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# School of

Engineering &
Technology

JAIN UNIVERSITY

## Global Campus Jakkasandra

Post, Kanakapura Taluk,
Ramanagara District
Pin Code: 562
112

1956

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

12EEL67

LABORATORY MANUAL

Name:
USN :
Year :

2
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

INSTRUCTIONS
1. Come well prepared for conducting the experiment.
2. Calculations, winding tables and rough sketch must be drawn in the observation
book before coming to the lab
3. Maintain silence in the lab.
4. Keep the lab clean.
5. Keep your belongings in appropriate place provided to you.
6. Do not come late to the lab.
7. Work only on system allotted for you.
8. Save all your files in a folder in your name in the E: drive
9. Switch off the computer before leaving the lab.

12EEL67

## Prepared by: Kuldeep S

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology

To give an insight into design of electrical machines and their windings, with the
use of computer aided design software such as AutoCAD
To develop creativity, imagination and logical thinking necessary for general and
professional life

## Prerequisites required for the conduction of this lab

Before coming in to this lab, students must have - Knowledge of electrical machine design
- Knowledge of machine windings
- Basic computer knowledge
Outcome of the lab:
Design of machines is entirely done now in industries using AutoCAD. Students will
gain knowledge of working in AutoCAD which is essential for industries dealing with
machine design and manufacture
Working on different problems in electrical drawing using computer aided design
software like AutoCAD gives the students the logical skill to do different kinds of
design of electrical windings or machines

COURSE OUTLINE
Subject: ELECTRICAL DRAWING LAB
Sub Code: 12EEL67

Credit: 01
Hours/Week: 03

1. DC Single Layer Winding Diagram: Simplex Lap winding with single layer, Duplex Lap
winding with single layer, Simplex Wave winding with single layer
2. DC Double Layer Winding Diagram: Duplex Lap winding with double layer, Duplex,
retrogressive Lap winding with double layer, Simplex, retrogressive Wave winding with double
layer
3. AC Lap Winding Diagram: Lap winding with single layer and full pitch, Lap winding with
single layer, short pitched by one slot
4. AC Wave Winding Diagram: Wave winding with single layer, full pitch
5. AC Double Layer Winding Diagram: Lap winding with double layer, short pitched by one slot,
Lap winding with double layer, fractional slot
6. DC Machine Pole Drawing: DC pole end view, longitudinal view
7. DC Machine Complete Drawing: DC full motor end view, longitudinal view
8. Alternator: Alternator rotor end view, full end view
9. Core type Transformer: Elevation and plan of single phase, three phase core type
transformer
10. Shell type Transformer: Elevation and plan of shell type single phase transformer
11. Induction Motor: Elevation and plan of a squirrel cage induction motor
12. Single Line Diagrams of substations

Contents
B. Practice Exercises

Page
8
10

C. Lab exercises:
1. Developed DC Winding diagram:
a. Simplex Lap winding with single layer
b. Duplex Lap winding with single layer
c. Duplex Lap winding with double layer
d. Duplex, retrogressive Lap winding with double layer
e. Simplex Wave winding with single layer
f. Simplex, retrogressive Wave winding with double layer

13
15
17
20
22
24

## 2. Developed AC Winding diagram:

a. Lap winding with single layer and full pitch
b. Lap winding with single layer, short pitched by one slot
c. Lap winding with double layer, short pitched by one slot
d. Wave winding with single layer, full pitch
e. Lap winding with double layer, fractional slot

26
29
31
33
36

3. DC Machine drawing:
a. DC pole end view
b. DC pole end and longitudinal view
c. DC motor end view

39
42
47

4. Alternator:
a. Alternator rotor end view
b. Alternator full end view

49
51

5. Transformer:
a. Elevation and plan of single phase transformer
b. Elevation and plan of three phase transformer
c. Elevation and plan of shell type single phase transformer

54
56
58

6. Induction Motor:
Elevation and plan of a squirrel cage induction motor

60

62

## D. Commonly used commands in AutoCAD

E. Probable viva questions

64
67

AutoCAD is a software application for computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting in both
2D and 3D. It is developed and marketed by Autodesk, Inc. The native file format of
Some of the examples of industry-specific CAD applications built on the AutoCAD platform
are:
* AutoCAD Electrical: It is designed specifically to aid in the creation of electrical controls
* AutoCAD Civil 3D: It is designed to aid civil engineers in the creation of land,
transportation, and water systems
* AutoCAD Mechanical: It is designed for mechanical engineers to design parts ranging in
all kinds of fields but mainly automotive
* AutoCAD Map 3D: It is designed to aid in the planning and mapping of model
infrastructures
and there are many more applications specific to certain applications
There are three co-ordinate systems in AutoCAD
- Absolute co-ordinate system
- Relative co-ordinate system
- Relative polar co-ordinate system
a. Absolute co-ordinate system:
Values are based on the origin (0,0) where X and Y axes intersect. This is used when the
precise values of X and Y are known
For ex: A point (5,3) means it is at horizontal distance (X) of 5 units and vertical distance
(Y) of 3 units from the origin (0,0)
b. Relative co-ordinate system:
Values are based on the last point entered. To specify a relative co-ordinate, the symbol
@ is used. This means that last point is treated as origin whenever @ is used.
For ex: @20,36 means that this point is at horizontal distance (X) of 20 units and vertical
distance (Y) of 36 units from the previous point
c. Relative polar co-ordinate system:
Values are in polar form, with the distance and the angle given. The angle is specified by
the symbol <
For ex: @30<45 means the point is at horizontal distance (X) of 20 units and at angle of
45o from the previous point

The AutoCAD screen contains various toolbars, menus. The designs are drawn in the
Drawing Space. The commands are entered in the Command line window. This
window needs to be watched each time an activity is to be done in the drawing space. It
prompts the user for the next action. The Status Bar contains various modes of drawing
like Grid, Osnap, Otrack etc.

Note that the workspace will always be black in colour, but the lines can be given colours
other than white also.
Layers can be used to group related items so that they can be modified together. For
example, all items in a layer can be given a specific colour. Each layer can be hidden or
viewed separately.
Basic procedures while starting a new file
1. Create a new file:
File > New or- Ctrl+N
2. Set the limits of the image
a. In the command window, type:
limits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: <depends on the size of the overall image> <enter>
zoom all <enter>
Suppose the maximum length and breadth of a drawing in 30 cms, set upper right corner
as a bit higher number like (40,40). Limits can be set using the above command, or menu
option Format>Drawing Limits

9
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

Note 1: At each and every step, the command window needs to be watched for the next
step
Note 2: In this manual,
- the words in italics are the commands to be entered in the command window
- the words in bold are the toolbar buttons to be clicked in the window, or menus to
be selected
- the words within angle brackets <> are for the buttons to be pressed, like <enter>,
<esc>, or for instructions, like <click anywhere>
- the words in normal brackets () are explanations for the actions done
To open an existing file: File > Open or- Ctrl+O
To undo a command: <u> or Ctrl+Z
To cancel or reset a command: <esc>
To save a file: File > Save or- Ctrl+S. This saves the file with extension .dwg

Practice exercises
1. Create a rectangle with length 27.8 units and breadth 22.6 units
Procedure:
a. Create a new file
b. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 30,30 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
Method 1: Using the rectangle tool
<click on Rectangle icon in tool bar or- select from Draw > Rectangle >
Specify first corner point: <click anywhere in the workspace>
Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: D <enter> (to enter the dimensions given)
Specify length for rectangles: 27.8 <enter>
Specify width for rectangles: 22.6 <enter>
<click once in the workspace to accept the drawing>
Method 2: Creating from separate lines using relative co-ordinate system
line <enter>
Specify first point: <click anywhere>
Specify next point or [Undo]: @27.8,0 <enter>
Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,22.6 <enter>
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @-27.8,0 <enter>
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0,-22.6 <enter>
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: <esc>
Method 3: Creating from separate lines using relative polar co-ordinate system
line <enter>
Specify first point: <click anywhere>
Specify next point or [Undo]: @27.8<0 <enter> (horizontal line of length 27.8)
Specify next point or [Undo]: @22.6<90 <enter> (vertical line of length 22.6)
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @27.8<180 <enter>
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @22.6<-90 <enter> (270 can also be used instead
of -90)
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: <esc>

11
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

## 2. Create a circle of radius 10 units

Procedure:
<click on Circle icon in toolbar or- select from Draw > Circle > Center, Radius >
Command: _circle Specify center point for circle: <click anywhere for the centre>
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] : 10
Note: If diameter is known, type D and then give the value
3. Create an array of ten circles each 1 cm radius, separated by a distance of 1.5 cms
Procedure:
a. Create a new file
b. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 20,20 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
circle <enter> (-or- Circle button in toolbar or- select Draw > Circle > Center,
Specify center point for circle: <click anywhere in workspace> <enter>
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]: 1
array <enter> (-or- click the Array button in toolbar)
(This command opens an Array window. In this window Select Rectangular Array
Rows is 1, Columns is 10
Row offset: 1
Column offset: 3.5
(Offset is from centre to centre. Two circles separated by 1.5 cms means distance
between their centres is 1+1.5+1, i.e., 3.5 cms)
Select object. The window disappears. Click on the circle and press <enter>.
Click Preview. If ok, click Accept, else Modify to make changes)

## Electrical Drawing exercises

Winding Diagrams
Electrical drawing consists of drawing developed winding diagrams for DC machines and
AC machines
1. DC winding diagrams
DC windings can be classified as
- Lap or Wave
- Single layer or double layer
- Simplex or multiplex
- Progressive or retrogressive

Yb back pitch
Yf front pitch
Yc commutator pitch
A coil (C) can be single turn or multi-turn. The active length of the coil under the poles (P)
is called a Conductor (Z), that is coil sides
Number of coils = number of commutator segments
In a single layer winding, Z=2C
In a double layer winding, Z=C
In general,
Pole pitch = Z/P
Back pitch, Yb = Z/P+m+K
Front pitch, Yf = Z/P-m+K
K is a number added or subtracted to make the pitches odd number. m is called
multiplicity that tells if the winding is simplex, duplex or multiplex

## 1a. Single layer, simplex, Lap winding

Draw a developed winding diagram for a DC machine with 20 slots, 4 poles. The winding
is single layer, simplex, progressive lap
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine given the requirement as a lap wound,
single layer and simplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 20 slots x 1 layer = 20
Number of poles, P: 4
Multiplicity, m: 1 since it is simplex
Calculations:
Pole pitch, Z/P = 20/4 = 5
Back pitch, YB = Z/P + m = 5+1 = 6
Front pitch, YF = Z/P m = 5-1 = 4
Since YB and YF must be odd, assume K=+1. Therefore YB = 5 and YF = 3
Winding table:
YB = +5
1+5=6
3+5=8
5+5=10
7+5=12
9+5=14
11+5=16
13+5=18
15+5=20
17+5=22 (2)
19+5=24 (4)

YF = -3
6-3=3
8-3=5
10-3=7
12-3=9
14-3=11
16-3=13
18-3=15
20-3=17
22-3=19
24-3=21 (1)

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw 20 vertical lines with suitable spacing between them
a. Draw a single vertical line
b. Using rectangular array (array command, or Modify>Array), create 19 similar lines
i. Rows: 1, Columns: 20
ii. Row offset: (can be anything, since there is only one row)
iii. Column offset: (select a suitable spacing between two lines)
iv. Angle of array: 0

Select Preview to see if the spacing is right. If ok, select Accept button, else Modify to
change the spacing between lines
4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom. The
angle of the overhangs can be anything, but normally 40o-45o is used
5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 20
6. Pole pitch is 5. Create a downward arrow on conductor 1. Using either Copy button or
Array button, place arrows on other conductors
7. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 10.
8. Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction
of current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
9. Draw the sequence diagram with proper direction of current
Winding diagram:

Sequence diagram:

## 1b. Single layer, duplex, Lap winding

Draw a developed winding diagram for a DC machine with 32 conductors and 4 poles. It is
a duplex winding with single layer
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine given the requirement as a lap wound,
single layer and duplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 32 slots x 1 layer = 32
Number of poles, P: 4
Multiplicity, m: 2 since it is duplex
Calculations:
Pole pitch, Z/P = 32/4 = 8
Back pitch, YB = Z/P + m = 8+2 = 10
Front pitch, YF = Z/P m = 8-2 = 6
Since YB and YF must be odd, assume K=-1. Therefore YB = 9 and YF = 5
Winding table:
In a duplex winding, there are two separate windings. First winding begins from conductor
1, second begins from conductor 1+m, that is, 3
Winding 1
YB = +9
YF = -5
1+9=10
10-5=5
5+9=14
14-5=9
9+9=18
18-5=13
13+9=22
22-5=17
17+9=26
26-6=21
21+9=30
30-6=25
25+9=34 (2)
34-6=29
29+9=38 (6)
6-5=1

Winding 2
YB = +9
YF = -5
3+9=12
12-5=7
7+9=16
16-5=11
11+9=20
20-5=15
15+9=24
24-5=19
19+9=28
28-5=23
23+9=32
32-5=27
27+9=36 (4)
36-5=31
31+9=40 (8)
8-5=3

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw 32 vertical lines with suitable spacing between them
4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom
5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 32

6. Pole pitch is 8. Create a downward arrow on conductor 1. Using either Copy button or
Array button, place arrows on other conductors
7. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 16.
8. For a duplex winding, each brush spans two commutator segments.
Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction of
current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
9. Duplex winding requires two sequence diagrams, one for each winding. Draw the
sequence diagram with proper direction of current
Winding diagram:

Sequence diagram:

## 1c. Double layer, duplex, Lap winding

Draw a developed Lap winding diagram for a DC machine with 24 slots and 6 poles. It is a
duplex winding with double layer
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine given the requirement as a lap wound,
double layer and duplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 24 slots x 2 layers = 48
Number of poles, P: 6
Multiplicity, m: 2 since it is duplex
Calculations:
Pole pitch, Z/P = 48/6 = 8
Back pitch, YB = Z/P + m = 8+2 = 10
Front pitch, YF = Z/P m = 8-2 = 6
Since YB and YF must be odd, assume K=-1. Therefore YB = 9 and YF = 5
Winding table:
In a duplex winding, there are two separate windings. First winding begins from conductor
1, second begins from conductor 1+m, that is, 3
Winding 1
YB = +9
YF = -5
1+9=10
10-5=5
5+9=14
14-5=9
9+9=18
18-5=13
13+9=22
22-5=17
17+9=26
26-5=21
21+9=30
30-5=25
25+9=34
34-5=29
29+9=38
38-5=33
33+9=42
42-5=37
37+9=46
46-5=41
41+9=50 (2)
50-5=45
45+9=54 (6)
6-5=1

Winding 2
YB = +9
YF = -5
3+9=12
12-5=7
7+9=16
16-5=11
11+9=20
20-5=15
15+9=24
24-5=19
19+9=28
28-5=23
23+9=32
32-5=27
27+9=36
36-5=31
31+9=40
40-5=35
35+9=44
44-5=39
39+9=48
48-5=43
43+9=52 (4)
52-5=47
47+9=56 (8)
8-5=3

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>

3. Draw 24 vertical lines with suitable spacing between them. Draw 24 dotted lines in
between the solid lines
4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom
5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 48
6. Pole pitch is 8. Create a downward arrow on conductor 1. Using either Copy button or
Array button, place arrows on other conductors
7. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 24.
8. For a duplex winding, each brush spans two commutator segments.
Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction of
current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
9. Duplex winding requires two sequence diagrams, one for each winding. Draw the
sequence diagram with proper direction of current
Winding diagram:

## 1d. Double layer, duplex, retrogressive Lap winding

Draw a developed Lap winding diagram for a DC machine with 18 slots and 6 poles. It is a
duplex retrogressive winding with double layer
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine which is retrogressively lap wound, double
layer and duplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 18 slots x 2 layers = 36
Number of poles, P: 6
Multiplicity, m =2, since this is duplex
Calculations:
Pole pitch, Z/P = 36/6 = 6
Back pitch, YB = Z/P - m = 6-2 = 4
Front pitch, YF = Z/P + m = 6+2 = 8
Since YB and YF must be odd, assume K=+1.
YB = 5 and YF = 9. In retrogressive winding, YB < YF
Winding table:
Winding 1
YB = +5
1+5=6
33+5=38 (2)
29+5=34
25+5=30
21+5=26
17+5=22
13+5=18
9+5=14
5+5=10

YF = -9
6-9=-3 (33)
2-9=-7 (29)
34-9=25
30-9=21
26-9=17
22-9=13
18-9=9
14-9=5
10-9=1

Winding 2
YB = +5
YF = -9
3+5=8
8-9=-1 (35)
35+5=40 (4)
4-9=-5 (31)
31+5=36
36-9=27
27+5=32
32-9=28
23+5=28
28-9=24
19+5=24
24-9=20
15+5=20
20-9=16
11+5=16
16-9=12
7+5=12
12-9=3

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw 18 solid vertical lines with suitable spacing between them. Draw 18 dotted lines in
between the solid lines
4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom

## 5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 36

6. Pole pitch is 6. Create a downward arrow on conductor 1. Using either Copy button or
Array button, place arrows on other conductors
7. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 18.
8. For a duplex winding, each brush spans two commutator segments.
Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction of
current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
9. Duplex winding requires two sequence diagrams, one for each winding. Draw the
sequence diagram with proper direction of current
Winding diagram:

Sequence diagram:

## 1e. Single layer Wave winding

Draw a single layer wave winding diagram for a 4 pole DC machine with 34 slots
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine which is wave wound, single layer and
simplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 34 slots x 1 layers = 34
Number of poles, P: 6
Multiplicity, m =1, since this is simplex
Calculations:
Pole pitch, Z/P = 34/4 = 8 with remainder 2
(YB + YF)/2 = (Z+2)/P
YB + YF = 18
YB and YF can be equal, or their difference must be 2m, i.e., 2
Assume back pitch YB and front pitch YF to be equal to 9
Winding table:
YB = +9
1+9=10
19+9=28
3+9=12
21+9=30
5+9=14
23+9=32
7+9=16
25+9=34
9+9=18
27+9=36 (2)
11+9=20
29+9=38 (4)
13+9=22
31+9=40 (6)
15+9=24
33+9=42 (8)
17+9=26
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>

YF = +9
10+9=19
28+9=37 (3)
12+9=21
30+9=39 (5)
14+9=23
32+9=41 (7)
16+9=25
34+9=43 (9)
18+9=27
2+9=11
20+9=29
4+9=13
22+9=31
6+9=15
24+9=33
8+9=17
26+9=35 (1)

## 3. Draw 34 vertical lines with suitable spacing between them.

4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom
5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 34
6. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 17.
7. Draw sequence diagram. From the sequence diagram, determine the direction of
current in the conductors.
8. Create arrows on the conductors in the winding diagram. If the arrows look too small,
draw arrows using lines, using line command
9. Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction
of current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
For a wave winding, number of brushes do not depend on the number of poles. They can
be either 2 or 4 depending on current direction.
Winding diagram:

Sequence diagram:

## 1f. Double layer, retrogressive Wave winding

Draw a developed double layer retrogressive wave winding diagram for a DC machine with
13 slots and 6 poles.
Objective:
To design and draw winding for a DC machine which is retrogressively wave wound, single
layer and simplex
Given data:
Number of conductors, Z: 13 slots x 2 layers = 26
Number of poles, P: 6
Calculations:
(YB + YF)/2 = (Z-2)/P = (26-2)/6 = 4
YB + YF = 8
YB and YF can be equal, or their difference must be 2
Taking a difference of 2, it is calculated as YB = 3 and YF = 5
In retrogressive winding, YB < YF
Winding table:
YB = +3
1+3=4
9+3=12
17+3=20
25+3=28 (2)
7+3=10
15+3=18
23+3=26
5+3=8
13+3=16
21+3=24
3+3=6
11+3=14
19+3=22

YF = +5
4+5=9
12+5=17
20+5=25
2+5=7
10+5=15
18+5=23
26+5=31 (5)
8+5=13
16+5=21
24+5=29 (3)
6+5=11
14+5=19
22+5=27 (1)

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw 13 solid and 13 dotted lines with suitable spacing between them.

4. Connect the overhanging wires according to the winding table on top and bottom
5. Using Text tool (command is text), number the conductors from 1 to 26
6. Draw commutators and number them from 1 to 13.
7. Draw sequence diagram. From the sequence diagram, determine the direction of
current in the conductors.
8. Create arrows on the conductors in the winding diagram
9. Place brushes under the commutators using Rectangle tool according to the direction
of current in the parallel paths, and hatch them using Hatch button (command is hatch)
For a wave winding, number of brushes do not depend on the number of poles. They can
be either 2 or 4 depending on current direction.
Winding diagram:

Sequence diagram:

2. AC winding diagrams
AC windings can be
- Lap or Wave
- Single or double layer
- Full pitch or short pitch
- Integral slot or fractional slot
2a. Single layer Lap winding
Draw a developed winding diagram for an AC machine with 4 poles, 24 slots. The winding
is single layer lap.
Objective:
To design and draw winding for an AC machine which is lap wound, single layer and full
pitched
Given data:
Number of slots, Z: 24
Number of poles, P: 4
Calculations:
Slot pitch, slots/pole = 24/4 = 6, that is, 6 slots under each pole
Slot angle, 180o/slot pitch = 180o/6 = 30o electrical degrees
Slots/pole/phase = 24/6/3 = 2, that is, under each pole, there are 2 Red, 2 Blue, 2
Yellow conductors
Slot distance, 120o/slot angle = 120o/30o = 4, that is, 4 slots difference between same
phase
Coil span, winding pitch/slot angle = (180o-(slots shorted x slot angle))/slot angle =
(180o-(0 x 30o))/30o = 6
Usually small single layer windings are Mush windings, which should have an odd coil
span. So coil span=6-1=5, to make it odd
Assume sequence as RYB
Starting conductor of:
- R is 1 (by default)
- Y is 1 + 120/slot angle = 1+120/30 = 5
- B is 1 + 240/slot angle = 1+240/30 = 9
Slot-pole table:

Pole
Pole
Pole
Pole

1
2
3
4

(N)
(S)
(N)
(S)

Red
24, 1
6, 7
12, 13
18, 19

Blue
2, 3
8, 9
14, 15
20, 21

Yellow
4, 5
10, 11
16, 17
22, 23

This table does not give the connection status. It is only useful for finding which conductor
is under which pole and what phase. For example, 12th line is a Yellow conductor under
pole 2, i.e., first South Pole
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Create layers to place each phase in a separate layer so that they can be viewed and
modified separately.
Format > Layer -or- command layer
This opens a layer window.
Click New to create a new layer. Rename it as Red. Click on its Color column and select
red colour. Repeat this for Yellow and Blue
4. Create 24 lines using Line and Array tools.
5. Number the conductors from 1 to 24 using Text tool
6. According to the slot-pole table, lines 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, 18, 19, 24 are red.
Open Layers window. If not visible, go to View > Toolbars and check Layers option
Select the red numbered lines 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, 18, 19, 24
From the drop down menu of layers window, select Red layer
Repeat the same for yellow and blue lines.
Now all the 24 lines are separated into three layers. They can be viewed separately by
turning off the other two layers.
7. The first conductor is connected to next conductor as 1+coil span, that is, 1+5=6. 1 st is
th
connected to 6 .
8. Draw the arrows for the current direction for all the three phases.
9. Note that the direction of current for Blue phase is opposite to the direction of
movement, that is, current will move out of BS, start of Blue, and move into BF, finish of
Blue

Winding diagram:

29
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

## 2b. Single layer, short pitched, Lap winding

Draw a winding diagram for an AC machine with 2 poles, 24 slots. The winding is single
layer lap, short pitched by one slot.
Objective:
To design and draw winding for an AC machine which is lap, single layer and short pitched
Given data:
Number of slots, Z: 24
Number of poles, P: 2
Slots shorted: 1
Calculations:
Slot pitch, slots/pole = 24/2 = 12, that is, 12 slots under each pole
Slot angle, 180o/slot pitch = 180o/12 = 15o electrical degrees
Slots/pole/phase = 24/2/3 = 4, that is, under each pole, there are 4 Red, 4 Blue, 4
Yellow conductors
Slot distance, 120o/slot angle = 120o/15o = 8, that is, 8 slots difference between same
phase
Coil span, winding pitch/slot angle = (180o-(slots shorted x slot angle))/slot angle =
(180o-(1 x 15o))/15o = 11
Coil span is 11. This can also be calculated as slot pitch-slots shorted = 12-1=11
A single layer winding is a Mush winding, which must have an odd coil span. Here, due to
the short pitch, coil span is 11 which is odd.
Assume sequence as RYB. Starting conductor of:
- R is 1 (by default)
- Y is 1 + 120/slot angle = 1+120/15 = 9
- B is 1 + 240/slot angle = 1+240/15 = 17
Slot position table:
Since the winding is short pitched by 1 slot, the whole winding is shifted left by one
position. That is, the first red conductor moves to the last, i.e., 24 th position.
24
R

1
R

2
R

3
R

4
B

5
B

6
B

7
B

8
Y

9
Y

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Y
Y
R
R
R
R
B
B
B
B
Y
Y
Y
Y

Slot-pole table:
Pole 1 (N)
Pole 2 (S)

Red
24, 1, 2, 3
12, 13, 14, 15

Blue
4, 5, 6, 7
16, 17, 18, 19

Yellow
8, 9, 10, 11
20, 21, 22, 23

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>

30

## Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

## Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>

Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Create layers to place each phase in a separate layer so that they can be viewed and
modified separately.
Format > Layer -or- command layer
This opens a layer window.
Click New to create a new layer. Rename it as Red. Click on its Color column and select
red colour. Repeat this for Yellow and Blue
4. Create 24 lines using Line and Array tools.
5. Number the conductors from 1 to 24 using Text tool
6. According to the slot-pole table, lines 1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 14, 24 are red.
Open Layers window. If not visible, go to View > Toolbars and check Layers option
Select the red numbered lines 1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 14, 24
From the drop down menu of layers window, select Red layer
Repeat the same for yellow and blue lines.
Now all the 24 lines are separated into three layers. They can be viewed separately by
turning off the other two layers.
7. The first conductor is connected to next conductor as 1+coil span, that is, 1+11=12. 1 st
is connected to 12th.
8. Draw the arrows for the current direction for all the three phases.
9. Note that the direction of current for Blue phase is opposite to the direction of
movement, that is, current will move out of BS, start of Blue, and move into BF, finish of
Blue

## 2c. Double layer, Wave winding

Draw a double layer wave winding diagram for an AC machine with 6 poles, 36 slots
Objective:
To design and draw winding for an AC machine which is wave wound and double layer
Given data:
Number of slots, Z: 36
Number of poles, P: 6
Calculations:
Slot pitch, slots/pole = 36/6 = 6, that is, 6 slots under each pole
o
o
o
Slot angle, 180 /slot pitch = 180 /6 = 30 electrical degrees
Slots/pole/phase = 36/6/3 = 2, that is, under each pole, there are 2 Red, 2 Blue, 2
Yellow conductors
o
o
o
Slot distance, 120 /slot angle = 120 /30 = 4, that is, 4 slots difference between same
phase
Coil span, winding pitch/slot angle = (180o-(slots shorted x slot angle))/slot angle =
(180o-(0 x 30o))/30o = 6
Since this is a full pitched winding, number of slots shorted is 0. Coil span is 6. This can
also be calculated as slot pitch-slots shorted = 6-0=6
Assume sequence as RYB
Starting conductor of:
- R is 1 (by default)
- Y is 1 + 120/slot angle = 1+120/30 = 5
- B is 1 + 240/slot angle = 1+240/30 = 9
Slot-pole table:

Pole
Pole
Pole
Pole
Pole
Pole

1
2
3
4
5
6

(N)
(S)
(N)
(S)
(N)
(S)

Red
1, 2
7, 8
13, 14
19, 20
25, 26
31, 32

Blue
3, 4
9, 10
15, 16
21, 22
27, 28
33, 34

Yellow
5, 6
11, 12
17, 18
23, 24
29, 30
35, 36

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>

3. Create layers to place each phase in a separate layer so that they can be viewed and
modified separately.
Format > Layer -or- command layer
This opens a layer window.
Click New to create a new layer. Rename it as Red. Click on its Color column and select
red colour. Repeat this for Yellow and Blue
4. Create 36 solid and dashed lines using Line and Array tools.
5. Number the conductors from 1 to 36 using Text tool. The bottom conductors can be
numbered as 1, 2 etc. or as 1b, 2b etc.
6. According to the slot-pole table, lines 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 19, 20, 25, 26, 31, 32 are red.
Open Layers window. If not visible, go to View > Toolbars and check Layers option
Select the red numbered lines 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 19, 20, 25, 26, 31, 32
From the drop down menu of layers window, select Red layer
Repeat the same for yellow and blue lines.
Now all the 36 lines are separated into three layers. They can be viewed separately by
turning off the other two layers.
st

7. The first conductor is connected to next conductor as 1+coil span, that is, 1+6=7. 1 is
connected to 7th.
8. Blue starts from 9, moves through 15, 21, 27, 33, 3. 3+coil span, 6 will give 9. But 3
cannot be connected to 9 as the coil will close into itself as a loop. So draw a small
overhang and connect 3 to 10 and continue through 16, 22, 28, 34, where the Blue phase
will end at conductor 4.
8. Draw the arrows for the current direction for all the three phases.
9. Note that the direction of current for Blue phase is opposite to the direction of
movement, that is, current will move out of BS, start of Blue, and move into BF, finish of
Blue
<diagram>
2d. Double layer, short pitched, Lap winding
Draw a winding diagram for an AC machine with 24 slots and 4 poles. The winding is
double layer lap, short pitched by one slot.
Objective:
To design and draw winding for an AC machine which is lap wound, double layer and short
pitched
Given data:
Number of slots, Z: 24
Number of poles, P: 4

34
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

Slots shorted: 1
Calculations:
Slot pitch, slots/pole = 24/4 = 6, that is, 6 slots under each pole
o
o
Slot angle, 180o/slot pitch = 180 /6 = 30 electrical degrees
Slots/pole/phase = 24/4/3 = 2, that is, under each pole, there are 2 Red, 2 Blue, 2
Yellow conductors
Slot distance, 120o/slot angle = 120o/30o = 4, that is, 4 slots difference between same
phase
Coil span, winding pitch/slot angle = (180o-(slots shorted x slot angle))/slot angle =
(180o-(1 x 30o))/30o = 5
Coil span is 5. This can also be calculated as slot pitch-slots shorted = 6-1=5
Assume sequence as RYB
Starting conductor of:
- R is 1 (by default)
- Y is 1 + 120/slot angle = 1+120/30 = 5
- B is 1 + 240/slot angle = 1+240/30 = 9
Slot position table:
This is a double layer. Top conductor in slot 1 is numbered 1 and the bottom conductor in
the same slot is numbered 11. The winding is short pitched by 1, so the bottom set is
shifted by 1 slot towards left.
1
R
R

13
R
R

2
R
B

3
B

14
R
B

4
B
1

15
B

16
B

5
Y
Y

17
Y
Y

th

6
Y
R

7
R

18
Y
R

19
R
R

8
R
B

20
R
B

st

9
B

10
B

21
B

22
B

Y
1

11
Y
Y

12
Y

23
Y
Y

24
Y

## Therefore 1 is moved to 24 slot, 2 is moved to 1 slot, 3 is moved to 2

on.

R
nd

slot and so

Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, type- limits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Create layers to place each phase in a separate layer so that they can be viewed and
modified separately.

## This opens a layer window.

Click New to create a new layer. Rename it as Red. Click on its Color column and select
red colour. Repeat this for Yellow and Blue
4. Create 24 solid and 24 dashed lines using Line and Array tools.
5. Number the solid lines from 1 to 24, and 1 1 to 241 for the dashed lines using Text tool
6. Open Layers window. If not visible, go to View > Toolbars and check Layers option
Select the red numbered lines
From the drop down menu of layers window, select Red layer
Repeat the same for yellow and blue lines.
Now all the 24 lines are separated into three layers. They can be viewed separately by
turning off the other two layers.
7. First top conductor must be connected to bottom conductor of 1+coil span, that is, to
61
8. Draw the arrows for the current direction for all the three phases.
9. Note that the direction of current for Blue phase is opposite to the direction of
movement, that is, current will move out of BS, start of Blue, and move into BF, finish of
Blue

## 2e. Double layer, fractional slot, Lap winding

Draw the winding diagram of a 30 slot, 4 pole, 3 phase lap wound rotor of an induction
motor
Objective:
To design and draw winding for an AC machine which is fractional slot lap wound and
double layer
Given Data
Slots, S = 30
Poles, P = 3
Phases, m=3
Calculations:
Slot pitch = slots/pole = 30/4
Slot angle = 180o/slot pitch = 180o/30/4
Slots/pole/phase = 30/4/3 = 5/2 = 2
This is a fractional slot winding. In a fractional slot winding, S/P/m = M/d = I n/d
M=5
d=2
I=2
n=1
Basic unit of this winding consists of d=2 poles. Since there are 4 poles, this winding has
4/2 = 2 units
Each phase in a unit has d-n=2-1=1 group of I=2 coils and
n=1 group of I+1=3 coils each
Note: 1 x 2 + 1 x 3 = 5 (M)
Difference between two slots which correspond to two consecutive phasors of slots is D,
given by D = (1+mMp)/d, where p is the smallest integer that can make D an integer.
D = (1+15p)/2
If p=1, D=8
Distribution of slots is:
Red phase: 1, 1+D, 1+2D-mM, 1+3D-mM, 1+4D-mM, 1+5D-mM
Blue phase: 1+6D-2mM, 1+7D-2mM, 1+8D-2mM, 1+9D-2mM, 1+10D-2mM
Yellow phase: 1+11D-3mM, 1+12D-3mM, 1+13D-3mM, 1+14D-3mM, 1+15D-3mM
Substituting the values, the slots in each phase in one unit are:
Red
: 1
9
2
10
3
Blue
: 11
4
12
5
13
Yellow
: 6 14
7
15
8
Sorting them in ascending order and grouping them-

Red
Blue
Yellow

1
4
6

2
5
7

3
8

9
11
14

10
12
15

13

16
19
21

17
20
22

18
23

24
26
29

38
Dept. ofElectrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

25
27
30

28

These are the positions of top conductors in each slot. Bottom slots are drawn by finding
coil span
Coil span ~ slots/pole = 30/4 ~ 7
Top Red of 1st slot is connected to 1+7=8th slots bottom conductor. Note that top
conductor of 8th slot is Yellow
Slot position table for the first 15 slots is

1
R

2
R

3
R

4
B

5
B

6
Y

7
Y

8
Y

9
R

10
R

11
B

12
B

13
B

Bottom R1

R1

B1

B1

B1

Y1

Y1

R1

R1

R1

B1

B1

Y1

Top

14
Y

15
Y

Y1

Y1

## The same pattern repeats for slots 16 to 30

Assume sequence as RYB
Starting conductor of:
- R is 1 (by default)
- Y is 1 + 120/slot angle = 1+120/24 = 6
- B is 1 + 240/slot angle = 1+240/24 = 11
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 200,200 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Create layers to place each phase in a separate layer so that they can be viewed and
modified separately.
Format > Layer -or- command layer
This opens a layer window.
Click New to create a new layer. Rename it as Red. Click on its Color column and select
red colour. Repeat this for Yellow and Blue
4. Create 30 solid and 30 dashed lines using Line and Array tools.
5. Number the solid lines from 1 to 30, and 1 1 to 301 for the dashed lines using Text tool
6. Open Layers window. If not visible, go to View > Toolbars and check Layers option
Select the red numbered lines, according to the table above
From the drop down menu of layers window, select Red layer
Repeat the same for yellow and blue lines.
Now all the 30 lines are separated into three layers. They can be viewed separately by
turning off the other two layers.
7. First top conductor must be connected to bottom conductor of 1+coil span, that is, to
71

8. Draw the arrows for the current direction for all the three phases.
9. Note that the direction of current for Blue phase is opposite to the direction of
movement,that is,current will move out of Bs,start of Blue,and move into BF,finish of
Blue

ttttt
I I I I I ,
I I I I I

12345

//

///

67

////
//

L
L----

Bs

To slot 6

BP

''

FroM slot 12

Machine Drawing
In Machine drawing, the activities involve drawing front view and side view of
DC machines Poles, complete DC machine
AC machines Rotating machines, Transformers
3. DC machines:
3a. Draw sectional end elevation of a pole of a DC motor with the following data:
Width: 14 cms
Height with shoe: 19 cms
Pole arc: 20 cms
Pole shoe height: 3 cms
Yoke thickness: 9.5 cms
Air gap length: 1 cms
Bolt thickness: 1.5 cms
Assume any missing data accordingly.
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation of a DC machine pole
Theory:
This is an end view of a DC machine pole. It consists of a pole, pole shoe, attached to the
yoke using a bolt. While the main data is given, certain other data needs to be calculated
on the basis of the given data, and certain other information need to be assumed
proportional to the entire image.
Calculations:
i. There are four arcs to be drawn, one for pole, two for yoke, one for armature
Pole arc is given as 20 cms. Since this cannot be measured directly, the angle which it
subtends from the arc centre must be calculated, as per the formula
=180 x l/( x r)
where l is the pole arc length
r is the pole arc radius
180 x 28/( x 20) gives 80.21o. The pole arc subtends and angle of 80.21o from the
centre. Drawing two lines from the centre of the arcs at this angle gives the ends of the
pole arc.
ii. The overall height of the image is about 29 cms. Set the limits of the workspace to a
higher value like 40 cms
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 40,40 <enter>
zoom all <enter>

<enter>

## 3. To draw pole arc, in the command window, type

arc <enter> (Draw > Arc > Start, End, Radius can also be used)
Specify start point of arc or [Center]: C <enter>
Specify center point of arc: <click on bottom of workspace and move mouse rightwards>
Specify start point of arc: 28 <enter> ( for the 28 cms of pole arc)
Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: <move mouse leftwards and click>
An arc of 28 cms radius is created. Any extra length can be deleted later when the entire
image is drawn.
4. Repeat the above for the yoke arc.
Its radius is calculated as- pole height with shoe + pole radius, i.e., 19 + 28 = 47 cms
5. To draw the armature arc which is at a distance of 1 cm airgap lengthoffset <enter>
(-or- Modify > Offset -or- click on Offset icon)
Specify offset distance or [Through]: 1
Select object to offset or <exit>: <select the pole arc>
Specify point on side to offset: <click below the pole arc>
Select object to offset or <exit>: <esc to reset the offset command>
An arc of radius 27 cms (28-1) is created for the armature.
6. To draw the yoke, which is 9.5 cms thick, repeat the above offset command with
distance as 9.5
An arc of radius 56.5 cms (47+9.5) is created for the armature
7. Pole bodyDraw a vertical line passing through the centre of the arcs. The pole width is given as 14
cms. The edges of the pole body are 7 cms away from this centre line. Using offset
command and distance of 7, create two lines on either side of the centre line, by selecting
the centre line
8. Pole arcPole arc is given as 20 cms. Since this cannot be measured directly, the angle which it
subtends from the arc centre must be calculated, as per the formula
=180 x l/( x r)
where l is the pole arc length
r is the pole arc radius
o
o
180 x 28/( x 20) gives 80.21 . The pole arc subtends and angle of 80.21 from the
centre. Drawing two lines from the centre of the arcs at this angle gives the ends of the
pole arc. Draw two lines, each at 40.1o from the central line
9. Pole shoePole shoe height is 3 cms. Draw a horizontal line from the top of the pole arc at a distance
of 3 cms. Complete the pole shoe
10. Using trim command (Modify > Trim or Trim icon) delete the unnecessary lines

11. BoltBolt thickness is 1.5 cms. From the top of the yoke till about centre of pole body, draw
two vertical lines separated by 1.5 cms, or 0.75 cms on either side of the central axis.
Complete the bolt head and end using line command.
12. Using hatch command, draw hatch lines on the yoke
13. Using Dimension menu, display dimensions for the image

Note:
Dimensions of bolt length, bolt head width, pole shoe width, screw diameters, number of
screws, are not given. They can be assumed proportional to the entire image.

3b. Draw sectional end view of a DC motor with 6 poles. Assume any missing data.
Armature diameter: 55 cms
Yoke outside diameter: 115 cms
Main pole width: 14 cms
Main pole height: 21 cms with shoe
Pole arc/pole pitch = 69%
Air gap length at main pole: 0.5 cms
Interpole width: 4 cms
Air gap length at interpole: 0.6 cms
Number of slots: 60, open type
Size of each slot: 1 cm x 5 cms
Shaft diameter: 12 cms
Winding thickness: 2 cms
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation of a DC machine from the given dimensions
Theory:
This is an end view of a DC motor with armature and poles. It consists of 6 main poles
and 6 interpoles.
While the main data is given, certain other data needs to be calculated on the basis of the
given data, and certain other information need to be assumed proportional to the entire
image.
Calculations:
i. Number of poles is 12, that is, 6 main and 6 interpoles. Angle between a main pole and
interpole is 30o (360o/12)
ii. To find yoke thickness:
Yoke outside diameter is 115 cms. With the other dimension provided, yoke thickness is
to be calculated.
Armature radius + main pole air gap + main pole height + yoke thickness = yoke outside
55/2 + 0.5 + 21 + yoke thickness = 115/2
yoke thickness = 8.5 cms
iii. To find interpole height:
Armature radius + interpole air gap + interpole height + yoke thickness = yoke outside
55/2 + 0.6 + interpole height + 8.5 = 115/2
interpole height = 20.9 cms
iv. Pole arc length:
Pole arc/pole pitch = 69%

44
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

## Pole pitch = D/P

D is diameter of armature, 55 cms
P is number of main poles, 6
Pole arc length = 0.69 x x 55/6 = 19.8 cms. Round it off to 20 cms
Since a curved line like pole arc cannot be measured directly, the angle it subtends has to
be calculated to get the ends of the arc. Using the formula=180 x l/( x r)
where l is the pole arc length
r is the pole arc radius
pole arc radius = armature radius + main pole air gap length, 55/2 + 0.5
o
o
180 x 20/( x (55/2 + 0.5)) gives 40.92 . The pole arc subtends and angle of 40.92 from
the centre. Drawing two lines from the centre of the arcs at this angle gives the ends of
the pole arc. Draw two lines, each at 20.4o from the central line, which gives the two ends
of the pole arc.
v. The largest dimension in the diagram is 115 cms. Set the workspace limits to a higher
value, like 150 x 150
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 150,150 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw two circles of units 55 and 115, for armature diameter and yoke diameter, using
circle command.
Using offset command and a distance of 8.5, create an inner circle below the larger circle,
for the yoke.
4. Main polea. Width is 14 cms. Using offset command, create parallel lines on either side of vertical
axis at distance of 7 cms from this line.
b. Using offset command at distance of 0.5 cms, create another circle outside armature
circle for the pole arc. Once the poles are drawn, excess lines can be deleted.
c. Pole shoe height is not mentioned, can be assumed, taking 2 cms.
d. The pole arc subtends and angle of 40.92o from the centre. Drawing two lines from the
centre of the arcs at this angle gives the ends of the pole arc. Draw two lines, each at
20.4o from the central line such that they touch the pole arc circle. Complete the pole
shoe by drawing appropriate lines, and delete unnecessary lines using trim command.
5. InterpoleIt is just a rectangle of height 20.9 cms, width 4 cms with no shoe, at an angle of 30 o
from main pole

6. Winding for main poleWinding thickness is 2 cms Create rectangle outside pole body of suitable height, width 2
units. Using mirror command, create another winding on the other side of the pole. Hatch
with suitable hatching
7. Winding for interpoleAssume thickness for winding and create rectangles outside pole body. Hatch with suitable
hatching
8. Use array to create copies of both the poles around the armature
array <enter> <select Polar Array>
<click Center point and select the centre of the armature circle>
<click Select objects and select both main pole and interpole including their
bolts and windings>
Total number of items: 6
Angle to fill: 360
<click Preview to check if ok. If satisfactory, click Accept>
9. SlotsThere are 60 slots, each of size 5 cm x 1 cm. Using line command, draw a rectangle at the
edge of the armature circle.
Use array to create 60 slots around the centre
10. Shaft- circle with diameter 12 units

46
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

Manual

## Main pole and Interpole, with windings,screws and bolts-

Main pole

lnterpole

48
Dept of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School ofEngineering & Technology, Ja in Universil)r

## 3c. Draw sectional end and longitudinal elevation of pole of DC machine

Pole width: 14 cms
Pole arc: 20 cms
Height with shoe: 20 cms
Yoke thickness: 9 cms
Length of pole: 18 cms
End plate thickness: 0.5 cms
Bolt diameter: 1.5 cms, two bolts
Screw diameter: 0.8 cms, six each
Show clearly method of fixing pole core. Assume any missing data.
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation and longitudinal elevation of a DC machine pole
Theory:
This contains both end view and side view (longitudinal) of a DC pole. While the main data
is given, certain other data needs to be calculated on the basis of the given data, and
certain other information need to be assumed proportional to the entire image.
Calculations:
i. Since a curved line like pole arc cannot be measured directly, the angle it subtends has
to be calculated to get the ends of the arc. Using the formula=180 x l/( x r)
where l is the pole arc length, 20 cms
r is the pole arc radius, 28 cms
o
180 x 20/( x 28) gives 40.92 . The pole arc subtends and angle of 40.92o from the
centre. Drawing two lines from the centre of the arcs at this angle gives the ends of the
pole arc. Draw two lines, each at 20.4o from the central line, which gives the two ends of
the pole arc.
ii. The overall height of pole is 29 cms (pole height + yoke). Total width of the images,
both end view and side view is about 35 cms (pole width + pole length). Set the
workspace limits to 50 x 50
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 50,50 <enter>
zoom all <enter>

49
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

3. Pole end viewDraw arc of radius 28 cms. Using the formula, draw two lines each at 20.4 o from the
central line, which gives the two ends of the pole arc. This gives 20 cms of the pole arc.
Draw arc of 28+20=48 cms. Using offset create another arc at 9 cms from this arc, to get
yoke.
Create pole body of width 14 cms (7 cms on either side of the central axis)
Use circle to draw 6 screws
Draw a bolt of suitable height and width 1.5 cms
4. Pole side viewExtend the lines from the end view image. Width of pole is 14 cms. Draw two bolts at
suitable distance from each other
Draw end plate of thickness 0.5 cms. Extend the screws to the side view

4. Alternators
4a. Draw end view of the salient pole rotor of an alternator with 4 poles and the following
data:
Rotor diameter = 10
Pole height = 2
Pole shoe height = 1
Pole shoe width = 4
Pole width = 2.5
Shaft inner diameter = 3
Damper winding diameter = 0.3, five on each pole
Pole winding thickness = 0.7
Assume any missing data
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation of the rotor of an alternator
Theory:
A salient pole AC generator has poles that are fixed on the rotor. Salient pole machines
are used for medium speed. The poles are fixed by means of screws. Damper windings
are used to reduce pole oscillations.
Calculations:
The maximum size required is of the rotor diameter which is 10 inches. The workspace
limits can be set a slight higher number like 15,15
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 15,15 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw rotor of diameter 10 units
4. With the dimensions given, draw pole of height 2 units, width 2.5 units. Pole shoe width
is 4 units
5. Damper winding: Draw a circle of diameter 0.3 units. Using array and polar coordinates
option, create five more circles within the pole shoe.
6. Draw pole winding of given thickness of 0.7 units and hatch the winding.
7. Use array command and create three more poles around the centre of the circle.

"

())

0 0

9S

0 0

)('

(><)<

.,;<.,

)('
)('

gxx ;(<

?>

)<

0
8

03

0
0

xx;(<

.,;<.,
'XX

lfS
(<,

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())

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10
52

e
0

.,;<.,

## Dept. of Electrical & Electronics

Ellgineering

4b. Draw end view of a 25 kVA, 1500 rpm, 50 Hz, 3 phase alternator with salient poles
and the following data:
Outside diameter of stator stamping: 40
Inside diameter of stator stamping: 29
External diameter of stator frame: 49
Pole width: 7
Pole height with shoe: 7.5
Pole shoe width: 10
Pole shoe height: 1.8
Air gap: 0.2
Number of open type slots: 48
Slot dimensions: 3.2 x 1.2
Shaft diameter at centre: 7
The alternator is placed on a base plate of 48 cms
All dimensions are in centimeters. Assume any missing data
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation of the rotor and stator of an alternator
Theory:
A salient pole AC generator has poles that are fixed on the rotor. Salient pole machines
are used for medium speed. The poles are fixed by means of screws.
Calculations:
a. The number of poles in an alternator is given byP = 120f/N
P = 120 * 50/1500 = 4
b. Rotor diameter is not mentioned. Calculated asRotor radius = stator inner radius air gap
= 29/2-0.2 = 14.3 cms
Rotor diameter is 28.6 cms
c. The maximum size required is of the rotor diameter which is 49 cms. The workspace
limits can be set a slightly higher number like 60,60
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 60,60 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Stator, rotorUsing circle command, draw four circles of diameters 49, 40, 29, 28.6 units each

53
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

4. Rotor polesWith the dimensions given, draw pole of height 7.5 units, width 7 units. Pole shoe width is
10 units
5. Draw pole winding of given thickness of appropriate thickness and hatch the winding.
6. Use array command and create three more poles around the centre of the circle.
7. Using line command, draw slot of given dimension, height 3.2, width 1.2 on the inside
of the stator. Using array command, create 48 such slots

5. Transformer
Transformers may be core type or shell type.
In core type transformers, the windings are wound over two limbs in 1 , or over three
limbs in a 3 transformer
In shell type transformers, primary and secondary windings are wound over the central
limb
The cross section of the core can be rectangular, square or stepped. Shell type
transformers use rectangular cross section cores. They have rectangular winding over
them. Square and stepped cores have circular windings over them
Two stepped (cruciform) core

a=0.42d

b=0.7d

c=0.9d

## Steps widths = 0.36d, 0.6d, 0.78d, 0.92d

5a. Draw longitudinal cross section of one limb of 3 phase oil cooled 2 stepped
transformer showing HV and LV windings
Circumscribing circle diameter: 17 cms
Diameter of LV winding: 18 cms
Outside diameter of LV winding: 21 cms
Outside diameter of HV winding: 27.6 cms
Inside diameter of HV winding: 24 cms
LV winding height: 31.5 cms
HV winding height: 30 cms
Assume any missing data
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation and side elevation of one limb of a 3 phase
transformer
Theory:
A transformer has two windings both wound on the same limb. Low voltage winding is
wound close to the core, and high voltage is around the LV winding, after a suitable air
gap.
Calculations:
a. It is a two stepped core. Circumscribing circle is 17 cms in diameter, diagonal of
rectangle of core is 17 cms.
b. The maximum height required is about 60 cms (Height 31.5 + HV diameter 27.6+
extra space). The workspace limits can be set a slightly higher number like 80,80
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 80,80 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Top viewcircle of diameter 17, 18, 21, 24, 27.6 units
line to draw rectangular core of width = 53% of 17 units and height of 85% of 17 units
hatch the windings
4. Side viewExtend the edges of the top view to the bottom for the side view
rectangle of height 31.5 units, width of 17 units
Similarly draw rectangle by extending the edges of the windings from top to bottom and
suitable hatch them

27.6

LO .

......
C")

II

0.5

57

## Dept. of Electrical & Electronics

Ellgineering
School ofEllgineering & Technology, Jain University

5b. Draw to suitable scale the elevation and plan of a core type transformer.
Core: 3 step construction
Core diameter: 220 mm
Core height: 480 mm
Yoke height: 250 mm
Centre to centre distance between limbs: 350 mm
LV winding:
Inside diameter: 231 mm
Winding in two layer total radial thickness: 13.3 mm
Total height of LV winding: 427 mm
HV winding:
Outside diameter of HT winding: 340 mm
Total number of coils: 12
Total height of HV winding: 427 mm
Objective:
To design and draw the elevation and plan of a 3 phase core type transformer
Theory:
A transformer has two windings both wound on the same limb. Low voltage winding is
wound close to the core, and high voltage is around the LV winding, after a suitable air
gap. This is a 3 phase transformer with windings wound over three limbs.
Calculations:
a. It is a three stepped core. Circumscribing circle is 220 mm, diagonal of rectangle of
core is 220 units. Calculate widths of the three steps as 42% of 220, 70% of 220, 90% of
220
b. The workspace limits can be set a 1000, 1000 units
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 1000,1000 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Top viewcircle of diameter 220, 231, 340 units
offset of distance 13.3 from the inner circle of LV winding
line to draw rectangular core of the calculated values
hatch the windings
Copy the whole top view and create two more images at centre to centre distance of 350
units.

58
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

4. Side view-

Extend the edges of the top view to the bottom for the side view
Yoke height is 250, core height is 480
Draw sectional view of one winding, while drawing the covered view of the other two
windings. Hatch the windings suitably

1-----;(350----l

---------- 2
59

## Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Ellgineering

School of Ellgineering & Techrlolog:,Jain University

If')

00

60

## Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Ellgineering

School of Ellgineering & Techrlolog:,Jain University

5c. Draw the detailed drawing of a single phase 100 kVA, 2000/400 V power transformer
for the given details below
Core width: 13 cms
Core depth: 36 cms
Window width: 14 cms
Window height: 24 cms
Overall height of transformer: 37 cms
Overall width of transformer: 54 cms
Coils length: 8 cms
Coils thickness: 2.5 cms
Overall coil width: 31 cms
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation and plan of a 3 phase shell type transformer
Theory:
A shell type transformer has both windings wound on the same limb. Low voltage winding
is wound close to the core, and high voltage is around the LV winding, after a suitable air
gap. Shell type transformers have rectangular cores
Calculations:
The workspace limits can be set at 100 x 100 units
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 100,100 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
1. For the side view, draw a rectangle of size 37 x 54
2. Draw two rectangles for the windows of size 24 x 14, each starting after 13/2 cms from
the centre (core width is 13 cms)
3. For the top view, draw rectangle of size 36 x 54 immediately below the side view
4. Draw the coil taking suitable dimensions as given
5. Hatch the LV and HV coils suitably

61
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

LV

HV

31

62
Dept. ofEiectrical & Electronics Engineering
School ofEngineering & Technology, Jain University

6. Induction Motor
Draw end view and elevation of a 10 HP squirrel cage induction motor with the following
dimensions:
Stator inside diameter: 18
Stator outside diameter: 32
Stator length: 20
Stator slot size: 0.95 x 2.1
Number of stator slots: 36
Number of rotor slots: 31
Rotor slot diameter: 1
Rotor slot opening: 0.2
Shaft diameter: 2.4
Air gap: 0.3
One cooling duct, width: 1
All dimensions are in centimeters
Objective:
To design and draw the end elevation and side elevation of a squirrel cage induction
motor
Theory:
An induction motor has windings on both rotor and stator. Slots are provided in both for
placing the windings.
Calculations:
a. Between rotor and stator, there is an air gap. Since rotor diameter is not given, it is
calculated asstator inside diameter-air gap, i.e., 18-0.3 = 17.7 units
b. The workspace limits can be set
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 1000,1000 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Top viewDraw circles of given diameters for stator, rotor and shaft
Rotor slots are circular with diameter of 1 unit, and opening of 0.2 units. Using array,
create 31 such slots around the rotor
Stator slots are rectangular, with height 2.1 units and 0.95 unit length. Use array to
create 36 slots around the stator

63
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

4. Side elevationExtend the lines from the top view edges of the stator, rotor, slots of rotor and stator,
shaft. The length of the machine is 20 units.
Squirrel cage motor has a copper ring which shorts the rotor conductor ends. Draw the
ring at a suitable distance from the rotor body (distance to be assumed)
Draw the ends of the stator winding
Draw cooling fan blades at the end of the rotor body
Draw end plates for the rotor body

## 7. Single Line Diagrams

Draw the single line diagram of connections of a hydro-electric station having the
following main equipment:
- Alternators: Five, 12000 kVA, 3, 50 Hz, 11 kV, Y connected
- Step up transformers: Five, 15000 kVA, 3, 50 Hz, 11/110 kV, /Y
- Bus: 110 kV, double bus with bus coupler
- Outgoing transmission lines: Two, 110 kV
- Station auxiliary transformers: Two, 750 kVA, 3, 50 Hz
One, 11 kV/400 V, /Y
Also indicate the positions of CT, PT, isolating switches, lightning arrestors, circuit
breakers.
Objective:
To draw the single line diagram of a substation receiving power from a generating station
Theory:
Power systems of any complexity can be represented by a single line diagram where each
polyphase circuit is represented by a single or one line. So a Single Line Diagram (SLD) of
an electric system (without neutral return) represents location and interconnection of
electrical accessories or component parts used by standard symbols.
Calculations:
Dimensions are not very important while drawing single line diagrams. The workspace
limits can be set to suitable value
Procedure:
1. Create a new file
2. In the command window, typelimits <enter>
Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 <enter>
Specify upper right corner: 100,100 <enter>
zoom all <enter>
3. Draw the bus bars according to the voltages of the alternators, the transformer
voltages, and the outgoing lines
4. Draw the equipments related to alternators. Use copy command to create four more
alternator equipments
5. Similarly, create five transformer equipments, connected to two bus bars
6. Draw two transmission lines

y
7

11kV

'-t

"F

t
9

t
9

)'

)'

t
9
.

"Fr-i

'-t

"F

'-t

"F.-.

y
)'

)'

'-t

"F

i
i
1 1 / 1 / 1
1
1
iic{],1 1
lT l l

ll
f-''-

f-''-+

## 110 kV outgoing lines

66
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Enginee ing
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

9 9
'-t

'-t

"F.-. "F
/

400V

## Commonly used commands in AutoCAD

No.
1
2

Command
line (l)
circle (c)

Icon
Line
Circle

Draw>Line
Draw>Circle>Circle, Diameter

3
4

rectangle
array

Rectangle
Array

Draw>Rectangle
Modify>Array>Rectangular
Array
Modify>Array>Polar Array

5
6

Hatch
Text

hatch
mtext
dtext
copy

Copy

Draw>Hatch
Draw>Text>Multiline Text
Draw>text>Single Line Text
Modify>Copy

move (m)

Move

Modify>Move

mirror

Mirror

Modify>Mirror

10
11

erase (e)
rotate

Erase
Rotate

Modify>Erase
Modify>Rotate

12

trim

Trim

Modify>Trim

13

extend

Extend

Modify>Extend

14
15
16

chamfer
fillet
offset

Chamfer
Fillet
Offset

Modify>Chamfer
Modify>Fillet
Modify>Offset

17

scale

Scale

Modify>Scale

18

limits

Format>Drawing Limits

67
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Jain University

Action
To draw straight line
To draw circle if radius is
known
To draw circle if diameter is
known
To draw rectangle
To create a rectangular
array with given rows and
columns, at given distance
To create a circular array
around a centre, with given
number of elements at
given angle
To hatch a closed area
Multiline text
Text in a single line
Copy and paste a single or
multiple copies
Move the selected object to
another location
Create a mirror copy of the
selected object, with option
to keep or delete the source
object
Delete the selected object
Rotate the selected object
around a base point.
Positive angle rotates
anticlockwise, negative
angle rotates clockwise
To delete part(s) of an
image
To extend a straight or
curved line till the selected
object
To trim corners
To round sharp corners
To create a parallel straight
or curved line at a given
distance
To increase or decrease size
of an object
Set the limits of the
workspace

No.
19

Command
zoom all (z a )

20

zoom extents (z
e)

Icon

## * Commonly used menu options:

No.
1
File>New
2
File>Open
3
File>Save
4
Format>Layer
5
6

Format>Color
Format>Linetype

7
8

Format>Lineweight
Format>Text Style

Format>Dimension Style
-or- Dimension>Dimension
Style
Format>Dimension
Style>Modify
Format>Dimension
Style>Modify>Lines

9.1
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15

Format>Dimension
Style>Modify>Symbols &
Arrows
Format>Dimension
Style>Modify>Text
Format>Dimension
Style>Modify>Fit
Format>Dimension
Style>Modify>Primary Units

10
11

Format>Units
Format>Drawing Limits

12

Tools>Display Image>Save

13

Tools>Drafting
Settings>Object Snap

Action
Reset image to the original
size
Magnify or reduce image to
the fit the workspace
window
Action
Create new file
Open existing file
Save a file
Create a new layer and change its
properties
Change an objects colour
Add new linetypes like centre line,
dashed line, dotted line etc.
Change a lines properties and thickness
Set a font, change its dimensions, colour
etc.
Create new properties or change existing
properties of dimensions
Change dimension properties
Properties of dimension lines and
extension lines like colour, type, weight,
length, offset etc.
Size and type of arrows of dimension
lines
Properties of text used in dimensions,
their positions, size etc.
Placement of arrows and text according
to space available
Properties of numerical values in
dimensions, number of decimals, decimal
separator etc.
Units to be used and their precision
Set the limits of the workspace.
Command is limits
Save image as .bmp (versions 2002,
2004) or .jpg(>2007 version)
To set different object span options like
snap to endpoint, midpoint, tangent,
perpendicular etc.

14
15
16
17
18
19

Dimension>Linear
Dimension>Aligned
Dimension>Diameter
Dimension>Angular
Dimension>Center Mark

20
21

Draw
Modify

## Vertical or horizontal dimensions only

For dimensions aligned in any direction
Displays radius of circle or arc
Displays diameter of circle or arc
Displays angles
Displays crosshair at centre of arc or
circle
Draw lines, curves, text, hatches etc.
Apply changes to drawn objects like
copy, move, extend, trim, mirror, array
etc.

## * Commonly used keyboard shortcuts:

Shortcut
F1
F2
F3
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11

Action
Opens Help window
Toggles Osnap (OSNAP) on and off
Toggles Grid (GRID) on and off
Toggles Ortho (ORTHO) on and off
Toggles Snap (SNAP) on and off
Toggles Polar snap (POLAR) on and off
Toggles Object Snap Tracking (OTRACK) on and off

## Probable viva questions, specific to AutoCAD:

1. How do you create multiple lines for conductors in a winding diagram?
2. How do you display the three phase windings separately in AutoCAD?
3. Explain usage of Osnap, Otrack.
4. How do you modify the size of an object?
5. What are the different coordinate systems in AutoCAD?
6. Draw a square of length 20 units, inclined to horizontal at an angle of 37 o.
7. What is the difference between Copy and Move command?
8. How do you display the radius, diameter of a circle? How do you find the length of an
arc?
9. For an image of maximum size 550 cms, how do you prepare the workspace?
10. What is block? How do you create a block and use it?
11. What are the uses of layers? How do you create and use them?
12. To create a symmetrical image, what command do you use?
13. What do you use to set the lines exactly horizontal or vertical?
14. How do you increase or decrease the size of an object?
15. Distinguish between rectangular array and polar array
16. What do you set to draw vertical or horizontal lines
Probable viva questions, related to electrical drawing:
1. What are the types of windings in a DC machine?
2. What is back pitch, front pitch, pole pitch?
3. In what kind of winding is front pitch greater than back pitch?
4. How do you determine the brush positions in a DC winding?
5. What are the types of AC windings?
6. What are the advantages of short pitch windings?
7. Make the connections for delta connected winding.
8. What are damper windings?
9. Why are armature windings placed in stator in a synchronous machine?
10. What is the usage of interpoles in a DC machine?
11. What are the dimensions of steps in a stepped core transformer?
12. What is the shape of the core in a shell type transformer?
13. What are the differences between salient pole and non salient pole alternators?
14. What is the difference between squirrel cage and wound type induction motors?
15. What is the purpose of lightning arrestors in substations?
16. How do you find the brush positions in lap wound and wave wound DC windings?
17. What is the purpose of duplex DC windings?
18. How do you determine the slot positions in a fractional slot AC machine?