and cause flooding.

Siltation of rivers also caused flooding. Siltation of the river is naturally caused by the shelter of land in
the Watershed. Bare soil from forests rain and water carried sediment in the watershed. Non-natural
precipitation is caused by man throwing garbage in the river and causing litter to accumulate in the
watershed. Precipitation of natural and non natural cause the river slightly to accommodate the water
from the mountains or from the rain. This causes the river to overflow and flooding.

Region that have 2 seasons (near the equator) tend to have raining longer than regions which have 4
seasons. A lot of building and inhabited area construction causes permeating area of water become
decrease. Area which has solid ground also inhibits the absorption of water. Raining in high intensity and
continually along day make permeating area cant accommodate the excess of water volume. It makes
the water overflow and escapes its usual boundaries. However, that does not mean the four seasons do
not experience flooding due to low rainfall. Such areas could also experience flooding if there is no
permeating area so that the water overflowed resulting in flooding.

Flood that occurred in a place will bring a lot of losses ranging from materials to life. Flood damage to
transportation means and facilities. For farmers, the floods will cause damage to crops and for the
farmers, partly led to the killing of their livestock. Not infrequently flooding also claimed lives and
brought grief.