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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks

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08/12/14 9:33 pm

HEAT GENERATION IN PLASTIC DEFORMATION


USING ANSYS MECHANICAL APDL AND
WORKBENCH V14.5: APPLICATION OF THE NEW
ACT MODULE

Figure 1: Temperature in a Steel Bar Stretched with Plastic Deformation


ANSYS Mechanical APDL has multiphysics element types that can use displacement
and temperature degrees of freedom at their nodes, support nonlinear structural and
thermal material properties, and predict the heat generated by plastic work converted
to heat. This permits modeling of thermoplastic heat generation with ANSYS
Multiphysics and with ANSYS Mechanical licenses.
This article uses the SOLID226 20-node brick high order element in such an
application. Note the importance of the correct units for Specific Heat, Thermal
Conductivity and Thermal Loads in models of this type.

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Selection of an Element to Support Thermoplastic Heat Generation


Three ANSYS elements support the thermoplastic effect, which manifests itself as an
increase in temperature during plastic deformation due to the conversion of some of
the plastic work into heat (Theory Reference, 11. Coupling, 11.3. Thermoplasticity).
Thermoplastic analysis exists in the following ANSYS elements:
PLANE223 - 2-D 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid
SOLID226 - 3-D 20-Node Coupled-Field Solid
SOLID227 - 3-D 10-Node Coupled-Field Solid
Setting KEYOPT(1) to 11 activates displacement and temperature degrees of
freedom for these elements.
During direct coupled analysis, structural-thermal coupling can have Strong (matrix)
coupling which produces an unsymmetric matrix, or Weak (load vector) coupling
which produces a symmetric matrix and requires at least two iterations per substep.
Coupling choice is set with KEYOPT(2). As quoted below, Weak coupling is
recommended in static and transient analysis. The Coupled-Field Analysis
Guide, 2. Direct Coupled-Field Analysis mentions Strong coupling if contact elements
are used. Note the following comments:
Because of the possible extreme nonlinear behavior of weakly coupled field elements,
you may need to use the predictor and line search options to achieve convergence.
To speed up convergence in a coupled-field transient analysis, you can disable the
time integration effects for any DOFs that are not a concern. For example, if
structural inertial and damping effects can be ignored in a thermal-structural
transient analysis, you can issue TIMINT,OFF,STRUC to turn off the time integration
effects for the structural degrees of freedom.
In the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide, 2. Direct Coupled-Field Analysis, 2.6.
Structural-Thermal Analysis it states:
In a structural-thermal analysis with structural nonlinearities using elements
PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227, it is recommended that you use weak (load
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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

vector) coupling between the structural and thermal degrees of freedom (KEYOPT(2)
= 1) and suppress the thermoelastic damping in a transient analysis (KEYOPT(9) = 1).
When using the SOLID226 element, you should also select the uniform reduced
integration option (KEYOPT(6) = 1). These options will be automatically set if
ETCONTROL is active.
PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227 also support a thermoplastic effect
calculation in static or transient analyses. For more information, see Thermoplasticity
in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
In the present example, the above recommendations have been considered.

Figure 2: The SOLID226 20-Node Brick Coupled Element


In more general 3D meshing, users will want to consider the use of both the
SOLID226 and SOLID227 elements for this sort of coupled analysis.
For further reading, users can consult: Theory Reference, 11. Coupling, 11.3.
Thermoplasticity
Materials for Thermoplastic Heat Generation
In addition to the usual thermal and structural material properties, elements that
capture Thermoplastic Heat Generation will require the Taylor-Quinney coefficient
(input as QRATE on the MP command) which is the decimal fraction of plastic work
that is converted to heat, and a model of material plasticity, such as Isotropic or
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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

Kinematic Hardening. Typical QRATE values might fall in the range of between 0.80
and 0.95, however, users will be responsible for finding values that are appropriate
for the materials being studied. Required material properties will include MP
commands for structural and thermal behavior. An example in SI units for a fictitious
steel material is:
Youngs Modulus of Elasticity EX=0.2070000E+12 MPa
Poissons Ratio NUXY=0.2900000
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ALPX=0.1510000E-04
Density DENS=7850.000 kg/m3
Thermal Conductivity KXX=46.70000 W/m/C
Specific Heat C=419.0000 W/kg/C
Taylor-Quinney Coefficient QRATE=0.9000000
Heating due to plastic deformation will require a material plasticity model input with
TB commands. A simple example in SI units is a Bilinear Isotropic Hardening model
with:
Yield Stress 1.0e8 MPaTangent Modulus 1.0e9 MPa
If heat is to be produced, loading high enough to cause yielding and plastic
deformation will be required.
UNITS in the Model
Proper use of Units in the model must be emphasized. Thermal loads must be in
appropriate energy units. Plastic strain energy will be in the units of Force
Distance. Material properties for Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat must
contain energy expressed in the form of this physical work, not units such as BTUs
in US Customary units. It is simplest to do everything in SI units, as employed
in the present example. Note the units of Watts (Joules per second, i.e. NewtonMeters per second) above.
Users desiring to work in units such as inches or millimeters must represent Thermal
Conductivity and Specific Heat in energy units in inch-pounds for the inches

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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

system, or millimeter-Newtons for the millimeters system, respectively. This type of


conversion is hidden from the user but is employed internally when Workbench
Mechanical is chosen for thermal analysis.

Loading on the Model


The model has symmetry constraints on the back, left, and bottom sides. The righthand side has a non-zero displacement in the +X directionenough to cause 10%
total strain in the model X direction. The solution has been set up to ramp up the
non-zero displacement through many Substeps in one Load Step.

Figure 3: Displacement Constraints


The model has a convective heat transfer surface load on the top and front sides. In
the following Figure 4, grey arrows show where the convective load is applied. The
arrows are grey because a Table Array that is a function of Time is used to apply a
constant convective load that does not vary over time during substeps.

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Figure 4: Convection Thermal Loading


Some users consider adiabatic loading, with the assumption that the deformation
event is so rapid that there is no significant conduction of heat. This can be mimicked
in ANSYS with a short time interval. The adiabatic effect can also be suggested if
thermal loads are removed, and a near-zero thermal conductivity is entered. Users
need to consider whether near zero thermal conductivity creates thermal transient
analysis difficulties.
The convection coefficient was applied with the Table Array H_CONV which was
set to hold a constant value over time, as can be seen below in Figure 5:

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Figure 5: Convective Coefficient via Table Array

Element Choice and KEYOPT Settings


In this example, a solid rectangle has been meshed with a mapped mesh of SOLID226
elements. The SOLID226 element options are shown in Figure 6 below.

Figure 6: SOLID226 Element Options for Thermoplastic Heat Generation


Note the Weak (load vector) coupling (contact not used here), and Reduced

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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

Integration settings.
Solution Controls
Large displacement transient analysis has been applied with many substeps. For the
purpose of the present test, tightened convergence controls were employed, although
such tight settings may not be required in some user models. The model has been
simplified by the use of material properties that are not temperature dependent.
It is usually important that the structural analysis transient be suppressed. The
following two commands can set the thermal transient analysis ON, and the
structural transient analysis OFF in the time integration that is performed in this
example:
TIMINT,ON,THERMTIMINT,OFF,STRUCT
Some of the settings for the current example are shown in the Solution Controls
dialog box in Figure 7:

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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

Figure 7: Example Settings for Large Displacement Transient Analysis


In addition to the above, loading was set to Ramped so that the applied non-zero
displacement loading in this model is ramped up through the substeps of the load
step. Because of the load ramping, the Table Array of Figure 5 was used to hold
constant the convection coefficient load over all substeps.

Outputs from the Example Model


The input material property QRATE for the Taylor-Quinney coefficient was 0.9 in
this example, so 90% of the plastic strain energy is converted into heat. The specific
heat C and the density DENS are set to values typical of a steel material. One of the
available outputs with ANSYS materials with kinematic and isotropic hardening is
the plastic work per unit volume, PLWK, as plotted for example with
PLESOL,NL,PLWK.
A simplified check on a resulting temperature in an adiabatic analysis is to calculate
local temperature change with the temperature change calculation:
Delta_T = QRATE*PLWK/C/DENS
Typical values for strains of a few percent in steel produce a temperature change of
only a few degrees, which is why this effect is often ignored in structural analysis.
More extreme temperature changes may occur during cyclic loading, high-speed
metal forming, extrusion, and events better suited to explicit dynamic analysis.
In the present example, the above calculation produced Delta_T of 3.803 degrees.
The model started with an initial temperature of 22 degrees, and the resulting peak
temperature after a 10% strain was 25.738 degreesa slightly smaller 3.738 degree
temperature change than hand calculated because of convective cooling in the model
and because of approximations introduced by element behavior, mesh density and
transient integration.

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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

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Figure 8: Resulting Temperature Profile


Because the SOLID226 element is a coupled element, deflections, stresses and strains
can also be immediately plotted and listed.
A Workbench Mechanical Approach with ACT
Since the early days of ANSYS WorkBench Mechanical, it has been possible to insert
APDL Command Objects (snippet commands) to modify a structural model.
Depending on the location of the snippet commands, one would access different
properties of the Finite Element Model and would be able to change it. It was a very
efficient way to combine the best of both Mechanical and Mechanical APDL worlds:
the power of APDL commands within the user-friendly efficient WorkBench platform.
The main drawbacks of this method were that user would have to be very careful with
the units, and consistent between the writing of the APDL commands and the
definition of the Mechanical model, especially with the Named Selections. To make
long story short, it was error prone and not efficient to be deployed across the

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Heat Generation in Plastic Deformation using ANSYS Mechanicaln of the new ACT module | FEA | Tips and Tricks | Newsletters

08/12/14 9:33 pm

company.
With R14.5, ANSYS has developed the Application Customization Toolkit that enables
you to fill the gap between the Mechanical APDL features and their exposure in
Mechanical: it is a great improvement that will enable the old snippet commands or
old legacy APDL macros to be embedded in custom Mechanical objects that inherits
the behavior of standard WorkBench objects. ACT provides you with APIs manipulate
a wide range of data (geometry, finite element, material) to change the APDL code
which is written when one clicks on the solve button.

Figure 9 : Dedicated Mechanical Toolbar created with ACT.


For instance, taking into account heat generation in plastic deformation would
require changing the default element type created by the standard interface and
adding the desired material property QRATE: it would convert the SOLID186/187
elements into coupled SOLID226/227 elements with the desired keyoptions:

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