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3/04/2014

Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences

BEH1011 Clinical concepts in Paramedic


Practice 1
THEME: Patient Assessment Medical
Terminology & Common Ambulance
Abbreviations

Medical Terminology and


Common Ambulance
Terms

Theme

Medical Terminology

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Medical Terminology: Word Root

Language that accurately describes the body, its


associated components, conditions, processes.

The word root is the word part that is the core of the
word.

Studying medical terminology is very similar to learning


a new language

The word root contains the fundamental meaning of


the word

Most medical terms are built from word parts that


consist of some or all of the following components:

Since the word root is the core of the word, each


medical term contains one or more word roots.

Prefix at the beginning of the word not always


Root word may contain more than one
Combining Vowel usually o
Suffix at the end of the word

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Medical Terminology: Root Word

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Medical Terminology: Root Word

Play / er

Root / Stem

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Arthr / itis

Root / Stem

Suffix

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Suffix

Theme

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Medical Terminology: Suffix

Medical Terminology: Suffix

The suffix is a word part attached to the end of the


word root to modify its meaning.

Play / er

The suffix frequently indicates a procedure, condition,


or disease such as
scopy, meaning visual examination
tomy, meaning surgical incision

(procedure)

Root / Stem

(procedure)

-itis, meaning inflammation

(condition)

-oma, meaning tumor

(disease)

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Medical Terminology: Suffix

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Patient Assessment
Week 01

10

Medical Terminology: Suffix

Hepat / ic

Root / Stem

Suffix

Hepat / itis

Root / Stem

Suffix

ic = pertaining to

Suffix

itis = inflammation of

Hepat = word root for liver

Hepat = word root for liver


Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Medical Terminology: Prefix

Theme

Medical Terminology: Prefix

The prefix is a word part attached to the beginning of


a word root to modify its meaning.

Re / Play

Although a prefix can be used to modify the meaning


of a word, many medical terms do not have a prefix.
Prefixes can indicate;

Prefix

A number such as bi-, meaning two.

Word root

A position, such as sub-, meaning under.


A direction, such as intra-, meaning within.
Time, such as brady-, meaning slow
Negation, such as a-, meaning without
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

11

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

12

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Medical Terminology: Prefix

Medical Terminology: Combining Vowel


The combining vowel is a word part, usually an o,
used to ease pronunciation.

Sub / Hepat / ic

The combining vowel is:


Used to connect two word roots.
Used to connect a word root and a suffix.
Not used to connect a prefix and a word root.

Prefix
Root / Stem

Suffix

Sub = under
Hepatic = pertaining to liver
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

13

Medical Terminology

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

14

Medical Terminology

Haematology

Electrocardiogram

Electricity

Blood

Study of
Heart

Combining Vowel

Record
Combining Vowel

= Study of Blood

= Recording of the electricity of the heart


Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

15

Medical Terminology

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

16

Medical Terminology: Guidelines for


using Combining Vowel

Gastroenteritis

Inflammation.

Guideline #1: When connecting a word root and a


suffix, a combining vowel IS USED if the suffix DOES NOT
begin with a vowel.

Stomach
Guideline #1 Example

Intestine
Combining Vowel

In the medical term arthr/o/pathy the suffix


pathy does not begin with a vowel; therefore a
combining vowel is used.

= Inflammation of the Stomach and Intestine


Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

17

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

18

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Medical Terminology: Guidelines for


using Combining Vowel

Medical Terminology: Guidelines for


using Combining Vowel

Guideline #2: When connecting a word root and a


suffix, a combining vowel is USUALLY NOT USED if the
suffix DOES BEGIN with a vowel.

Guideline #3: When connecting two word roots, a


combining vowel is usually used even if vowels are
present at the junction.

Guideline #2 Example:

Guideline #3 Example:

In the medical term hepat/ic, the suffix -ic begins


with the vowel i; therefore a combining vowel is
not used.
Else it will become hepat / o / ic = hepatoic which
is incorrect
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

In the medical term oste/o/arthr/itis o is the


combining vowel used, even though the word
root oste (which means bone) ends with the
vowel e, and the word root arthr begins with the
vowel a.

19

Medical Terminology: Guidelines for


using Combining Vowel

Theme

Guideline #4 Example:
In the medical term sub/hepat/ic, the combining
vowel is not used between the prefix sub- and the
word root hepat.

cephal/o
encephal/o
ophthalm/o, optic/o
ot/o
rhin/o
or/o
cervic/o

Rhinoplasty Repair to nose


Encephalitis Inflammation of the Brain
21

Theme

Anatomy and Physiology - Prefixes

Head
Brain
Eye
Ear
Nose
Mouth
Neck

Examples

*The combining vowel is used to ease pronunciation;


therefore not all medical terms have them.
Patient Assessment
Week 01

20

Anatomy and Physiology - Prefixes

Guideline #4: When connecting a prefix and a word


root, a combining vowel is not used.

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Patient Assessment
Week 01

22

Anatomy and Physiology - Prefixes

Heart
cardi/o
Skin
derm/o
Stomach
gastr/o
Blood
haem/o
Kidney
nephr/o
Kidney
ren/o
Nerve
neur/o
Bone
oste/o
Examples
Cardiomegaly Enlarged Heart
Osteopathy Bone Disease

Intestine
Chest
Abdomen
Fat
Groin
Mind
Clot
Flesh
Examples

enter/o
thorac/o
abdomin/o
adip/o
inguin/o
psych/o
thromb/o
sarc/o

Thoracic Pertaining to the chest


Thrombocyte Blood clotting cell
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

23

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

24

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Anatomy and Physiology - Prefixes

Vein
Trachea
Vertebrae
Navel
Spine
Joint
Artery
Examples

Anatomy and Physiology - Prefixes

phleb/o
trache/o
vertebr/o
umbilic/o
spin/o
arthr/o
ather/o, arteri/o

Theme

Dactylomegaly enlarged fingers or toes


Intercostal between the ribs

Patient Assessment
Week 01

25

Patient Assessment
Week 01

26

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

28

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

30

Theme

Anatomy and Physiology - Suffixes


Pertaining to
Pain
Excision, removal
Incision
Blood condition
Record
Inflammation

dactyl/o
cost/o
gloss/o
bronch/o

Examples

Tracheostomy incision into the trachea


Arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries

Fingers, toes
Rib
Tongue
Airway, bronchial

Anatomy and Physiology - Suffixes

-ac, -al, -ic, -ical


-algia
-ectomy
-tomy
-aemia
-gram
-itis

Specialist
Study of
Tumour, mass
Abnormal condition

-ist
-logy
-oma
-osis

Examples
Psychology Study of the mind
Haematoma a mass of blood bruise

Examples
Spinal pertaining to the spine
Anaemia blood condition where there is lack of
red blood cells.
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

27

General - Prefixes

No, Not, Without


Self
Within
Outside of, out
Excessive, above
Deficient, below
Surrounding
Blue Colour
Examples

General - Prefixes

a-, anautoendoexohyperhypopericyan/o

Bad, painful
Within
Between
Below
Back, again
Behind
Below, under

dysintrainterinfrareretrosub-

Examples

Endotracheal Within a trachea


Pericardium Surrounding the heart

Dyspnea painful breathing


Intravenous within the vein
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

29

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General - Prefixes

Across, through
Extremities
Sharp, sudden
Death
Birth
Fast
Slow
Bad
Normal
Examples

General - Suffixes

transacroacumort/o
nati/o
tachybradymaleu-

-megaly
-rhythm
-malacia
-sclerosis
-penia
-phobia
-lysis

Examples
Dysrrthmia bad rhythm
Osteomalacia softening of the bones

Transurethral through the urethra


Tachycardia fast heart beat
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

31

General - Suffixes

Enlarged
Rhythm
Softening
Hardening
Deficiency
Fear
Destruction

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

32

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

34

Word Building Exercise

Development
-plasia
Speech
-phasia
Surgical repair
-plasty
Drooping, sagging
-ptosis
Narrowing
-stenosis
Breathing
-pnea
Flow, discharge
-rrhea
Involuntary contraction-spasm
Examples

1. Slow heart beat


2. Excessive vomiting
3. Bone deficiency
4. Study of blood
5. Inflammation of the epiglottis
6. Scant Urine
7. High blood pressure
8. Low blood pressure
9. Space between the ribs
10. Breathing excessively
11. Removal of appendix
12. Excess carbon dioxide
13. Someone who specialises in the heart
14. Pertaining to low oxygen levels
15. Surgical removal of breast

Dysphasia difficulty in speech


Eupnoea Normal breathing
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

33

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Documentation on the ambulance patient care


record (ePCR) will often utilise a number of medical
abbreviations.
As paramedics, you will need to be familiar with these.
This lecture will introduce you to some of the more
frequently used abbreviations.

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

#
Pt
Hx
Rx
PHx
56
83
, Dx
R
L

Female
Male
Fracture
Patient
History
Treatment
Previous History
Police
Pt Deceased
Diagnosis
Right
Left

1/7
1/52
1/12
1/24
1/60

C/O
DOA
ED
A&E
?

1 day
1 week
1 month
1 hour
1 minute
Psych Pt
Complaining of.
Dead on arrival
Emergency Dept
Accident & Emerg
Query

A 25yo Pt feel over 3/24 ago


and C/O L) arm pain.
? # L)arm

35

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

36

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Common Ambulance Abbreviations

BP
HR
P
RR
AAA
APO
APPV
AMI
A/E
AFib
ALS BLS BSL
CA
CAD
CCF
COAD

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Blood Pressure
Heart Rate
Pulse
Respiratory Rate
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Acute Pulmonary Oedema
Assisted Positive Pressure Ventilation
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Air Entry
Atrial Fibrillation
Advanced Life Support
Basic Life Support
Blood Sugar Level
Cancer
Coronary Artery Disease
Congestive Cardiac Failure
Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

EAR
ECT
ECC
ETA
ETD
ECG
EMD
ENT
ETT
ETOH
E/R
ETT
ECG
FTB
F/I
GCS

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

ICU
IVDU
IDDM
LOC
LAC
LBBB
LMA
LVF
MRSA
MANEMx
Med
MICA
MBA
MCA
MVA
MOI

General Practitioner
Glyceryl Trinitrate
Head Injury
Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
Hypertension
Hypotension
History
Hematemesis & Malaena
Indwelling Catheter
Injury Severity Score
Intravenous
Intramuscular
Inter Hospital Transfer
Ischaemic Heart Disease
Intraosseous
Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation
Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

38

Patient Assessment
Week 01

40

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Intensive Care Unit


Intravenous Drug Use
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Loss of Consciousness
Laceration
Left Bundle Branch Block
Laryngeal Mask Airway
Left Ventricular Failure
Multi Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
in the morning
Medication
Medication
Mobile Intensive Care Ambulance Unit
Motorbike Accident
Motor Car Accident
Motor Vehicle Accident
Mechanism of Injury
Theme

GP
GTN
HI
HIV
HT
hT
Hx
H&M
IDC
ISS
IV
IM
IHT
IHD
IO
IPPV

39

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Patient Assessment
Week 01

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Expired Air Resuscitation


Electro Convulsive Therapy
External Cardiac Compressions
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time of Departure
Electrocardiograph
Electromechanical dissociation
Ear, Nose Throat
Endotracheal Tube
Ethanol
En Route
Endotracheal tube
Electrocardiogram
Floor to Bed
For investigation
Glasgow Coma Scale
Theme

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


Cerebro-Spinal Fluid
Chest Pain
Central Chest Pain
Coronary Care Unit
Continuous Positive Airways Pressure
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CAGS)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Do Not Resuscitate
Diarrhoea and Vomiting
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Direct Current Counter Shock

37

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

COPD
CSF
CP
CCP
CCU
CPAP
CPR
CVA
CABG
DKA
DNR
D &V
DVT
DCCS

41

NPA
NKA
NSR
NPT
NFR
NIDDM
NOCTE
NAD
NOD
NOF
O2
OD
O/A
O/E
O/S

Nasopharyngeal Airway
No Known Allergies
Normal Sinus Rhythm
No Patient Transport
Not For Resuscitation
Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
at night
No Abnormalities Detected
No Other Details
Neck of Femur
Oxygen
Overdose
On Arrival
On Examination
On Scene

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

42

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Common Ambulance Abbreviations

OPA
PEARL
PE
PEA
Ped
PIC
PTP
PR
PRN
PSA
PT
PV
RBG
Resp
RSI
SIDS

Common Ambulance Abbreviations

Oropharyngeal Airway
Pupils Equal and Reacting to Light
Pulmonary Embolus
Pulseless Electrical Activity
Pedestrian
Pain in Chest
Person, Time, Place
Per Rectum
Pro Re Nata/ as required
Perfusion Status Assessment
Patient
Per Vagina
Random Blood Glucose
Respiration
Rapid Sequence Induction
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

43

S/L
SPO2
STD
ST
ST
SOB
STI
SVT
TIA
TV
UA
URTI
UTI
VF
VT
VSS

Sub-Lingual

Oxygen Saturation

Sexually Transmitted Disease

ST Elevation

ST Depression
Shortness of Breath
Soft Tissue Injury
Supra Ventricular Tachycardia
Transient Ischaemic Attack
Tidal Volume
Unstable Angina
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection
Ventricular Fibrillation
Ventricular Tachycardia
Vital Signs Survey

g
mg
g
mcg

gram
milligram
microgram
microgram

Theme

Patient Assessment
Week 01

44