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Summer Internship at Wazirabad Bridge Project

(Signature Bridge)

Department of Civil Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi
Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110 016.

Submitted by:
Bharat Mittal
Entry No.: 2011CE10342
Group No.: 2
Date: 25th August, 2014

1. Introduction
2. Project Brief
3. Brief Information about Main Cable Stay Bridge
4. Approaches
5. Present Status
6. Specialized Works for Main Bridge
7. Conclusion
8. References

1. Introduction
Signature bridge project is state of the art project of DTTDC (Delhi Tourism & Transport
Development Corporation) to construct a magnificent bridge in the National Capital Territory
Delhi. The cable-stayed bridge will link NH -1 near existing T- point at Wazirabad on western
bank and Bund road at Khajuri Khas on Eastern Bank of Yamuna River, thus connecting North
Delhi with East Delhi.
A need was felt to make a bridge because of the unprecedented increase in population in west and
east Delhi and thus resulting in the frequent traffic jams especially during peak hours. But it was
decided to not only make any bridge but to make a Signature Bridge since Delhi doesnt have
any modern structure as a landmark among world class cities. Also, to facilitate the movement of
vehicular traffic new express lanes will be constructed to connect Ring Road with the bridge.
Equipped with eight lanes, this engineering masterpiece will have 1.2 meter wide central verge,
space for anchoring cables, maintenance walkway and crash barrier on either side of the central
verge. The deck will be composite (steel and concrete) while pylon will be in steel.
Signature Bridge is to be made with water recreational facilities in Yamuna water and to attract
tourist attraction. For making it a tourists spot there are several specialized works proposed for the
main bridge. These include light illumination of the pylon, bridge and flyovers. Also special
lighting effects will be provided at special occasions like Independence Day, Republic Day etc.
There is a provision of making inclined lifts within the pylon which will add to its beauty.
So, we can say that this bridge will be State of the Art Bridge and will truly give Delhi a much
required infrastructural landmark.

Figure 1: Perspective View of Signature Bridge

2. Project Brief
It is a Government of Delhi Project being executed by DTTDC as Deposit Work.

Project Cost

Rs 1131 Cr

Partially Funded under JNNURM

Rs 380.6 Cr

Date of Commencement (Approaches)

June 2008

Target Date of Completion (Approaches) June 2014

Date of Commencement (Main Bridge)

Target Date of Completion (Main Bridge) Sep 2015

March 2010

2.1 Project Consultants

Preliminary Design



M/s Stup Consultants Pvt Ltd

M/s Stup Consultants Pvt Ltd

Main Design

M/s Schlaich Bergermann & M/s Tandon Consultants Pvt


Patners, Germany



Ltd (TCPL)

Main M/s Construma Consultancy Pvt M/s L R Kadiyali


Ltd (CCPL)

M/s Archom

Proof Consultant

JV of M/s Systra, France Michel M/s Construma Consultancy





Pvt Ltd (CCPL)

Proof M/s Tandon Consultants Pvt Ltd


Soil investigation

M/s Cengers Pvt Ltd

Table 1: Project Consultants

2.2 Project Components

The project is mainly divided into 2 parts:
1. Bridge
2. Approaches
Approaches are further divided in
a) Western approach
b) Eastern approach

2.3 Key Plan

Figure 2: Key Plan of Signature Bridge

Figure 3: Plan of Signature Bridge


2.4 Project Phases

This project is to be done in 2 phases:
1. Develop Architectural and Engineering Monument
2. Develop Tourism Destination Infrastructure

3. Brief information about Main Cable Stay Bridge

Contract Value

Rs. 631.81 Cr.

Work Awarded

March 2010

Duration of Work

45 Months

Target For Completion Sep 2015

Contractor : JV of Gammon(India) Construtora-Cidade (Brazil) Tensacciai (Italy)

3.1 Salient Features of Main Cable Stay Bridge

Bridge Length : 575m+ 100m West extension

No. of Lanes : 2 x 4 Lanes + 2 Service Lanes

Width of Carriage Way : 35.2m

o Carriageway : 14m (Either side)
o Central Verge : 1.2m
o Service Lanes : 2.5m (Either side)

3.2 Technical Features of the Main Bridge

3.2.1 Cable Stayed Deck

Front Cables - 15 Pairs

Back Stays - 4 Pairs

3.2.2 Pylon

Bow Shaped

Asymmetric Structure

154m High Steel Structure (Double the Height of Qutub Minar)


3.2.3 Main Span


3.2.4 Approach Spans

9nos @ 36m

3.2.5 Deck

Steel- Concrete Composite

Plate Girders up to 2.3m depth

RCC Precast / Cast in-situ Deck 250 to 700mm thick

3.2.6 High Tensile Grade Steel Plate



Z+ Quality

3.2.7 Steel Plate Thickness 20mm to 250mm

3.2.8 Foundations

Figure 4: Foundations of the Pillars


3.2.9 Spherical Bearings

Main Pylon Bearings : 17500 Ton Load Capacity

Bearing on Secondary Spans : 500 to 1600 Ton

3.2.10 Pendulum Bearing

Backstay Cable Anchoring with Foundations

3.2.11 Expansion Joint

Modular Strip Box

Longitudinal Movement +/- 350/200/100mm

4. Approaches

Contract Amount

Rs. 348.9 Cr.

Commencement of Work

June 2008

Duration of Work

42 Months

Schedule Completion

December 2011

Target Completion

June 2014


Gammon India Ltd.

4.1 Geometric Features of the Approaches

No. of Lanes on Main Flyovers

3+3 Lanes

No. of Lanes on Loops/Ramps

2/3 Lanes

No. of Lanes on Lower level loops

2 Lanes + Cycle trek

Width of Carriage Way

o Main Flyover Carriageway


o Central Verge


o Loops/Ramps Carriageway


o Cycle Trek


4.2 Western Approach

Figure 5: Western Approach

4.2.1 Geometrical Features

Multilevel Grade Separator along Outer Ring Road at Wazirabad

Cover 3 Intersections

o 1.8 km Long Main Flyover along Ring Road Integrating 3 Intersections
o 8 nos Loops & Ramps for Right & Left Turning Traffic, Connecting to Main Bridge


4.2.2 Segment Erection

Precast pre-stressed segmental superstructures are designed and attached in-situ monolithically to
the piers.

Figure 6: Precast Segmental Via-ducts with Ribs

4.2.3 RE Wall
Retaining walls are built in order to hold back earth which would otherwise move downwards.
Their purpose is to stabilize slopes and provide useful areas at different elevations, e.g. terraces
for agriculture, buildings, roads and railways.

RE wall panels are pre-casted in casting yard. Stirrups are connected to these panels to produce
friction force from sand and keep the structure stable.
The RE wall contains a facia made up of concrete panels, concrete blocks or sometimes geotextile.
After certain interval the earth to be retained is reinforced with either metal strips, metal bars or
geogrids. The retention of the soil is derived from friction between the reinforcement and the soil.
The C (cohesion) and phi (angle of internal friction) of the soil play very important role.
The main advantage of RE wall is that it does not require any foundation and thus can be built
easily where there is a constraint of working space viz. in the midst of cities. It is also found that
when the height of retaining wall increases more than 3m the RE walls are more economical.
Though views differ on this. The major disadvantage is that it takes a lot of time in construction
and a lot of pre erection planning and execution is required.

4.2.4 Crash barrier

Crash Barrier is designed to restrain vehicles from crashing off the side of a bridge and falling onto
the roadway, river or railroad below. It is usually higher than roadside barrier, to prevent trucks,
buses, pedestrians and cyclists from vaulting or rolling over the barrier and falling over the side of
the structure.

4.2.5 Pre-stressing
Pre-stressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. It can be
used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary
reinforced concrete. Pre-stressing tendons (generally of high tensile steel cable or rods) are used
to provide a clamping load which produces a compressive stress that balances the tensile stress
that the concrete compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending load.
Pre-stressing of concrete may be achieved by either pre-tensioning high tensile steel strands before
the concrete has set, or by post-tensioning the strands after the concrete has set.
Pre-tensioning is the application, before casting, of a tensile force to high tensile steel tendons
around which the concrete is to be cast. When the placed concrete has developed sufficient
compressive strength a compressive force is imparted to it by releasing the tendons, so that the
concrete member is in a permanent state of pre-stress.
Post-tensioning is used in the construction of various bridges. Post-tensioned concrete is the
descriptive term for a method of applying compression after pouring concrete and the curing


process (in situ). The concrete is cast around a plastic curved duct, to follow the area where
otherwise tension would occur in the concrete element. A set of tendons are fished through the
duct and the concrete is poured. Once the concrete has hardened, the tendons are tensioned by
hydraulic jacks that react (push) against the concrete member itself. When the tendons have
stretched sufficiently, according to the design specifications, they are wedged in position and
maintain tension after the jacks are removed, transferring pressure to the concrete. The duct is then
grouted to protect the tendons from corrosion.
This method is commonly used to create monolithic slabs for house construction in locations where
expansive soils (such as adobe clay) create problems for the typical perimeter foundation. All
stresses from seasonal expansion and contraction of the underlying soil are taken into the entire
tensioned slab, which supports the building without significant flexure.
After stressing of segments two activities follows:
1. Water treatment - It is done to check the presence of air voids inside the segments which may
corrode the HYSD bars used for stressing.
2. Grouting - The purpose of grouting the cable is to provide permanent protection to the post
tensioned steel against corrosion and develop bond between pre-stressed steel and surrounding
concrete. The grout ensures encasement of steel for corrosion protection and fills the duct space to
prevent water/air passage. We mix water & cement in ratio 0.4:1. This is done to prevent corrosion
of strand wires.


Figure 7: Some Ongoing Activities at Western Approach

4.3 Eastern Approach

Figure 8: Eastern Approach


4.3.1 Geometric Features

A 1.8 km long and up-to 10m high embankment
Ground Level Rotary on high embankment (120m diameter)
A 850m long flyover at Khajuri Khas Intersection
Guide Bunds, Launching Apron & Slope Protection Works

4.3.2 Well Foundation

It is suitable for deep water where it is difficult to carry construction equipments suitable for
river bed, alluvial soil which mainly consists of sandy.
4 bench marks are provided on every quarter of well so as to notice tilting and shifting of the

Figure 9: Drawing of Well Foundation (source:

15 Components of Well Foundation

1. Well Cap

It is a RCC slab laid on top of the wall staining and is usually cast monolithically with

Transmit the load of superstructure to the staining

2. Steining Wall

It is the main body of well which transfers load to the subsoil

Acts as a cofferdam during sinking and provides weight for the sinking

3. Well Curb

The lower wedge-shaped portion of well staining is called the well curb

Facilitates the process of sinking

4. Cutting Edge

The lower most portion of the well curb is the cutting edge

It cuts into the soil during sinking

5. Bottom Plug

After the well is sunk to the required depth, the base of well is plugged with concrete. This
is called bottom plug

Transmits the load to the subsoil

The bottom plug shall be provided in all wells and the top shall be kept not lower than 300
mm in the centre above the top of the curb

Height of sump should be 150mm to permit easy flow of concrete through tremie to fill up
all cavities

Concrete shall be laid in one continuous operation till the dredge hole is filled to the
required height

For under water concrete, the concrete shall be placed by tremie under still water condition
and the cement content of the mix be increased by 10 percent

6. Sand Filling

Sand filling shall commence after a period of 14 days of laying of bottom plug. Also, the
height of the bottom plug shall be verified before starting sand filling

Sand shall be clean and free from earth, clay clods, roots, boulders, shingles, etc. and shall
be compacted as directed. Sand filling shall be carried out up to the level shown on the

drawing or as directed by the Engineer

7. Dredge Hole

The well is sunk by excavating soil from within the well. The hole formed due to the
excavation of soil is called the dredge hole

It is latter filled with sand

This sand filling helps in distributing the load of superstructure to the bottom plug

8. Top Plug

It is a concrete plug covering the sand filling usually constructed on top

It provides contact between the well cap and sand filling

Helps in transferring the load through the sand filling

A 300 mm. thick plug of cement concrete shall be provided over the filling

9. Well Cap

A reinforced cement concrete well cap will be provided over the top of the steining in
accordance with the drawing

Concreting shall be carried out in dry condition

A properly designed false steining may be provided where possible to ensure that the well
cap is laid in dry condition

Figure 10: Ongoing Construction of Well foundation


It occurs in two parts:

Due to self-weight (about 10m)

Through the jack down (about 38-40m) for loading jacks we use anchorage wire HYSD
bars Fe 500

Tilts and shifts

The inclination of the well from the vertical is known as tilt and the horizontal displacement
of the center of the well at the founding level from its theoretical position is known as shift

Tilt occurs due to uneven loading

Sand blow is major reason for shifting of well. Sand blows beneath the well due to increase
in load on one side

The tilt of any well shall not exceed 1 (horizontal) in 80 (vertical), and the shift at the well
base shall not be more than 150 mm in any resultant direction

Methods adopted for preventing shifting and tilting of well

1. Eccentric dredging
2. Eccentric loading
3. Pull to well
4. Push to well


Figure 11: Some Ongoing Activities at Eastern Approach

4.4 Casting Yard

4.4.1 Batching and mixing of concrete
1. Cement: two type of cements are used OPC and Slag cement.
2. Water: treated water from R.O plant is used to avoid degradation in quality of reinforcement by
corrosion by fluorides and various salts present in bore-well water.
3. Aggregates: Coarse aggregates - 10 mm & 20 mm
Fine aggregates
4. Admixtures
Yard consists of two silos for fly ash and silica fume.
4.4.2 Pre Cast Technology
In precast technology the segments are pre-casted in casting yard far from actual site. After casting
they are transported to the site for erection. Main advantages of pre-casting are:
1. It saves time
2. Prevents hindrance in normal life of people living near project site.
3. It is safer.
Signature bridge pre-casted materials are:


a) Segments
b) Ribs
c) Kerb stone
d) Facia panel of crash barrier
4.4.3 Self-compacting concrete
Self-consolidating concrete or self-compacting concrete is characterized by a low yield, high
deformability, and moderate viscosity necessary to ensure uniform suspension of solid particles
during transportation, placement (without external compaction), and thereafter until the concrete
Such concrete can be used for casting heavily reinforced sections, places where there can be no
access to vibrators for compaction and in complex shapes of formwork which may otherwise be
impossible to cast, giving a far superior surface than conventional concrete. In our case SCC is
used for casting of piers.
4.4.4 QC (quality control) lab
The various tests are performed here for concrete ingredients.
Tests performed for cement:
1. Fineness test
2. Sieve test
3. Settling test
Tests performed for aggregates:
1. Sieve analysis
2. Crushing value test
3. Impact value test
4. 10 % fines value test
5. Silt content
6. Specific gravity
7. Flakiness & elongation test
Test for concrete (non-self compacting concrete):
1. Slump test
2. Settling time test initial settling time, final settling time
3. Crushing value test (performed on cubes)

5. Present Status
5.1 Eastern Approach

Flyover at Khajuri Chowk completed and opened to traffic on 01 March 2014

Bituminous road work completed and cement concrete road work in progress.

Embankment and cross drainage works for connecting flyover with Signature Bridge in

5.2 Western Approach

Main flyover along Outer Ring Road completed and opened to traffic in Aug 2012

Construction work of 8 nos. loops in progress

5.3 Main Bridge (Cable Stayed)

The work of all foundations is in progress

Out of total 18 nos. well foundations, 16 nos. have been completed up to foundation level

The foundation works of all the open foundations (9 nos.) have been completed

Out of total 27 nos. piers, 24 nos. have been completed

The work at P23, the critical back stay foundation, is in progress

5.4 Expenditure report as on 15th December 2013

Total Sanctioned Amount

Rs 1131 crore.

Upto date Deposit received from PWD

Rs 929.83 crore.

Upto date Expenditure as on 31-03-2014

Rs 709.70 crore.

(Approaches Rs 332.59 crore

Main Bridge Rs 289.88 crore
Other Rs 87.27 crore)


6. Specialized Works for Main Bridge

Light illumination of pylon, bridge and flyovers will be done. 4 Inclined lifts will be there within
the pylon. Pylon access system will be built for full height of 151 m inclined pylon and full
lengths of 38 front and back cables for repair and maintenance and cleaning purposes.
Bridge structural health monitoring system will be developed. Sensors will be placed to measure
environmental load and structural response factors on bridge.

7. Conclusion
Summer internship opened our view about civil engineering. Till now we were doing mainly
theoretical studies but during our internship period we were exposed to various dimensions of civil
engineering. We got to know practically about various aspects of bridge construction. Besides civil
engineering we got opportunity to learn about management of such a big project. Handling such a
project requires a great dedicated team effort. This training provided us the practical knowledge
which cannot be explained in the institute campus nor in any laboratory.

8. References
1. Richi Verma (Jan. 16, 2014),Sun to light signature bridge. The Times of India
2. Presentation to MD DTTDC 07.04.14
3. May 28, 2014, Signature Bridge delayed, LG slams tourism industry. The Times of India
4. R. Kathik, Well Foundation. Youtube <>
5. Foundation (engineering), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,