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Chapter 3 KBAT

Key Issue 2
Which three measures
do geographers use
to study population

Geographers use Crude birth rate (CBR), Crude death rate (CDR), and Natural
Increase rate (NIR).
CBR is the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society.
CDR is the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
NIR is the percentage by which a population grows in a year.

Is a small change in
the NIR important?

Even if the NIR changed by 0.2%, the doubling time would change. The doubling time
is the number of years needed to double a population. For NIR to be 2.2%, the
doubling time would be 35 years.

Why is most of the

worlds population
growth in LDCs?

Parents usually have more babies in LDCs to help them with farming and chores and
because sometime not all will live to adulthood.

Does TFR vary in

different parts of the

Total fertility rate (TFR) are used by geographers to measure the number of births in a
society. According to Figure 2-11 on page 55 of our textbook, the Fertility rate of 4.0
and above are mostly in Africa. The Fertility rate of 3.0 3.9 is mostly located in Asia
and South America.

Is the IMR pattern

similar to others?

The Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year
of age, compared with total live births. The pattern of IMR is most similar to CBR and

Why does the IMR

reflect a countrys
health care system?

Lower IMRs are found in countries with well-trained doctors and nurses, modern
hospitals, and large supplies of medicine.
Ex Western Europe

How does life

expectancy follow
the same trend?

It is the most favorable in the wealthy countries of western Europe and at least
favorable in the pour countries of sub Saharan Africa.

Chapter 3 KBAT
Key Issue 3
Why does every
country go through
the demographic
transition at different

Depending on the amount of food that a country gets and how it gets it. (hunting +
gathering -> agricultural revolution time when we first domesticated plants and
animals) Sometimes even with agricultural revolution, food supplies are unpredictable
(climate, diseases, etc.)

Why does stage one

last for a very long

Even with the agricultural revolution, climate, or disease may affect the amount of
food gotten thus affecting the population number

Why are CBR and

CDR levels both high?

In stage 1, they are about even so the NIR remained near zero. Many babies were
born without medicine, many people died so the CDR was also high.

Why did the world

population start rising
around 1750?

Some countries entered stage 2 of the demographic transition after 1750 as a result of
the industrial revolution. It led to wealth, which made the communities healthier
places to live.

When does Stage 2


When CDRs decline but CBRs are the same. The industrial Revolution and Medical
Revolution caused this.

When did countries

enter Stage 2?

During the Industrial Revolution 1705.

How did countries in

Europe enter stage 2
before countries in

The European countries started their stage 2 during the Industrial Revolution. African
countries started their stage 2 during the Medical Revolution.

When does stage 3


When CBR begins to fall thus causing NIR to fall

Why does the

population continue
to grow?

The CDR gets even lower. The CBR decreases throughout this level. The NIR is still high.

Why do societies
enter stage 3?

Changes in social customs, (less children) economic changes (city life -> less kids),
children cant do chores.

Why is stage 4 also

called ZPG?

ZPG = Zero Population Growth

NIR = 0

What is also involved

in the switch to stage

Social Customs
Women enter the labor force
Changes in lifestyle leading to wanting small families

What other level may

some people

Fifth Stage
Higher CDRs than CBRs and an irreversible population decline.

Chapter 3 KBAT
Key Issue 4
Who believed that the
worlds population was
growing more rapidly than
food production?

Thomas Malthus thought this. Population grows exponentially whereas

resources grow steadily and arithmetically.

Where did he come to his


In England, several years after they became the first country to enter stage 2.

What 2 modern
characteristics are making his
theory worse?


Some countries have an even more rapid population growth than

England when it was in Stage 2. Subsequently, the gap between
population growth and resources is even wider.
Population growth is also outstripping resources many geographers
consider his theories to be unrealistic?

In reality, why havent

Malthuss theories worked?

Food Production has increased more rapidly than Malthus expected. It is not
exactly arithmetical.

Why do many geographers

consider his theories to be

POSSIBILISM our wellbeing is influenced by how the physical env is. But, we
can act to expand the food supply and resources. Technology can make
some resources give us a longer and better outcome.

What are the characteristics

of the 5 epidemiological


Diseases, animal attaches, famine

Stage of receding pandemics better sanitation, medicine, and
Degeneration, human diseases (polio)
Delayed degenerative diseases life expectancy extended
Reemergence of infectious diseases -> higher CDRs

Chapter 3 KBAT
Key Issue 1
Why do people migrate?

Most people migrate for economic reasons (jobs)
Cultural and environment factors also induce migration (not as much through)
Political instability (refugees)

What are the 3 kinds of


Economic jobs
Cultural not accepted
Environmental water problems

What factors are the most


People have captured Africans in the past
Political Instability
When you have a government that takes away your human rights

What can operate as pull


Politics People may be attracted to democratic countries that encourage

individual jobs choices

What types of places are

people pulled and pushed

People are pulled to nice places (mts., seaside, and warm climates) and
pushed from bad ones (too little/much water).

Why were intervening

obstacles environmental?

Before people couldnt move because of oceans and bodies of water. Now
people cant move because of visas and passports.

Why are intervening

obstacles caused?

(Look above)
Visas and Passports

What are the 2 main points

about migration distance?

Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain with the same country
Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of
economic activity.

How does this relate to

distance decay?

Distance decay is related because the farther away a place is located, the
less likely that people will migrate to it.

What are the 2 types of

internal migration?

Interregional migration: movement from 1 region to another

Intraregional migration: movement within one region

Which is most common?

Intraregional: Its easier to move inside your own region.

What 2 points is international

migration divided into?

Voluntary Migration: migrant CHOSEN to move for economic improvement

Forced migration: migrant COMPELLED to move by cultural factors.

What causes forced

migration? Which causes

Forced Cultural factors

Voluntary Economic push and pull factors

Which type of people

migrate more?

Usually, middle-aged working men come to work. Before, there was less of a
chance for a woman to get a job, but now that has changed. More women
come bringing along children

Chapter 3 KBAT
Key Issue 2
What are the main regions
for the net out and net in

Out: Asia, Latin America and Africa

In: North America, Europe, Oceania

What are the 3 largest

flaws of migration?

Asia -> Europe

Asia -> North America
Latin America -> North America

Where does the biggest

majority of the foreign born
resident live? Why?

United. 40 million in 2010

There is a higher percentage in some other countries, but they have a smaller

What are the 3 peaks of US


** Initial Settlement of colonies

** Mid 19th century and culminated early 20 century European
** Begins in 1970s and continues
California. They have many illegal aliens from Mexico.

What is the main

destination of immigrants
within the US?

Chapter 3 KBAT
Key Issue 3
How do Quota laws act as
obstacles to migrants?

You can only come if you have family here, if you are a killed worker or you
get into the lottery. Its very hard to come to the US.

Time contracts for workers?

They only get to stay a limited time, then are sent back to their countries.

Economic opportunity vs.

refugee push factors?

Some people say they are refuges, but just want to get out of their country.
On the other hand, a person may really be a refugee, but they still be sent
** Different language
** Barely any money for food, housing or entertainment
** Very lonely
** Host countrys people dislike migrants

Host countrys attitude?