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KingZhouofShang
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

KingZhou(Chinese:pinyin:ZhuWng)wasthe
pejorativeposthumousnamegiventoDiXin(Chinese:
pinyin:DXn),thelastkingoftheShangdynasty
ofancientChina.[1]HeisalsocalledZhouXin(
ZhuXn).Hemayalsobereferredtobyadding"Shang"
(Shng)infrontofanyofhisnames.InChinese,
alsoreferstoahorsecrupper,[2]thepartofasaddleor
harnessthatismostlikelytobesoiledbythehorse.

Contents

KingZhou

Left:WenZhongandBiGanright:ZhouandDaji
KingofShangdynasty

1Earlyreign
2Latereign

Reign

10751046BC(29years)

3Fall

Predecessor

DiYi

4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend

Spouse

ConsortDaji

5AsGodofSodomy

Issue

WuGeng

6Notes
7References

Earlyreign

Fullname
Familyname:Zi()
Givenname:Shou()orShoude()
Posthumousname
DiXin()
Father

DiYi

IntheRecordsoftheGrandHistorian,SimaQianwrote
Born
1105BC
thatDiXin,intheearlypartofhisreign,hadabilities
whichsurpassedthoseoftheordinaryman,andwas
Died
1046BC(aged59)
quickwittedandquicktempered.Accordingtolegend,
hewasintelligentenoughtowinallofhisarguments,
andhewasstrongenoughtohuntwildbeastswithhisbarehands.[3]HewastheyoungerbrotherofWeiZi
andWeiZhong[4]andfatherofWuGeng.HisfatherDiYihadtwobrothers,JiZiandBiGan.DiXin
addedtotheterritoryofShangbybattlingthetribessurroundingit,includingtheDongyitotheeast.

Latereign
Inhislateryears,DiXingavehimselfovertodrinking,women,sexandabandonedmorals,preferringthese
tothepropergovernanceofthecountry,andignoredalmostallaffairsofstate.AccordingtoSimaQian,he
evenhostedfestiveorgieswheremanypeopleengagedinsexatthesametimewithhisconcubinesand
createdsongswithcrude(erotic)lyricsandpoorrhythm.Inlegends,heisdepictedashavingcomeunder
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theinfluenceofhiswickedwifeDaji,andcommittingallmannerofevilandcrueldeedswithher.In
fictionalizations,includingthenovelFengshenYanyi,shewassaidtobepossessedbyamalevolentfox
spirit.
OneofthemostfamousformsofentertainmentZhouenjoyedwasthe"WinePoolandMeatForest"(
).Alargepool,bigenoughforseveralcanoes,wasconstructedonthePalacegrounds,withinner
liningsofpolishedovalshapedstonesfromtheseashores.Thisallowedfortheentirepooltobefilledwith
alcohol.Asmallislandwasconstructedinthemiddleofthepool,wheretreeswereplanted,whichhad
branchesmadeofroastedmeatskewershangingoverthepool.ThisallowedZhouandhisfriendsand
concubinestodriftoncanoesinthepool.Whentheythirsted,theyreacheddownintothepoolwiththeir
handsanddrankthewine.Whentheyhungered,theyreachedupwiththeirhandstoeattheroastedmeat.
ThiswasconsideredoneofthemostfamousexamplesofdecadenceandcorruptionofarulerinChinese
history.
InordertopleaseDaji,hecreatedthe"CannonBurningPunishment"().Onelargehollowbronze
cylinderwasstuffedwithburningcharcoalandallowedtoburnuntilredhot,thenprisonersweremadeto
literallyhugthecylinder,whichresultedinapainfulandunsightlydeath.
ZhouandDajiwereknowntogethighlyarousedafterwatchingsuchtorture.Victimsrangedfromordinary
peopleandprisonerstohighgovernmentofficials,suchasMeiBo.[5]
InordertofundZhou'sheavydailyexpenses,extremelyheavytaxeswereimplemented.Thepeople
sufferedgreatly,andlostallhopefortheShangdynasty.Zhou'sbrotherWeiZitriedtopersuadehimto
change,butwasrebuked.HisuncleBiGansimilarlyremonstratedwithhim,butDiXinhadhisheart
rippedoutsohecouldseewhattheheartofasagelookedlike.WhenhisotheruncleJiZiheardthis,he
wenttoremonstratewiththekinglynephewand,feigningmadness,wasimprisoned.

Fall
WhenZhoudynasty'sarmy,ledbythefamousJiangZiya,defeatedtheShangdynastyattheBattleofMuye
in1046BC,DiXingatheredallhistreasuresaroundhimselfinthePalace,andthensetfiretohispalace
andcommittedsuicide.
Thename"Zhou"actuallyappearedafterthedeathofKingZhou,aposthumousname(althoughperhaps
usedfurtivelybyhiscontemporaries).Thisnamewasarepresentationofhisactions,bothdishonorableand
coldhearted.KingZhouwouldgodowninhistoryasoneoftheworstexamplesofacorruptedkingin
China.

Mentionsinliteratureandlegend
ZhouismentionedintheConfucianAnalects(19"")[6]andalsointheThreeCharacterClassic.[7]
ZhouisalsooneofthemainsubjectsofFengshenYanyianditsvariousderivationsinpopularmedia.Thus,
DiXin,alsoknownasZhou,hasservedasa(negative)exemplarofConfucianprinciples(presentedasthe
wickedrulerwhojustifiesregimechangeaccordingtotheMandateofHeaven),aswellasbecomingan
iconofpopularculture.Thismakesforabiographicallyinterestingfigure,butonechallengingaclear
distinctionbetweenhistory,legend,andphilosophicalpointmaking.
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InFengshenYanyi,ZhouvisitedtheGoddessNwa'stempleandoffendedtheGoddesswithhislustful
commentstowardsherbeauty.Inresponse,NwadecidedthattheShangdynastyshouldendandsenther
threesubordinatestobecomethreebeautifulwomen(includingDaji)tobewitchZhou.Undertheinfluence
ofthesewomen,Zhoubecomesaruthlessking,losingthesupportofpeopleandtriggeringhisdownfall.

AsGodofSodomy
Accordingtofolklore,afterhisdeath,KingZhoubeggedthegodsandgoddessesformercy.Thegods
decidetodeifyhim,butsincetherewasnothingsuitable,theycreatedapostspeciallyforhim:Godof
Sodomy.[8]AtemplewasbuiltforhiminWeihui,Henan.[9]

Notes
1. ^Wu,220.
2. ^U+7D02(http://www.unicode.org/cgibin/GetUnihanData.pl?codepoint=7D02)
3. ^Wu,220221,referencingSimaQian'sYinBenjichapter().
4. ^LshiChunqiu()
5. ^See,forexample,QuYuan,TianWen()."".
6. ^http://ctext.org/analects/zizhang#n1593
7. ^http://ctext.org/threecharacterclassic#n90610
8. ^BrianGriffith(18October2013).AGalaxyofImmortalWomen:TheYinSideofChineseCivilization
(http://books.google.com/books?id=JrNc4pjoQcC&pg=PA143).ExterminatingAngelPress.p.143.ISBN978
1935259152.
9. ^http://www.godchecker.com/pantheon/chinesemythology.php?deity=ZHOUWANG

References
Wu,K.C.(1982).TheChineseHeritage.NewYork:CrownPublishers.ISBN051754475X.
KingZhouofShang
Shangdynasty
Regnaltitles
Precededby
DiYi

KingofChina
1075BC1046
BC

Succeededby
WuofZhou

Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_Zhou_of_Shang&oldid=626963654"
Categories: Shangdynastykings Chineseroyaltywhocommittedsuicide Suicidesbyselfimmolation
1046BCdeaths FengshenYanyicharacters

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