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3G Cellular Systems

3G systems are planned with objective of integration of all kinds of

wireless systems into universal mobile telecommunication system. Work is
continuing in European research consortium, RACE, and in ETSI towards
developing UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) on an
joint European basis. At the same time ITU is working globally towards
IMT-2000 (International Mobile Communication-2000) with mutual
agreements and information exchange.
One of the main objective of 3G systems is that they will gather existing
mobile services (cellular, cordless, paging etc.) into one single network.
The multiplicity of services and features of the system will make it possible
for the users to choose among multiple terminals and service provides.
Terminals will become smarter and will be able to support several radio
interface with the help of software radio technology. Among the objectives
that have been assigned to 3G system designers are : voice quality as
with fixed networks, satellite services for non covered areas, low terminal
and services costs, high bit rate mobile multi-media services (2 Mbps for
indoor and reduced mobility users, 384 Kbps for urban outdoor , and 144
Kbps for rural outdoor), multiple services per user (speech at 8 Kbps, data
at 2,4 or 6 x 64=384 Kbps, video at 384 Kbps and multimedia, security
and antifraud features against access to data by non-authorized people or
This Paper explains how the next generation of mobile (UMTS) can be
launched and then carries on to propose how the networks can be evolved
to deliver the voice and data application based upon IP technologies.
The architectural starting point
The allocation in the early 1990s of spectrum for third generation
mobile really spurred on the technology solutions to deliver higher bit rate
communications in the mobile arena which had been restricted to low-rate
voice and simple (<10 Kbit/s) circuit-switched data. A variety of drivers and
enabling technologies were tabled to provide the high-bandwidth network
capabilities to support the greater bandwidths expected from the
advanced third generation radio technologies. The protocol included the
use of B-ISDN based techniques with ATM, use of pure N-ISDN
technology from both wired and wireless network, along with
enhancements of the GSM architecture.
The issue of incorporating new radio technology has been a significant
one for operators who have had to migrate from first generation
(analogue) systems to second generation (digital) systems such as GSM.
The development of the W-CDMA and TDD radio technologies and their

associated radio access networks (RANs) would take a significant amount

of time and effort. This factor, combined with proposals to develop
completely new core networks and architectures would have severely
delayed the availability of third generation communications and
consequently a pragmatic approach to the core network architecture was
taken . The ensuing architecture grafted the new UTRAN aspects on to
the front end of an evolved GSM/GPRS phase 2 + core network,
comprising mobile switching centers (MSCs) and GPRS support nodes
(GSNs). This resulted in the concept architectures of Figure. This solution
enables operator who have GSM networks, and also suppliers who have
core network product lines offering GSM capability, to minimize the
technical changes from the contemporary GSM infrastructure. This
approach also re-applies the tried and tested GSM roaming, charging,
signaling and service mechanisms to UMTS.
The UMTS launch architecture
The detailed technical developments added to the GSM core network
architecture were predominantly to support the UTRAN aspects which,
within the 1999 Release of 3GPP standards (3GPP R99, also known as
3GPP R3) support the W-CDMA radio aspects .
The UTRAN elements
A completely new access network architectures was developed for the
revolutionary radio access mechanisms which took on board the high-speed
switching capabilities of ATM, the evolvable support for both W-CDMA and
TDMA, as well as delivering standard open interfaces.
The basic functional blocks of the UTRAN architectures are the node B
and the radio network controller (RNC). The node B can be said to be roughly
equipment to the GSM BTS in linking the antenna site to the network. The
node B functions include the radio and modulation/spreading aspects along
with channel coding( forward error correction) and some of the
combining/splitting functions for soft handover. It should be noted that soft
handover and micro-diversity is where multiple, differently located receivers
are added/removed and used to provide gain in the received signal. The
principal requirement with the node B is to minimize the cost/functionality as
the network could comprise a large number of node B nodes. The naming of
the node B is a result of compromise in the standard process.
The RNC is roughly equipment at a peer level to the GSM BSC,. It is
responsible for controlling the resources associated with a number of nodes B
and for negotiating with the core network for aspect such as bearers and
quality of service (QoS).

The RNCs and nodes B are connected to each other and to the core
network with three interfaces as shown in Figure. The Iu interfaces connects
each RNC to the core network (similar to the GSM BSS A and Gb interfaces
connecting the BSS to the core network) and is responsible for control of
handover/reselection, bearer control and negotiation. The Iub connects each
node B to its controlling RNC (a similar concept to the Abis interface in GSM)
and enables distribution of the radio network of RNCs (no GSM equipment)
and is predominantly used for mobility-specific radio reason which relate to
the soft handover and relocation processes.
The interfaces developed within and between the UTRAN and the
evolved GSM/GPRS core network use the ATM lower layers combined with
common higher level control protocols for both the circuit-switched(CS) and
packet-switched (PS) domains[3-4]. The common RANAP protocol provides
resource control and allocation, handover and bearer requirements, control,
and certain charging and control linkage between the UTRAN and core
Network Launch Configurations
Those network operators who already have GSM/GPRS networks have two
basic choices for the UMTS launch architecture- an integrated solutions or an
overlay solution (as shown in figure ). The integrated solution sees the
current GSM/GPRS core network aspect upgraded and reused with the same
switching (MSC) and routing (GSN) elements used for both GSM and UMTS
radio. The new UTRAN is connected to this network using the re-application
of common O&M systems, service-delivery mechanisms, switch sites, and
platforms; however, the capacity, performance and network growth impacts of
connecting relatively new and unproven W-CDMA access technology to a
live, service-providing network need careful assessment.
The overlay solution relies upon operators using a different (overlay)
network of switching (MSC) and routing (GSN) elements to support the UMTS
radio. The overlay solution enables a parallel independent development of the
UMTS access with lower risks to the live GSM/GPRS network. The 3G MSCs
need similar service delivery mechanisms to be developed (to enable users to
receive equipment services via 3G as well as 2G), as well as O&M and
site/platform capacity to support the new infrastructure. The benefits of the
overlay is that operators can roll out and develop theUMTS aspect of the
network in relative isolation from the live, revenue-earning 2G network. The
open Iu(UTRAN core networks) interface enable operators to try an alternate
supplier for 3G, or to source a single supplier, turnkey network.
Network requirement and influencing technologies

As operator start commercial service of UMTS based upon the launch

architecture they are also looking at the onward evolution paths and
opportunities open to them. Recent years have seen extensive change in the
fields of telecommunications. The www and internet protocols have made a
significant impact upon the world of user services, data availability and
network connectivity. The growth in usages of the internet via dial-up PSTN
access has been phenomenal and the higher speed access has been
phenomenal and the higher speed access available from technologies such
as ADSL, should boost wired connectivity and further expand the internet
bubble In parallel the mobile world has grown from a niche, high-cost, lowvolume market to a high-volume mass-market product with significant number
of users, ranging from simple pre-pay through to complex data and voice
corporate users. Initial moves towards the mobile data wave are indicate by
the growth in SMS usage, significant sales of WAP phones and the launch of
operators GPRS networks offering true IP access from mobile. The higher
bandwidth capabilities and the simple voice-only applications which have
predominantly been the bread and butter of mobile operators to data.
In parallel to pure data application and voice, operators of launch
UMTS networks are likely to investigate communications mechanisms such
as video and multimedia. These have generally been slow to enter the mobile
and fixed markets due to legacy network transmission systems, cellular user
bandwidth and terminal availability. These limiting factors are starting to be
removed by packet based (internet) networks UMTS high-speed cellular
bandwidth and the wider availability of feature-rich mobile terminals. Within
the mobile market, all the terminals conform to standards to enable cellular
operation and generally have a short lifetime in the market before
replacement (as consumer items they typically are replaced every eighteen
months to two years). The relatively short span and consumer nature of the
mobile terminals ( combined with cost/volume benefits) enable new standard
features to reach the market place in relatively short time to access features
via the network.
As well as new service capability opportunities, operators are also
looking to reduce the cost of operation and ownership of their networks,
including increased flexibility in the transmission of information within their
networks. They are also constantly seeking greater differentiation from their
competitors. While GSM was a great success in its ability to provide standard
roaming including the support for standard service features- the opportunity to
create operator-specific features was to a great extent limited by the close
linkage of speech services to the complex mobile-specific switching platforms
(MSC). Capabilities such as CAMEL and the SIM tool-kit have eased the
service issue to a certain extent; however, the UMTS focus on delivering data
and IP capabilities suggests more operator-specific services will become
available. The services can be delivered by re-applying contemporary IPbased multimedia techniques such as those developed in the IETF.