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# NOR SAHLIZA BINTI MUSTAFA ( 2013451838 )

## DISCUSSION:1) Comparison for graph for y versus ( u/U ) at 0.05 m

Based on the graph for smooth plate and rough plate, the intersection of both
surface at ( 0.94,1.40 ) and ( 0.98,1.65). By reffering the value for smooth plate, the
maximum value at 3.25 for 1.0 u/U. From this graph, we can see that the constant
value for smooth plate at 1.0 u/U from 1.75 until 3.25. For the minimum value is
18.24 u/U at 0 point of y. This value can be accepted because the value has repeat
parameters at seven times with continously. In the smooth plate, we can see the pattern
of result continously increasing.
Another graph is rough plate. Based on this graph we can analysis the
maximum value is 0.9839 u/U at 3.0. Other than that, the minimum value is 0.7499
u/U at point 0 of y. Then, from this graph we also can know the value of rough surface
smaller than smooth surface wether maximum or minimum value. This value can be
accepted because the value has repeat parameters at seven time continously. In the
rough plate, we can see the pattern of result also continously increasing.

## 2) Comparison for graph for y versus ( u/U ) at 0.2 m

Based on the graph for smooth plate and rough plate, the intersection of both
surface at ( 1.02,2.45 ) and ( 1.03,3.15). By reffering the value for smooth plate, the
maximum value at 3.25 for 1.0459 u/U. From this graph, we can see that the constant
value for smooth plate at 1.0156 u/U from 1.5 until 3.00. For the minimum value is
0.8838 u/U at 0 point of y. This value can be accepted because the value has repeat
parameters at seven times with continously. In the smooth plate, we can see the pattern
of result continously increasing.
Another graph is rough plate. Based on this graph we can analysis the
maximum value is 1.0308 u/U at 4.0. Other than that, the minimum value is 0.7906
u/U at point 0 of y. Then, from this graph we also can know the value of rough surface
smaller than smooth surface for minimum and bigger value for maximum. This value
can be accepted because the value has repeat parameters at seven time continously. In
the rough plate, we can see the pattern of result also continously increasing.

## 3) Comparison for graph for y versus ( u/U ) (1-u/U) at 0.05 m

Based on the graph for smooth plate and rough plate, the intersection of both
surface at (0.02,1.65) and (0.06,1.3). By reffering the value for smooth plate, the
maximum value at 0 for 0.1649 (u/U)(1-u/U). From this graph, we can see that the
constant value for smooth plate at 0.00 (u/U)(1-u/U) from 1.75 until 3.25. For the
minimum value is 0 ( u/U)(1-u/U) at 3.25 point of y. This value can be accepted
because the value has repeat parameters at seven times with continously. In the
smooth plate, we can see the pattern of result continously increasing.
Another graph is rough plate. Based on this graph we can analysis the
maximum value is 0.1875 (u/U)(1-u/U) at 0.0. Other than that, the minimum value is
0.0158 (u/U)(1-u/U) at point 3.00 of y. Then, from this graph we also can know the
value of rough surface bigger than smooth surface for minimum and maximumvalue.
This value can be accepted because the value has repeat parameters at seven time
continously. In the rough plate, we can see the pattern of result also continously
decreasing.

## 4) Comparison for graph for y versus ( u/U ) (1-u/U) at 0.2 m

Based on the graph for smooth plate and rough plate, the intersection of both
surface at (-0.016,2.4) and (-0.32,3.15). By reffering the value for smooth plate, the
maximum value at 0 for 0.1027 (u/U)(1-u/U). From this graph, we can see that the
constant value for smooth plate at -0-0158 (u/U)(1-u/U) from 1.5 until 3.00. For the
minimum value is -0.0480 (u/U)(1-u/U) at 3.25 point of y. This value can be accepted
because the value has repeat parameters at seven times with continously. In the
smooth plate, we can see the pattern of result continously decreasing.
Another graph is rough plate. Based on this graph we can analysis the
maximum value is 0.1656 (u/U)(1-u/U) at 0. Other than that, the minimum value is
-0.0327 (u/U)(1-u/U) at point 4.0 of y. Then, from this graph we also can know the
value of rough surface smaller than smooth surface when maximum and bigger when
minimum value. This value can be accepted because the value has repeat parameters at
seven time continously. In the rough plate, we can see the pattern of result also
continously decreasing.

## 5) Using the graph, find , *, and compare with theoritical.

a) Smooth plate

(mm)
*(mm)
(mm)

Theoretical
x = 0.05 m
Re = 73864
9.199 x 10-4
3.164 x 104
1.222 x 10-4

Experimental
x = 0.05 m
Re = 73864
0.00175
1
0

Theoretical
x = 0.2 m
Re = 295456
1.840 x 10-3
6.329 x 10-4
2.443 x 10-4

Experimental
x= 0.2 m
Re = 295456
0.0015
1.0156
-0.0158

Based on the table below, the parameters shows for the smooth plate, from this table
we can make comparison between theoritical and experimental for x = 0.05m and x = 0.20m.
Firstly, in x = 0.05, value of in experimental is larger than theoritical at 0.00175 than 9.199
x 10-4. After that, for * and , the value of theoritical is larger than experimental at 3.164 x
104, 1.222 x 10-4 than 1 and 0. Beside that, for x = 0.20, value of * in experimental is larger
than theoritical at 1.0156 than 6.329 x 10-4. After that, for and , the value of theoritical is
larger than experimental at 1.840 x 10-3, 2.443 x 10-4 than 0.0015 and -0.0158. So, the
differentiation for theoritical and experiment, causes paralax error or human error when the
the parameter. In this case overall parameter in experiment can be acceptable whether the
percentage error is high because the real action is in experimental, than value of theoritical as
a refererences to guide when run the experiment.

b) Rough plate

(mm)
*(mm)
(mm)

Theoretical
x = 0.05 m
Re = 73864
9.199 x 10-4
3.164 x 104
1.222 x 10-4

Experimental
x = 0.05 m
Re = 73864
0.00175
0.9839
0.0158

Theoretical
x = 0.2 m
Re = 295456
1.840 x 10-3
6.329 x 10-4
2.443 x 10-4

Experimental
x= 0.2 m
Re = 295456
0.0015
1.0308
-0.0327

Based on the table below, the parameters shows for the rough plate, from this table we
can make comparison between theoritical and experimental for x = 0.05m and x = 0.20m.
Firstly, in x = 0.05, value of * in theoritical is larger than experimental at 3.164 x 104 than
0.9839. After that, for and , the value of experimental is larger than theoritical at 0.00175,
0.0158 than9.199 x 10-4 and1.222 x 10-4 . Beside that, for x = 0.20, value of * in
experimental is larger than theoritical at 1.0308 than 6.329 x 10-4. After that, for and , the
value of theoritical is larger than experimental at 1.840 x 10-3, 2.443 x 10-4 than 0.0015 and
-0.0327. So, the differentiation for theoritical and experiment, causes paralax error or human
error when the the parameter. In this case overall parameter in experiment can be acceptable
whether the percentage error is high because the real action is in experimental, than value of
theoritical as a refererences to guide when run the experiment.

## 6) Effect of Stream Turbulence and Surface Disturbances on the Boundary Layer

To define effect of stream turbulance, we must refer the velocity profile measuremant at
the end on the plate. For the lower speed the velocity profiles can be indentify, it is in good
condition for laminar form. Beside that, to produce turbulent shape, it must higher for speed.
It can produce unsteady stream when maximum velocity for case transition. Other than that,
the laminar condition can be established and retained only if boundary layer is in an
undisturbed laminar condition at the started suction region. Once the laminar suction profile
has been established, it is able to sufficient to promote transition.

## 7) The Optimum Rate of Suction

In flat plate, in boundary layer flow at the laminar, the optimum rate of suction
would be zero. However, in general, the flow in the boundary layer will be at least
have turbulent part in the absence of suction to imperfections in the flatness of surface
or turbulence in the external air stream. The optimum rate of suction, to maintain
laminar flow must minimum rate. To define laminar or turbulence flow also refer the
Reynold number.

CONCLUTION:-

In conclution, we can conclude that we can see the pattern for graph y versus u/U
between smooth plate and rough plate is always increase. Beside that, from graph y versus
(u/U)(1-u/U) we also can analyze the parameter of (u/U)(1-u/U) is always decrease. From this
graph we can define the boundary layer of flat plat in laminar or turbulent flow. Moreover, by
using the graph that we plot, we also can make comparison , *, experiment with
theoritical. From the discussion, we know the experiment can achieved objective or not.
Lastly, based on the discussion, the objective totally succesfully achieved and the experiment
can be acceptable.

## REFERENCES:1) Cengel,Y.A.,& Cimbala,J.M. (2014). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and application

(3rd ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education.
2) Boundary Layer over of Flat,
http://essay.utwente.nl/63314/1/BSc_report_Peter_Puttkammer.pdf
3) Boundary- Layer Flow along a Flat Plate with Uniform Suction,
http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/arc/rm/2628.pdf
4) Boundary Layer, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boundary_layer
5) Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers, http://wwwmdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/fprops/introvisc/n
ode8.html