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Result and Discussions

1.5
1.48

Refractive Index

1.46
1.44
1.42
1.4
y = -0.0017x + 1.4983
R = 0.9334

1.38
1.36
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Weight Percent (%)

Graph 1 : Calibration curve for toluene rich phase

1.37
y = 0.0005x + 1.3343
R = 0.9988

Refractive Index

1.365
1.36
1.355
1.35
1.345
1.34
0

10

20

30

40

50

Weight Percent (%)

Graph 2 : Calibration curve for water rich phase

60

70

For the ideal solvent has a high selectivity for the solute relative to the carrier, so as to
minimize the need to recover carrier from solvent. The solvent has high capacity for
dissolving the solute, so as to minimize the solvent to feed ratio. Other than that, the solvent
has a minimal solubility in the carrier. The ideal solvent has a stability to minimize the
solvent life and minimize the solvent make up requirement.
One important aspect when choosing a solvent system for extraction was to pick two
immiscible solvents. Some common liquid-liquid extraction solvent pairs were waterdichloromethane, water-hexane. Notice that each combination includes water. Most
extractions involve water because it was highly polar and immiscible with most organic
solvents. Other factors affecting solvent selection are boiling point, density, interfacial
tension, viscosity, corrosiveness, flammability, toxicity, and stability, compatibility with
product, availability and cost. In addition, the compound were attempting to extract, must be
soluble in the organic solvent, but insoluble in the water layer. An organic compound like
benzene was simple to extract from water, because it was solubility in water was very low.
However, solvents like ethanol and methanol will not separate using liquid-liquid extraction
techniques, because they were soluble in both organic solvents and water. There were also
practical concerns when choosing extraction solvents. As mentioned previously, the two
solvents must be immiscible. The volatility of the organic solvent was important. Solvents
with low boiling points like ether are often used to make isolating and drying the isolate
material easier.

Extract

15.0 L/hr

0.764 kmol H2O/kmol

0.641 kmol C3H6O/kmol

0.236 kmol C3H6O/kmol

0.359 kmol C7H8/kmol


Raffinate

0.066 kmol/hr

1.126 10-3 kmol C3H6O/kmol

1 kmol C7H8/kmol

0.053 kmol C7H8/kmol


0.946 kmol H2O/kmol

Number of mole of Acetone at extract = 0.53kg kmol/58kg = 9.138 10-3 kmol


Number of mole of toluene at extract = 0.47kg kmol/92kg = 5.109 10-3 kmol
Mole fraction Acetone = 9.138 10-3 kmol/(9.138 10-3 kmol + 5.109 10-3 kmol)
= 0.641 kmol C3H6O/kmol
Mole fraction Toluene = 100.641 = 0.359kmol C7H8/kmol
Overall mass balance :
Assume the basis = 100kmol/hr
100 + 0.066 = R + E
100.066 = R + E
Water mass balance :
100(0.764) = R(0.946)
R = 80.76 kmol/hr

100.066 = R + E
E = 19.3kmol/hr

Appendix

Num of mole Acetone = 7.5kg/58kg/kmol = 0.129 kmol

Num of mole water = 7.5kg/18kg/kmol = 0.417 kmol

Mole fraction of Acetone = 0.129/(0.129 + 0.417) = 0.236


Mole fraction of water = 1 0.236 = 0.764

Mass of Toluene = 20L 866.9kg/m3 1m3/1000L = 17.338 kg


Number of mole of Toluene = 17.338kg/92kg/kmol = 0.188kmol

At solvent stream,
Convert volume flowrate to mass flowrate :

7.0 L/hr 866.9 kg/m3 1m3/1000L kmol/92kg = 0.066kmol/hr