Anda di halaman 1dari 14

KUVEMPU UNIVERSITY

Name: Kuldeep Ravindra Verma


Subject: E- Commerce
Subject Code: BSIT - 62
PART: TA

1. What are the categories of operations under E-Commerce? Explain.


ANS: The following categories of operations came under e-commerce.

Transactions between a supplier/a shopkeeper and a buyer or between two


companies over a public network like the service provider network (like ISP).
With suitable encryption of data and security for transaction, entire operation
of selling/buying and settlement of accounts can be automated.
Transactions with the trading partners or between the officers of the
company located at different locations.
Information gathering needed for market research.
Information processing
management.

for

decision

making

at

different

levels

of

Information manipulation for operations and supply chain management.


Maintenance of records needed for legal purposes, including taxation, legal
suits etc.
Transactions for information distributions to different retailers, customers etc.

including Advertising, sales and marketing.

2. What is the role of encryption in E-Commerce? Explain.


ANS: Messaging services offer solutions for communicating non-formatted (unstructured)

data-letters, memos, reports as well as formatted (structured) data such as purchase


orders, shipping notices, and invoices. It supports both synchronous (immediate) and
asynchronous (delayed) message delivery and processing. It is not associated with any
particular communication protocol. No preprocessing is necessary, although there is an
increasing need for programs to interpret the message. Messaging is well suited for
both client-server and peer-to-peer computing models.
The main disadvantages of messaging are the new types of applications it enables
which appear to be more complex, especially to traditional programmers and the
jungle of standards it involves. Also, security, privacy, and confidentiality through data
encryption and authentication techniques are important issues that need to be
resolved.

3. Explain the architecture frame work of electronic commerce?


ANS: The electronic commerce application architecture consists of six layers of

functionality, or functionality, or services: (1) applications; (2) brokerage services, data


or transaction management; (3) interface and support layers; (4) secure messaging,
security, and electronic document interchange; (5) middleware and structured

document interchange; and (6) network infrastructure and basic communications


services.
Electronic Commerce Application Services:
The application services layer of e-commerce will be comprised of existing and future
applications built on the innate architecture. Three district classes of electronic
commerce applications can be distinguished; customer-to-business, business-tobusiness, and intra-organization.
Information Brokerage and Management:
The information brokerage and management layer provides service integration
through the notion of information brokerages, the development of which is
necessitated by the increasing information resource fragmentation. We use the notion
of information brokerage to represent an intermediary who provides service
integration between customers and information providers, given some constraint such
as a low price, fast service, or profit maximization for a client.
Information brokerage does more than just searching. It addresses the issue of adding
value to the information that is retrieved. For instance, in foreign exchange trading,
information is retrieved about the latest currency exchange rates in order to hedge
currency holdings to minimize risk and maximize profit. With multiple transactions
being the norm in the real world, service integration becomes critical.
Interface and Support Services:
Interface and support services, will provide interfaces for electronic commerce
applications such as interactive catalogs and will support directory services functions
necessary for information search and access. Interactive catalogs are the customized
interface to consumer applications such as home shopping.
An interactive catalog is an extension of the paper-based catalog and incorporates
additional features such as sophisticated graphics and video to make the advertising
more attractive.
Secure Messaging and Structured Document Interchange Services:
The importance of the fourth layer, secured messaging, is clear. Broadly defined,
messaging is the software that sits between the network infrastructure and the clients
or electronic commerce applications, masking the peculiarities of the environment. In
general, messaging products are not applications that solve problems; they are more
enablers of the applications that solve problems.
Messaging services offer solutions for communicating non-formatted (unstructured)
data-letters, memos, reports as well as formatted (structured) data such as purchase
orders, shipping notices, and invoices. It supports both synchronous (immediate) and
asynchronous (delayed) message delivery and processing. It is not associated with any
particular communication protocol. No preprocessing is necessary, although there is an
increasing need for programs to interpret the message. Messaging is well suited for
both client-server and peer-to-peer computing models.
Middleware Services:
Middleware is a relatively new concept that emerged only recently. With the growth of
networks, client-server technology, and all other forms of communicating between /
among unlike platforms, the problems of getting all the pieces to work together grew.
In simple terms, middleware is the ultimate mediator between diverse software
programs that enables them talk to one another.

Another reason for middleware is the computing shift from application centric to data
centric. To achieve data centric computing, middleware services focus on three
elements: transparency, transaction security and management, and distributed object
management and services.
Transparency:
Transparency implies that users should be unaware that they are accessing multiple
systems. Transparency is essential for dealing with higher-level issues than physical
media and interconnection that the underlying network infrastructure is in charge of.
The ideal picture is one of a virtual{ network: a collection of work-group,
departmental, enterprises, and interenterprise LANs that appears to the end user o r
client application to be a seamless and easily accessed whole. Transparency is
accomplished using middleware that facilitates a distributed computing environment.
The goal is form the applications to send a request to the middleware layer, which
then satisfies the request any way it can, using remote information.
4. List the OMCs [order Management Cycle] generic steps.
ANS: OMC [Order Management Cycle] has the following generic steps:

Order Planning and Order Generation


Cost Estimation and Pricing
Order Receipt and Entry
Order Selection and Prioritization
Order Scheduling
Order Fulfillment and Delivery
Order Billing and Account / Payment Management
Post-sales Service

5. Explain mercantile models from the merchants perspective?


ANS: The order-to-delivery cycle from the merchants perspective has been managed

with an eye toward standardization and cost.


To achieve a better understanding, it is necessary to examine the order management
cycle (OMC) that encapsulates the more traditional order-to-delivery cycle. OMC has
the following generic steps.
i. Order Planning and Order Generation
The business process begins long before an actual order is placed by the customer.
The first step is order planning. Order planning leads into order generation. Orders are
generated in number of ways in the e-commerce environment. The sales force
broadcasts ads (direct marketing), sends personalized e-mail to customers (cold
calls), or creates a WWW page.
ii. Cost Estimation and Pricing
Pricing is the bridge between customer needs and company capabilities. Pricing at the
individual order level depends on understanding, the value to the customer that is
generated by each order, evaluating the cost of filling each order; and instituting a
system that enables the company to price each order based on its valued and cost.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

Although order-based pricing is difficult work that requires meticulous thinking and
deliberate execution, the potential for greater profits is simply worth the effort.
Order Receipt and Entry
After an acceptable price quote, the customer enters the order receipt and entry
phase of OMC. Traditionally, this was under the purview of departments variously
titled customer service, order entry, the inside sales desk, or customer liaison. These
departments are staffed by customer service representatives, usually either very
experienced, long-term employees or totally inexperienced trainees. In either case,
these representatives are in constant contact with customers.
Order Selection and Prioritization
Customer service representatives are also often responsible for choosing which orders
to accept and which to decline. In fact, not all customer orders are created equal;
some are simply better for the business than others.
Another completely ignored issue concerns the importance of order selection and
prioritization.
Companies that put effort into order selection and link it to their business strategy
stand to make more money.
Order Scheduling
During the ordering scheduling phase the prioritized orders get slotted into an actual
production or operational sequence. This task is difficult because the different
functional departments sales, marketing, customer service, operations, or
production-may have conflicting goals.
Communication between the functions is often nonexistent, with customer service
reporting to sales and physically separated from production scheduling, which reports
to manufacturing or operations. The result is lack of interdepartmental coordination.
Order Fulfillment and Delivery
During the order fulfillment and delivery phase the actual provision of the product or
service is made. While the details vary from industry to industry, in almost every
company this step has become increasingly complex. Often, order fulfillment involves
multiple functions and locations. The more complicated the task the more
coordination required across the organization.
Order Billing and Account / Payment Management
After the order has been fulfilled and delivered, billing is typically handled by the
finance staffs, who view their job as getting the bill out efficiently and collecting
quickly.
Post-sales Service
This phase plays an increasingly important role in all elements of a companys profit
equation: customer value, price, and cost. Depending on the specifics of the business,
it can include such elements as physical installation of a product, repair and
maintenance, customer training, equipment upgrading and disposal. Because of the
information conveyed and intimacy involved, post sales service can affect customer
satisfaction and company profitability for years.

6. What are the three types electronic tokens? Explain.


ANS: Electronic tokens are of three types:

Cash or real-time. Transactions are settled with the exchange of electronic


currency. An example of on-line currency exchange is electronic cash (e-cash)

Debit or prepaid. Users pay in advance for the privilege of getting information.
Examples of prepaid payment mechanisms are stored in smart cards and
electronic purses that store electronic money.

Credit or postpaid. The server authenticates the customers and verifies with the
bank that funds are adequate before purchase. Examples of postpaid
mechanisms are credit / debit cards and electronic checks.

7. What is e-cash? Give the properties of e-cash.


ANS: Electronic cash (e-cash) is a new concept in on-line payment systems because it

combines computerized convenience with security and privacy that improve on paper
cash. Its versatility opens up a host of new markets and applications. E-cash presents
some interesting characteristics that should make it an attractive alternative for
payment over the Internet.
E-cash focuses on replacing cash as the principal payment vehicle in consumer-oriented
electronic payments.
The predominance of cash indicates an opportunity for innovative business practice
that revamps the purchasing process where consumers are heavy users of cash. To
really displace cash, the electronic payment systems need to have some qualities of
cash that current credit and debit cards lack. For example, cash is negotiable,
meaning it can be given or traded to someone else. Cash is legal tender, meaning the
payee is obligated to take it. Cash is a bearer instrument, meaning that possession is
prima facie proof of ownership. Also, cash can be held and used by anyone even
those who dont have a bank account, and cash places no risk on the part of the
acceptor that the medium of exchange may not be good.
Properties of e-cash: E-cash must have the following four properties
Monetary value
Interoperability
Retrievability
Security
E-cash must have a monetary value; it must be
backed by either cash (currency), bank-authorized credit, or a bank-certified cashiers
check. When e-cash created by one bank is accepted by others, reconciliation must
occur without any problems. Stated another way, e-cash without proper bank
certification carries the risk that when deposited, it might be returned for insufficient
funds.
E-cash must be interoperable that is, exchangeable
as payment for other e-cash, paper cash, goods or services, lines of credit, deposits in
banking accounts, bank notes or obligations, electronic benefits transfers, and the
like. E-cash must be storable and retrievable. The cash could be stored on a remote
computers memory, in smart cards, or in other easily transported standard or
special-purpose devices. Because it might be easy to create counterfeit cash that is
stored in a computer, it might be preferable to store cash on a dedicated device that
cannot be altered. This device should have a suitable interface to facilitate personal
authentication using passwords or other means and a display so that the user can
view the cards contents.
E-cash should not be easy to copy or tamper with while being
exchanged; this includes preventing or detecting duplication and double-spending.

Counterfeiting poses a particular problem, since a counterfeiter may, in the Internet


environment, be anywhere in the world and consequently be difficult to catch without
appropriate international agreements. Detection is essential in order to audit whether
prevention is working. Then there is the tricky issue of double spending (DFN88). For instance,
one could use e-cash simultaneously to buy something in Japan, India, and England. Preventing
double-spending from occurring is extremely difficult if multiple banks are involved in the
transaction. For this reason, most systems rely on post-fact detection and punishment.

Assignment: TB (Compulsory)
PART A
1. Explain different operations carried out in e-commerce.
Ans:- 1) Transaction between a supplier/ a shopkeeper and a buyer or between two companies over a public
network like the service provider network (like ISP). With suitable encryption of data and security for
transaction, entire operation of selling/buying and settlement of accounts can be automated.
2) Transaction with the trading partners or between the officers of the company located at different locations.
3) Information gathering needed for market research.
4) Information processing for decision making at different levels of management.
5) Information manipulation for operations and supply chain management.
7) Transaction for information distributions to different retailers, customers etc. Including adverting, sales and
marketing.
The use of computers in these area not only make the operations quicker, but also error free and provides for
consolidated approach towards the problem.It is not that the concept of e-commerce is totally without side

effect.There are several areas of security, safety against fraud etc., the concept of legal acceptance that is
however to be solved.
2. What are the basic banking services provided in e-commerce ?
Ans:1).Basic banking services: -normal customer would be transacting with his bank most of the time. They are
mainly related to personal finances. A customer has with his bank can be classified into the following:
i) Checking his accounts statements ii) Round the clock banking (ATM) iii) Payment of bills etc. iv) Fund
transfer and v) Updating of his pass books etc.
2).Home shopping: -We assume it is television based shopping. It may be noted that this concept is picking up
now in India in a small way, wherein the channels set apart only a very small portion of their broadcasting time
to teleshopping. Customer can order the items over phone. The goods are delivered to his home and payment
can be made in the normal modes. Concepts of traditional marketing like negotiations, trial testing etc. are
missing from this scheme and it is most suitable for those customers who are almost sure of what they need to
buy but who are to busy to go to the shops.
3).Home entertainment: The next example of this type of commerce is home entertainment. Dubbed on line
movies, it is possible for the user to select a movie/CD online and make his cable operator play the movie
exclusively for him (movie on demand) cause against payment like Tata Sky. Payment can be either online/
payable to his account. It is also possible to play interactive games online/download them to your computer to
play. The concept of downloading games/news etc. At a cost to the mobiles is also a similar concept.
4).Micro-transaction for information: The telephone directories provide a basic type of micro-transaction. If
we want by one particular type of item say books they list the addresses and phone numbers of the various
book dealers whom we may contact. Similar facilities are available on the internet may be for more number
of items and also with more details. This can be though of as an extension of the earlier described television
based ordering.
3. Explain the three stages of e-commerce architecture on web ?
Ans:The electronic commerce application architecture consists of six layers of functionality or services:
(1) Applications Services: The application services layer of e-commerce will be comprised of existing and hope
applications built on the native architecture.
(2) Brokerage services, data or transaction management: The information brokerage and management layer
provides service integration through the concept of information brokerages, the development of which is
necessitated by the increasing information resource fragmentation. The concept of information brokerage to
represent an intermediary who provides service integration between customers and information providers, given
some constraint such as a low price, fast service, or profit maximization for a client. In foreign exchange
trading, information is retrieved about the latest currency exchange rates in order to hedge currency holdings to
minimize risk and maximize profit. The brokerage function is the support for data management and traditional
transaction services. Brokerages may provide tools to accomplish more sophisticated, time-delayed updates or
future- compensating transactions.

(3) Interface and support layers: Interface and support services, will provide interfaces for electronic commerce
applications such as interactive catalogs and will support directory services job needed for information search
and access. Interactive catalogs are the modified interface to consumer applications such as home shopping. An
interactive catalog is an extension of the paper-based catalog and incorporates additional features. The primary
difference between the two is that unlike interactive catalogs, which deal with people, directory support services
interact directly with software applications. For this reason, they need not have the multimedia flash and ballet
generally associated with interactive catalogs.
4. What are the desirable characteristics of an electronic market place ?
Ans:- Desirable characteristics of E-Marketplace:
The following criteria are essential for consumer-oriented electronic commerce:
i).Critical mass of buyers and sellers. The trick is getting a critical mass of corporations and consumers to use
electronic mechanisms. In other words, the electronic marketplace should be the first place customers go to
find the products and services they need.
ii).Opportunity for independent evaluations and for customer dialogue and discussion. In the marketplace, not
only do users buy and sell products or services, they also compare notes on who has the best products and
whose prices are outrageous. The ability to openly evaluate the wares offered is a fundamental principle of a
viable marketplace.
iii).Negotiation and bargaining. No market place is complete if it does not support negotiation. Buyers and
sellers need to be able to haggle over conditions of mutual satisfaction, including money, terms and conditions,
delivery dates, and evaluation criteria.
iv).New products and services. In a viable marketplace, consumers can make requests for products and services
not currently offered and have reasonable expectations that someone will turn up with a proposed offering to
meet that request.
v).Seamless interface. The biggest barrier to electronic trade is having all the pieces work together so that
information can flow seamlessly from one source to another. This requires standardization. On the corporate
side, companies need compatible EDI software and network services in order to send electronic purchase
orders, invoices, and payments back and forth.
5. Explain electronic tokens present in payment systems.
Ans:- None of the banking or selling payment methods is completely adequate in their present form for the
consumer-oriented e-commerce environment. Totally new forms of financial instruments are also being
developed. One such new financial instrument is electronic tokens in the form of electronic cash / money or
checks. Electronic tokens are designed as electronic analogs of various forms of payment backed by a bank or
financial institution. Simply stated, electronic tokens are equivalent to cash that is backed by a bank.
Electronic tokens are of three types:

Cash or real-time. Transactions are settled with the exchange of electronic currency. An example of online currency exchange is electronic cash (e-cash).
Debit or prepaid. Users pay in advance for the privilege of getting information. Examples of prepaid
payment mechanisms are stored in smart cards and electronic purses that store electronic money.

Credit or postpaid. The server authenticates the customers and verifies with the bank that funds are
adequate before purchase. Examples of postpaid mechanisms are credit / debit cards and electronic
checks.

PART B
1. a) How does the commence and e-commerce are related ? Explain.
(chech answer itself)
Ans:- Concept of Commerce and E-Commerce: -Commerce is normally associated with the buying and selling
of items. Commerce is one of the oldest activities of human beings and the concept of traders selling and buying
items is a part of history. Markets are a common place where the buyers and sellers meet along with their
products. Money is also an essential part of the market place. The concept of money, we have several concepts
of banking, various methods of representing and transferring money like cheques, MOUs, Drafts etc.
The key element of e-commerce is information processing. Every stage of commerce, except of route
production of goods and their physical delivery can be automated. The tasks that can be automated include
information gathering, processing, and manipulation and information distribution.
b) What are the desirable characteristics of e-commerce ?
Ans:- Desirable characteristics of E-Commerce: Commonsense tells us that few transactions are friendlier for
e-marketing than others. We list out the desirable features of a hypothetical market pace let us call it emarket.
a).A minimal size of the place: Obviously for any such place to thrive there is a critical size, below which it is
not profitable to operate. This minimal number of buyers and sellers characterizes the profitability of the place.
b).A scope for interactions: Interactions include trial runs of the products, classifications of doubts on the part of
the customers, details of after sales services, ability to compare different products and of course scope for
negotiations and bargaining.
c).Scope for designing new products: The customer need not buy only what is available. He can ask for
modifications, up-gradations etc. The supplier must be able to accept these and produce made to order items.
d).A seamless connection to the marketplace: It is obvious that each customer will be operating with a different
type of computer, software, connectivity etc. There should be available standards sot that any of these
costumers will be able to attach himself to any of the markets without changing his
hardware/software/interfaces etc.
e).Recourse for disgruntled users: It is nave to believe that transaction of such a place end up in complete
satisfaction to all parties concerned. Especially because of the facelessness of the customer and the supplier,
there should be a standard recourse to settle such disputes.
2. a) Explain the architecture frame work of electronic commerce ?
Ans:- The electronic commerce application architecture consists of six layers of functionality or services:
(1) Applications Services: The application services layer of e-commerce will be comprised of existing and hope
applications built on the native architecture.

Three district classes of electronic commerce applications can be famous:


Business-to-business: c) Intra-organization:

a) Customer-to-business: b)

(2) Brokerage services, data or transaction management: The information brokerage and management layer
provides service integration through the concept of information brokerages, the development of which is
necessitated by the increasing information resource fragmentation. The concept of information brokerage to
represent an intermediary who provides service integration between customers and information providers, given
some constraint such as a low price, fast service, or profit maximization for a client
(3) Interface and support layers: Interface and support services, will provide interfaces for electronic commerce
applications such as interactive catalogs and will support directory services job needed for information search
and access. Interactive catalogs are the modified interface to consumer applications such as home shopping. An
interactive catalog is an extension of the paper-based catalog and incorporates additional features.
(4) Secure messaging, security, and electronic document interchange: The importance of the fourth layer,
secured messaging, is clear. Messaging is the software that sits between the network infrastructure and the
clients or e-commerce applications, masking the peculiarities of the environment. Messaging products are not
applications that solve problems; they are more enablers of the applications that solve problems.
(5) Middleware and structured document interchange: Middleware is a relatively new concept. With the growth
of networks, client-server technology, and all other forms of communicating between / among unlike platforms,
the harms of getting all the pieces to work together grew. Middleware is the ultimate mediator between diverse
s/w programs that enables them talk to one another. Middleware is the computing shift from application centric
to data centric.
(6) Network infrastructure and basic communications services: Transparency implies that users should be
unaware that they are accessing multiple systems. Transparency is essential for dealing with higher-level issues
than physical media and interconnection that the underlying network infrastructure is in charge of. Transparency
is accomplished using middle ware that facilitates a distributed computing environment. Marketing researchers
have isolated several types of purchasing:
1.Specifically planned purchases. The need was recognized on entering the store and the shopper bought the
exact item planned.
2.Generally planned purchases. The need was recognized, but the shopper decided in-store on the actual
manufacturer of the item to satisfy the need.Reminder purchases. The shopper was reminded of the need by
some store influence. This shopper is influenced by in-store advertisements and can substitute products readily.
3.Entirely unplanned purchases. The need was not recognized entering the store like gift items.
b) List the OMCs (order management cycle) generic steps.
Ans:- 1)Order Planning and Order Generation: The business process begins long before an actual order is
placed by the customer. The first step is order planning. Order planning leads into order generation. Orders are
generated in number of ways in the e-commerce environment.
2)Cost Estimation and Pricing: Pricing is the
bridge between customer needs and company capabilities. Pricing at the individual order level depends on
understanding, the value to the customer that is generated bye each order, evaluating the cost of filling each
order.
3)Order Receipt and Entry: After an acceptable price quote, the
customer enters the order receipt and entry phase of OMC.

4)Order Selection and Prioritization: Customer service representatives are also often responsible for choosing
which orders to accept and which to decline. In fact, not all customer orders are created equal; some are simply
better for the business than others.
5)Order Scheduling: Ordering scheduling phase the prioritized orders get slotted into an actual production or
operational sequence.
6)Order Fulfillment and Delivery: The order fulfillment and delivery phase the actual provision of the product
or service is made.

Q3 Explain mercantile model from merchants perspective?


Answeri) Order planning and Order generation: - Order planning leads intoorder generation. Orders are generated by
broadcast ads, sending personalized e-mail to the customer, or creating web pages.
ii) Cost Estimation and Pricing: - Pricing is the bridge between customer needs and company capabilities.
Pricing at the individual order level depends on understanding, the value to the customer that is generated by
each order, and instituting a system that enables the company to price each order based on its valued and cost.
iii) Order Receipt and Entry:- In this step customer enter his order about services and products that he want to
buy. This department is staffed by very experienced employees.
iv) Order Selection and Prioritization: - In this phase CSRs decide that which orders to accept and which to
decline and set priorities because some orders are better for business.
v) Order Scheduling: - It means slotting the selected order into an actual production or operational sequence.
This is very difficult because the different functional departments like- sales, marketing, customer service etc
may have conflicting their goals.
vi) Order fulfillment and Delivery: -- This is very complex phase where the actual provision of the product or
service is made.
vii) Order Billing and Account/Payment Management:viii) Post-sales Service:- It play important role in companys profit equation. Depending upon the specific of the
business, it can include element as physical installation of a product, repair and maintenance. Because of the
information conveyed and intimacy involved, post sales services can affect customer satisfaction and company
profit.
b. What are the normal constraints put on e-cash?
AnswerA validity limit, the more amount that can be stored, more no. of exchanges and no. of exchanges within a time
period.
5. a) Compare push and pull based supply chains?
Answer- A push strategy within the advertising/marketing industry involves directing marketing efforts at
resellers. The success of the marketing depends on the ability of these intermediaries to market the product. The
goal of a push strategy is to make the customer aware of the product/brand at the point of purchase. Examples
of push strategy tactics include displaying the product near the register, a packaging design to encourage
purchase, and direct selling to customers at stores.

A pull strategy encourages the consumer to actively seek out your product/brand. The idea is to "get the
consumer to come to you." This intensifies consumer demand by directing marketing strategies at the consumer.
Examples of pull strategy tactics include advertising, mass media promotion, and word of mouth promotion.
b) What is meant by integrity of data ?
ANS- Information is what gives power to the Web and e-commerce. In a matter of minutes, consumers are able
to research, compare, and purchase products and services online. This availability of information has created
more discriminating consumers and has put increased pressure on retailers to offer competitive prices.
Understandably, the accuracy or integrity of data is very important during e-commerce.
Q6 A. What do you mean by value added networks (VANs)? Explain.
Ans- A value-added network (VAN) is a private network provider (sometimes called a turnkey communications
line) that is hired by a company to facilitate electronic data interchange (EDI) or provide other network services.
Before the arrival of the World Wide Web, some companies hired value-added networks to move data from their
company to other companies. With the arrival of the World Wide Web, many companies found it more costefficient to move their data over the Internet instead of paying the minimum monthly fees and per-character
charges found in typical VAN contracts. In response, contemporary value-added network providers now focus
on offering EDI translation, encryption, secure e-mail, management reporting, and other extra services for their
customers.
b. List the four advantages of internet. Explain.
ANS- 1. Easy and cheap communication
Communicating with your friends and loved ones has been easy through e-mail and social communication sites
like Facebook and MySpace. You dont have to pay even a single cent just to chat with them because these
services are free of charge!
2. Send small or big files with others easily!
If you have to send a file, for example, a video to your friend whos living in other country, it isnt practical
nowadays to send him a package with the video cd. Instead, you can send him the video from your e-mail, or
upload it in YouTube or other video sharing sites.
3. Loads of information
As I have mentioned earlier, internet has a lot of information that is very essential for the students so they dont
have to buy books or go to the library anymore. Search engines like Google and Yahoo! are always available
when you need them.
3. Entertainment
Entertainment is one of the most popular reasons why many people prefer to surf the internet. There are a lot of
games to play, videos to watch, and etc.
4. Services
Internet is making our life a lot easier by offering different services like online banking, online booking, hotel
reservations, online shopping, and many more!
Q8. . Write a short note on :
a) Secure socket layer: SSL (pronounced as separate letters) is short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol
developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic
system that uses two keys to encrypt data a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key
known only to the recipient of the message. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support
SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card
numbers. By convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.
b) Cryptography: The art of protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable
format, called cipher text. Only those who possess a secret key can decipher (or decrypt) the message

into plain text. Encrypted messages can sometimes be broken by cryptanalysis, also called code
breaking, although modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable.