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1.

ABSTRACT

Machining is an important manufacturing process that is used in a wide range of


applications. From aerospace applications to the manufacturing of energy systems and
medical robots, we see a major reliance on machining. In this project we focus on gaining an
improved understanding of the mechanics of machining and the different factors that
contribute to part quality. We acquired primary machine shop skills that provided us an
opportunity to mill and drill a class of components to specified dimensions and tolerances.
For each component, we created a detailed engineering working drawing that helped to
shape and construct all the operations and procedures that must be undertaken and
controlled to attain component machining without any breakdown or failure. Through
hands-on machining, we discovered many different factors involved in milling, drilling, and
the effects they exhibited on the tolerance and surface finish of a part. The main relevant
factors that we examined were tool selection, speeds, feeds, and material selection. The
extent to which these factors can influence machining is presented.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

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ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 1

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TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................... 2

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LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................... 3

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TITLE ............................................................................................................................................ 4

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INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 4

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OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................. 6

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THEORY ....................................................................................................................................... 6

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APPARATUS ................................................................................................................................. 8

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PROCEDURE .............................................................................................................................. 11

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DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................... 13

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CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 14

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RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................................ 15

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REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 16

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 5 ................................................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 6: the finished product............................................................................................................... 12

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TITLE

CNC Milling (Non Traditional Machining)

5.0

INTRODUCTION

A non-traditional manufacturing process is defined as a group of processes that remove


accessed material by various technique based on different sources of energy. The cutting
source may in the form of mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical energy or
combinations of these energies without any direct contact of sharp cutting as in traditional
machining. Extremely hard and brittle materials are difficult to machine by traditional
machining process such as turning, drilling, shaping and milling. Non-traditional machining
processes are graphed in advanced manufacturing processes. It is employed when
traditional machining processes are not feasible and due to the certain satisfactory
justification to special reasons.
CNC Milling
CNC Milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining. During
CNC milling the computer translates the design into instruction on how the drill needs to
move to create shape. Milling itself is a machining process similar to both drilling and
cutting, and able to achieve many of the operations performed by cutting and drilling
machines. Like drilling, milling uses a rotating cylindrical cutting tools. However, the cutter
in the milling machine is able to move along multiple axes, and can create a variety of
shapes, slots and holes. In addition, the work-piece is often moved across the milling tools in
different directions, unlike the single axis motion of the drill.
CNC milling devices are the most widely used type of CNC machine. Typically, they are
grouped by the number of the axes on which they operate, which are labelled with various
letters. X and Y designate horizontal movement of the work-piece (forward-and-back and
side-to-side on a flat plane). Z represents vertical or up-and-down movement while W
represents diagonal movement across a vertical plane. Most machines offer from 3 to 5
axes, providing performance along at least X,Y and Z axes.

Advanced machines, such as 5-axis milling centres required CAM programming for optimal
performance due to the incredibly complex geometries involved in the machining process.
These devices are extremely useful because they are able to produce shapes that would be
nearly impossible using manual tooling methods. Most CNC milling machines also integrate
a device for pumping cutting fluid to the cutting tool during machining. Cutting fluids are
used in metal machining for variety of reasons such as improving tools life, reducing work
piece thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the
cutting zone
G-CODE
CODE

FUNCTION

G00

Rapid transverse

G01

Linear interpolation

G02

Circular interpolation (clockwise)

G03

Circular interpolation (counterclockwise)

G81

Drilling cycle

G90

Absolute positioning

M-CODE
CODE

FUNCTION

M00

Program stop

M01

Optional program stop

M02

Program end

M03

Spindle on clockwise

M04

Spindle on counterclockwise

M06

Tool change

M08

Coolant on

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OBJECTIVES

To design a basic NC program for CNC Milling

To machine a product using the CNC Milling

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THEORY

Characteristic of CNC Milling Machine Tool Work part machining on CNC machine tools
require controllable and adjustable in feed axes which are runs by servo motors
independent of each other. CNC milling machine on the other hand have at least 3
controllable or adjustable feed axes marked as X,Y and Z.

Figure 1

Controllable NC axes on a Milling Machine

Machine Coordinate System

The machine coordinate system of CNC machine tools is defined by the


manufacturer and cannot be changed.

The point of origin for this machine coordinate system also called machine zero
point, M cannot be shifted in its location.

Work Part Coordinate System


The work part coordinate system is defined by the programmer and can be changed. The
location of the point of origin for the work part coordinate system, also called work part
zero point W, can be specified as desired. The design of CNC machine specifies the definition
of the respective coordinate system. Correspondingly, the Z axis is specified as the working
spindle (tool carrier) in CNC milling machines whereby the positive Z directions run from
the work part upwards to the tools. The X axis and the Y axis are usually parallel to the
clamping plane of the work part. When standing in front of the machine, the positive X
direction runs to the right and the Y axis runs away from the viewer. The zero point of the
coordinate system is recommended to be placed on the outer edge of the work part.

Structure of an NC-Block
Unlike the conventional milling machine , a modern machine tool will be equipped with a
numerical control system. The machining of a work part can be executed automatically,
provided that each machining cycle has been described in a language (code) which can be
read by the control system. The total of coded descriptions relating to work part is called
NC-programs.

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APPARATUS

APPARATUS

3
1

Figure 2

4
5

Figure 3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CNC centroid milling machine


Workpiece
Machine control unit (MCU)
Spanner
Coolant (oil)

INDUSTRIAL APPARATUS
1) CNC Bed Type Ram Milling Machine
Table Size

690 x 1590 mm

X axis travel

1600/2500/3000
mm

Y axis Travel

900/1250 mm

Z axis Travel

400/600 mm

Max. capacity of load


2000 kgs.
on table

Figure 4

Spindle speed

4-2000 rpm

Spindle type

BT-50

Feed

0-5000 mm/min.

Rapid

5000 mm/min.

Spindle Power

7.5 KW

The CNC Bed Type Ram milling machine is built in with the center ram and bed type
where it have high rigidity, beautiful configuration and easy to operate.
It is also contain with 5 axis which contains of two swivel axis of universal head
automatic swivel, C axis (horizontal axis) automatic indexing and 45 degree of the
milling head automatic location for vertical axis and horizontal milling to exchange
automatically.

Advantages
Capable of processing complex cutting tool
Unparallel structural stiffness
Very high precision when machining large
component
Very high material removal capacity for wide
range of metal material from cast iron to
steel alloys

Disadvantages
High cost
Less worker use can lead to the
unemployment
Can be operate by inexperience worker and
it will lead to loses in old skill of operating
the machine
The professional skilled worker will continue
less in a year which lead to the loss of
engineering skill

2) CNC Lathe Machine-GENOS-I1300 type


Advantages

Disadvantages

Multifunction lathe
machine

High cost due to high


machining tool and
equipment

Provide the stability,


rigidity and accuracy for
variety application

Not suitable for cutting


large scale product

Affordable and versatility

Take a longer time due to


the quality of the product
produced

Figure 5

Specification

Max Turning Diameter

mm (in)

Spindle Nose Type

300 ( 11.81)
JIS A2-8 [A2-6]

Speed Range

min

25~3,000 [4,500]

Power 30 min

kW (hp)

15 (20)

Power cont.

kW (hp)

11 (15)

Rapid Traverse

m (in)/min

20/25 (787/984)

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PROCEDURE

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1) The design of the product was created using a 3D software , CATIA and we are
assigned to create a steering model.
NC PROGRAMMING
1) The NC programming to be used in the CNC milling machine was generated using
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) feature in CATIA software.
2) The rough stock of the design was configured. The length of x, y and z was set
according to the longest length in 3D design which was 60mm, 60mm and 18mm
respectively.
3) The datum of the rough stock was configured to beat one of the top corner of the
rough stock.
4) The part operation was configured. The axis, part and its rough stock was selected.
5) The safety plane of the process was configured to be 6mm above the highest point
of z-axis of the design block.
6) The machining process simulation was configured. The process was divided into two
processes, roughing and finishing. The approach speed,machining speed, retract
speed and spindle spin was configured to be 3000, 1000 and 3000 respectively
7) The quality of the process was set to be rough.
8) Other setting such as offset, tolerance, axial and tool pathing style were configured
accordingly.
9) The simulation of the process was generated.
10) Steps 6 to 9 were repeated for finishing process where step 7 was replaced with
finish quality.
11) The estimated process time was generated by the software. The time was about 30
minutes.
12) The NC code was generated using the CATIA software. The format of the code
fannc0 which are required by the faculty laboratorys CNC milling machine.
13) The produced code, with 1424 lines of command was saved.

CNC MILLING PROCESS

1) The NC code was transferred and loaded into CNC milling machine.
2) The materials datum was configured manually.
3) The clamping that hold material was checked not to be in the tools retract path.
4) The necessary setting such as the tool type was configured.
5) The machine runs a simulation of the process.
6) The milling process was started after all the precautions have been taken.
7) The chip from material was removed constantly.
8) The finished material was cleaned from any chips.
9) The finished product was examined, the quality and dimension of the product was
studied.

Figure 6: the finished product

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DISCUSSION

Based on the result obtain, the work piece is produce from the milling process. What is
milling? Milling is the machining process using rotary cutter to removed material. It is one of
the most operation process used in industry to make a product. There a few type of milling,
and one of the type used in the experiment is Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling.
Numerical Control (NC) is the automation of machine tool. So, CNC machine is used to
program coded under computer to the machine tool to operate the system and the
machine. CNC milling can also perform the function of drilling and turning. It is used to move
according to the axes that its possess which x, y and z axis.
Today, CNC system is highly automated using Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer
Aided Manufacturing (CAM) program. For this experiment CAM program method is used. To
operate the machine, the computer file is produced and interpreted to extract the
command needed. After that, the program is installed into CNC machine for production. The
coding was done because the NC machine cannot read the design directly. The machine will
run according to the coding that has been inserting. The duration of the product based on
the number of the coding inserting. For about 1424 lines coding was inserted in the
programming to make the product in this experiment. About approximately 30 minutes for
the CNC milling machine to complete finish the product that has been design by CATIA
software.
CATIA is a software that used to design products in computer files before installed into CNC
machine .CATIA also can eliminate the human error when design product.
There are lots of advantages of using CNC machine. One of the advantage is higher precision
because machine tool capable to machine at very close tolerance, as small as 0.005 mm. It is
also can machining the complex three dimensional shapes. For example, variety of design
such as the steering car and rim of the car and motorcycle can be made using CNC machine.
The experiment results show that the three complex dimensional shapes are proven can be
produced. Besides, it has better quality because it can maintain constant working condition
for all parts. From the experiment product obtain, we can say that the surface product is
smooth. This is because there are two kind of process occur, roughing and finishing.

Roughing is the process where the work piece is shaping for the first layer. In this case, the
surface of work piece is still rough. It is like sketching in the drawing. After that, finishing
process takes place. This is when the final product has been touch up in order to make
smoother surface.
This experiment occurred when the cutter in dry condition. There are no cooling agents to
cool the work piece and tool. However, the oil is added to the work piece as cooling fluid to
make the milling process run smoother without distraction of the work piece flash. The flash
is stick to the oil thats why the machine is easy to drill the work piece. The work piece also
has to be holding tightly enough from moving during process occur to prevent any
defection.
There are lots of products has been produce from CNC milling machine in industry. The
product requirement produces in varies industries such as electronic, instrumentation,
medical, microwave, optical and many more.

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CONCLUSION

Regarding to the experiment on using CNC machine to produce a steering wheel using the
prospect material, the product that was produced look a little rough on its surface. Thus,
due to the several factor on the beginning of the designing of the product. The process of
designing the steering start by using CATIA software design to design the initial picture of
the steering that need to be fabricate.
Next, the analysis and the visualization of the product that will be cut were done by the
software. The cutting layer of the product was set up to two types; rouging and finishing. To
get the better surface roughness there are two or three more setting that can be applied
from the software but it will consume a lot of time to produce a fine product with smooth
surface finish. The required time need to finish the product was 30 minutes. Before the
design was transferred to the machine it will be converted to a general coding of the CNC
machine. This process of converted the coding was run automatically by the CAM software.
So, that is one of the different between EDM wire cut and this CNC machine where EDM
wire cut machine, the coding was done manually by the user.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

1. When configuring the size of the livestock, make sure include extra length for
clamping purpose.
2. When selecting tool, make sure to check the smallest gap or edge in the design.
3. The speed, tool tip type, offset distance and tool pathing style can affect the quality
of the product. Trying other configuration could help students to determine the best
configuration.
4. Student must carefully observe the tools retract path in the simulation and make
sure the clamp are not the path.
5. The chips produced during milling process should be constantly removed to avoid
surface damage.

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REFERENCES

1. Woodbury, Robert S. (1972)[1960], History of the Milling Machine. In Studies in the


History of Machine Tools, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA, and London, Egland: MIT
Press, ISBN 978-0-262-73033-4, LCCN 72006354. First published alone as monograph
in 1960.
2. Smid, Peter (2008), CNC Programming Handbook (3rd ed.), New York : Industrial
Press, ISBN 9780831133474, LCCN 2007045901.
3. Mikell P. Groover, Automation, Production Systems and Computer Integrated
Manufacturing, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2001.
4. Mikell P. Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing, 5th edition, p.p 480-490,
Wiley, 2011.
5. Mikell P. Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing, 5th edition, p.p 876-889,
Wiley, 2011.
6. P. N. Rao, CAD/CAM Principles and Applications, 2nd edition, Mc Graw Hill, 2004.
7. Serope Kalpakjian, W. R. Schmid, Manufacturing Technology and Fundamental,8th
edition , Prentice Hall, 2011.