A concise experimental reports on flow measurement. This report covers four different methods of flow measurement; Venturi meter, Pitot-tube traverse, Orifice plate and an inlet core.

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A concise experimental reports on flow measurement. This report covers four different methods of flow measurement; Venturi meter, Pitot-tube traverse, Orifice plate and an inlet core.

© All Rights Reserved

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Section

1.1

Test Objectives

2.1

Background Theory

3.1

Test Apparatus

4.1

Test Procedure

5.1

Test Result

6.1

7.1

Reference

1.1

Test Objectives

The objective of this test was to measure fluid flow rate through a duct using three

different methods and compares the results. The methods were velocity survey using a

Pitot-static tube, the venturimeter and the sharp-edged orifice plate.

2.1

Background Theory

The volume flow rate in a duct was given by:

_

3

Q AU (m /s)

(1)

Where:

Q:

A:

U:

For solid wall ducts the mass flow rate must remain constant at all stations along the

duct. At low flow speed the density, , remains constant and hence the volume flow

rate must be constant. Often, the mean velocity,

property of the real flow because the real velocity varies only slightly across much of

the duct cross-section. In ducts with only gradual changes of cross-section with small

flow curvature, the static pressure was virtually constant across all of the duct crosssection. Hence, the one-dimensional flow model was often a useful and accurate

assumption.

2.1.2

Velocity Measurement

With the above assumptions the flow rate can be calculated if the flow velocity was

usually derived from pressure measurements using Bernoullis equation.

This states that:

p

1

U 2 constant = p o

2

p = static pressure

1

U 2 = dynamic pressure

2

(2)

p o = total pressure

(figure)

The static pressure was the pressure measured in the moving stream and can be

determined using a wall static pressure tapping as illustrated above.

The total pressure, p o , was the total pressure registered when the flow was at rest

and can be determined from the pressure measured at the nose of the Pitot-tube.

(figure)

When the static and total pressures were measured, the velocity can be calculated

from the Bernoullis equation (2) which gives after re-arrangement.

2

( po p)

2.1.3

(3)

p1

1

1

U 12 p 2 U 22

2

2

(4)

Where, subscripts 1 and 2 indicate stations 1 and 2 along the duct. The volume flow

rate at station 1 and 2 will be equal provided that the density was constant. Hence

assuming one-dimensional flow, A1U 1 A2U 2

giving: U 1

(5)

A2

U 2 (6)

A1

1 A

p1 2 U 2

2 A1

p2

1

U 22

2

(7)

U2

2 ( p1 p 2 )

A 2

1 2

A1

(8)

Q A2U 2

(9)

However, usually the actual flow rate was less than the measured flow rate. The

reasons will be described later. Therefore a correction factor C d was introduced

giving:

Q C d A2U 2 C d A2

2 ( p1 p 2 )

2

A2

1

A1

(10)

Where the correction factor Cd was usually called as the discharge coefficient. The

coefficient varies from one device to another and was normally determined after

calibration tests.

2.1.4

The Manometer

tube manometer. When there is a pressure difference between p1 and p2 this difference

is observed as the difference in the fluid levels h. This difference in the fluid levels

can be converted to pressure difference using: p12 p1 p 2 f .g.h

Figure 1

Where:

f = density of the manometer fluid ( f = 784 kg/m3)

The manometer fluid density was calculated from

f = specific gravity w

(12)

The specific density of the manometer fluid = 0.784

2.1.5

Pitot-static tube

A Pitot-static tube was shown in Figure 2. It consists of two concentric tubes, each of

which is connected to a pressure measuring device; in this case an inclined

manometer. The inner tube acts as a Pitot tube and measures the total pressure. The

outer tube has several holes in the side. When the axis of the tube was aligned

parallel to the flow direction, the holes act as static pressure tappings.

Figure 2

Using equation (3),

U

2

( p o p)

(3)

2.1.6

Venturimeter

the narrowest section (throat) and then becomes gradually wider (diffuser). The

pressure differences between 1 and 2 were used for flow rate measurement.

Figure 3

Using equation (10)

QV C d A2

2 ( p1 p 2 )

2

A2

1

A1

(13)

Because of the smooth changes in the cross-section with the venturimeter, the

discharge coefficient was close to 1. In this experiment the venturimeter has a

discharge coefficient (Cd) of 0.97.

2.1.7

Sharp-edged Orifice

The details of the sharp-edged orifice were slightly different from those of the

venturimeter. Figure 4 shows the flow field in the duct. The flow goes into a narrow

section and forms a jet downstream of the orifice. The narrowest jet section was not

at the orifice but just downstream of the orifice. The pressure difference between the

undisturbed station 1 and this section 2 was used for flow rate measurements.

However, it was not possible to measure the sectional area of this narrowest section

of jet; the area of the orifice A was used instead.

Figure 4

The equation used was identical to equation (10) except that Ao was used, giving:

QV C d Ao

2 ( p1 p 2 )

2

Ao

1

A1

(14)

The flow through the orifice was not smooth and also Ao was not the smallest crosssectional area in the jet. The discharge coefficients for orifice plates differ

considerably from unity largely because of the energy dissipation downstream of the

plate in the highly non-uniform separated jet flow. The value for this particular orifice

was Cd = 0.62.

This accounts for both viscous effects and the reduction of the minimum jet crosssectional area from Ao.

3.1

The test apparatus used was shown in Figure 5. Air was drawn into the inlet and

pumped through the duct by a multi-vane fan driven by a 400 W electric motor. The

flow through the duct may be controlled by the exit damper which allows the outlet

area to be varied.

Figure 5

The duct contains both rectangular (127 x 114 mm) and circular (140 mm dia.) cross

sections and was equipped with both venture and orifice throats (diameter 89 mm and

108 mm respectively). Pressure tappings were provided in the throat walls as

indicated below in Figure 5; a Pitot-static tube was also provided to allow a velocity

survey across the rectangular section of the duct.

a:

b:

c:

d:

e:

f:

4.1

Test Procedure

First of all, all the rubber tubing were checked and were connected securely to

the manometers required.

The zero setting of the inclined manometer for the Pitot-static tube

measurement was adjusted.

With the damper fully open, the motor was started and the conditions allowed

settling for some few minutes.

The atmospheric pressure and the laboratory temperature was measured and

recorded.

The venturi differential c-d was recorded and the orifice differential e-f too

was recorded as well. And also the amount of fluctuation on both manometers

was recorded.

The duct was traverse with the Pitot-static tube and the differential a-b at the

12 points was also recorded.

The experimental steps where repeated with the damper half-closed and

partially-closed.

5.1

Test Results

5.1.1

Barometric temperature, t = 21oC

T = t + 273.15 = 294.15 K

Air Density: a

1.1858 kg/m3

287 T

287 294.15

Area of rectangular duct section, A = (0.127m x 0.114m) = 0.014478 m2.

Velocity, u

2

( p o p)

2 f 9.81 h / 100

m/s

a

Flow rate, Q u A

5.1.1.1 Pitot- Static Traverse Calculations

Point

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

h (cm)

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.9

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.3

u (m/s)

8.054

8.054

8.822

8.822

8.822

10.187

10.805

12.476

13.476

12.986

11.945

12.986

Q

(m3/s)

0.117

0.117

0.128

0.128

0.128

0.147

0.156

0.181

0.195

0.188

0.173

0.188

From the table the Average velocity and the flow rate was calculated as below

UAverage =

1 12

ui 10.6196 m/s

12 1

m3/s

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.97

A1

D12 (0.14) 2

0.01539 m2.

4

4

A2

D22 (0.089) 2

0.00622 m2

4

4

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d A2

a

2

A

(1 2 )

A1

1.1858

m / s 0.97 0.00622

0.1425

2

0.00622

(1

)

0.01539

Q= 0.1425 m3/s

5.1.1.3 Orifice Plate Calculations

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.62

D12 (0.14) 2

A1

0.01539 m2.

4

4

D22 (0.108) 2

Ao

0.00916 m2

4

4

p = 3.0 cms of paraffin.

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d Ao

A

(1 o )

A1

1.1858

m / s 0.97 0.00916

0.13942

2

0.00916

(1

)

0.01539

Q= 0.13942 m3/s

5.1.2

Half-closed Damper

(note: the half-closed and partially closed experiment were carried out on the same

day).

Barometric pressure, pa = 750.20 mmHg

Barometric temperature, t = 20oC

T = t + 273.15 = 293.15 K

Air Density: a

1.2083 kg/m3

287 T

287 293.15

Area of rectangular duct section, A = (0.127m x 0.114m) = 0.014478 m2.

Velocity, u

2

( p o p)

2 f 9.81 h / 100

m/s

a

Flow rate, Q u A

5.1.2.1 Pitot-Static Traverse Calculations

From the table the Average velocity and the flow rate was calculated as below

UAverage =

1 12

u i 9.5065 m/s

12 1

Point

No.

1

2

3

h

(cms)

0.4

0.5

0.4

u (m/s)

7.136

7.978

7.136

Q

(m3/s)

0.1033

0.1155

0.1033

m3/s

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.8

1.1

1.5

1.4

8.740

7.136

7.978

9.440

9.440

10.092

11.834

13.819

13.350

0.1265

0.1033

0.1155

0.1367

0.1367

0.1461

0.1713

0.2001

0.1933

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.97

A1

D12 (0.14) 2

0.01539 m2.

4

4

A2

D22 (0.089) 2

0.00622 m2

4

4

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d A2

A

(1 2 )

A1

1.2083

m / s 0.97 0.00622

0.1392

2

0.00622

(1

)

0.01539

Q= 0.1392 m3/s

5.1.2.3 Orifice Plate Calculations

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.62

A1

D12 (0.14) 2

0.01539 m2.

4

4

Ao

D22 (0.108) 2

0.00916 m2

4

4

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d Ao

5.1.3

a

2

A

(1 o )

A1

1.2083

m / s 0.97 0.00916

0.1358

2

0.00916

(1

)

0.01539

From the table the Average velocity and the flow rate was calculated as below

UAverage =

1 12

ui 7.8329 m/s

12 1

Point

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

h

(cms)

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.25

0.3

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.9

1.15

1.1

u (m/s)

6.180

5.046

5.046

6.180

5.641

6.180

7.978

8.368

8.740

10.704

12.100

11.834

m3/s

Q

(m3/s)

0.089

0.073

0.073

0.089

0.082

0.089

0.116

0.121

0.127

0.155

0.175

0.171

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.97

D12 (0.14) 2

A1

0.01539 m2.

4

4

D22 (0.089) 2

A2

0.00622 m2

4

4

p = 2.8 cms of paraffin.

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d A2

a

2

A

(1 2 )

A1

1.2083

m / s 0.97 0.00622

0.1245

2

0.00622

(1

)

0.01539

Q= 0.1245 m3/s

5.1.3.3 Orifice Plate Calculations

Discharge Coefficient, Cd = 0.62

A1

D12 (0.14) 2

0.01539 m2.

4

4

Ao

D22 (0.108) 2

0.00916 m2

4

4

2 f 9.81 p / 100

Q C d Ao

a

2

A

(1 o )

A1

1.2083

m / s 0.97 0.00916

0.1209

2

0.00916

(1

)

0.01539

6.1

6.1.1

Results Comparison

The flow rate calculations for the three methods under three different conditions had

been carried out and their results tabulated as below:

Apparatus

Pitot-Static

Tube

Venturimeter

Orifice Plate

Average

Fully

HalfPartially

Open

closed

Closed

Damper

Damper

Damper

0.1538

0.1425

0.1394

0.1452

0.1376

0.1392

0.1358

0.1375

0.1134

0.1245

0.1209

0.1196

Average

0.1349

0.1354

0.1320

0.1341

The flow rates output obtained from the test measurement under the fullyopen damper condition had indicated that the Pitot-static tube records the

highest flow rate than the Venturimeter and the Orifice plate.

At the condition where the damper was Half-closed, the flow rate recorded

was relatively similar with a slight variation in the results.

While at the condition when the damper was partially-closed, the Venturimeter

and Orifice plate recorded almost the same flow rates, whereas the Pitot-static

tube registered a lower value of flow rate than them.

6.1.2

Recommendation

When measuring the traverse location test to simplify the average velocity and flow

rate on the rectangular duct using the Pitot - static tube, it would be necessary to avoid

the traverses close to the fan, dampers pipe bend and expansions. Also, centroids of

equal area must be used. The Pitot - static tube needs to be aligned with the axis of the

duct using the alignment guide on the tube for reference.

7.1

Reference

1. Nasr, G.G. and Connor, N.E. Experimental and Measurement Methods, Lecture

Notes, University of Salford, 2006.

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