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Satuan Stratigrafi

Satuan Stratigrafi
Dalam Stratigraphic Code of Indonesia (Sandi
Stratigrafi Indonesia), turunan dari Code of
Stratigraphic Nomenclature ada 4 jenis
satuan stratigrafi utama:
1. Chronostratigrafi
2. Geochronologi
3. Biostratigrafi
4. Lithostratigrafi

Chronostratigraphy
subdivision of the stratigraphic record into
bodies of sediment or rock represented
by a particular age, separated from
underlying and overlying units by
isochronous surfaces
urutan kejadian
Mass spectrometry is the most commonly
used technique to measure the ratio
between different isotopes

Chronostratigraphy
Chronostratigraphic classification of sediments or
rocks involves the establishment of time lines
(isochrons); this, in turn, forms the basis for
paleogeographic reconstruction
Traditionally, biostratigraphy has formed the
most important basis for chronostratigraphic
classification
Numerical dating techniques are becoming
increasingly important in defining
chronostratigraphic units
4

Chronostratigraphy
Radiometric dating methods are in essence based on the decay
of radioactive isotopes

N N0e

N=number of daughter isotopes; N0=initial number of parent isotopes;


=decay constant; t=time

Radiometric dating involves a large number of isotopes and decay


series, with highly variable halflives and applications (age ranges
from less than a century to billions of years)

Chronostratigraphy
Mass spectrometry is the most commonly used
technique to measure the ratio between different
isotopes
Many sediments and sedimentary rocks are not suitable
for radiometric dating; indirect ages can sometimes be
obtained through dating of associated igneous rocks
(e.g., volcanics)
Luminescence dating is a relatively new technique that
allows quartz and feldspar grains up to several 100 kyr
to be dated; it is based on the measurement of a minute
light signal that can be released by these grains and that
is proportional to time after burial
EaES 350-11

Chronostratigraphy Geochronology
Dalam geologi, dikenal dating (penanggalan) dengan
menghitung half life time (masa paruh), suatu unsure radio
aktif akan meluruh separuh menjadi unsure lain: uranium
menjadi Pb (dari unsur berbahaya menurunkan unsur bahaya)
Kalium, Argon, Potasium dating umur Pra kambrium s/d
pliosen
Karbon dating batuan muda identifikasi untuk
kehidupan baru (vegetasi). Ex: di bulan.
Umur relatip dengan umur geologi pra kambrium buku
geologi sejarah skala geologi. Ex: cretaceous kapur

Geochronology
Subdivision of Earth history into time
intervals
Sejarah geologi urutan kejadian

GEOLOGIC
TIME
SCALE

Geologic Time Scale

TIME AND GEOLOGIC TIME


Chronometric: duration of events with no
reference to geologic boundaries
Geochronometry /geochronology: duration of
events in reference to geologic boundaries
Chronostratigraphy/Chronostratic: sequence
of rocks bounded by time

Waktu Geologi & Fosil Indeks


Umur absolute dan Umur relatip
Umur absolute bingung, harus mengingat angka
nol hingga jutaan
Umur relatip Skala waktu geologi identifikasi
fosil indeks biostratigrafi
Fosil indeks fosil penunjuk, guide fosil, fosil pandu
harus mudah dikenal, jumlah telatif banyak, tidak
kesulitan ketika dicari, relatif utuh (pakai degree of
comparation), masih dapat dikenali, tingkatan genus
(satu kata)

Biostratigraphy
Subdivision of the stratigraphic record into
sediments or rocks by means of fossil
content kandungan fosil
Evolution forms the initial basis for
biostratigraphic subdivision, either through
the development of an increasing number
of new species, or by means of evolution
of one particular species

A picture to show an example of biostratigraphy selected Cretaceous


(Lower Greensand and Gault) ammonite zones, Folkestone.

Lithostratigraphy
Subdivision of the stratigraphic record into
sediments or rocks by means of lithologic
characteristics and stratigraphic
position
Litologi satuan stratigrafi yang umum
digunakan untuk pembuatan peta geologi
sesuatu yang absurb dapat dilihat di
lapangan

A picture to show an example of lithostratigraphy


Middle Jurassic rock strata at Elgol

Dasar penggunaan lithostratigrafi


1. Pembentukan lithologi bersifat universal, dapat
terbentuk di semua tempat di muka bumi tidak
dibatasi oleh waktu geologi
2. Berbagai jenis lithologi dapat diamati (observable)
dengan cepat dan mudah di lapangan tanpa
memanfaatkan alat bantu
3. Berbagai jenis lithologi dapat dengan mudah
dibedakan, berdasarkan atas kenampakan fisik,
kimia, kandungan fosil ataupun berdasarkan atas
warna

Dasar penggunaan lithostratigrafi


4. Berbagai jenis lithologi bersifat abadi, tidak akan
mengalami perubahan susunan mineralogi,
kandungan fosil dan struktur sedimen selama
belum terpengaruh oleh kegiatan endogen atau
eksogen.
5. Berbagai jenis lithologi terminologinya sudah
dikenal oleh seluruh geologist dan masyarakat
pemerhati, sehingga mudah dalam aplikasinya di
lapangan batugamping, konglomerat, breksi,
batupasir, batulempung

Dasar penggunaan lithostratigrafi


6. Lithostratigrafi bersifat aplikatif, teknik,
maupun ekonomis.
7. Dengan mengetahui jenis litologi, langsung
dapat diketahui manfaat dan kegunaan, sifat
fisik dan kimia, dan dapat segera diketahui
potensi sumber daya alam dan mineral yang
terkandung.

Lithostratigrafi
The formation is the fundamental unit of
lithostratigraphic classification; just as the other
lithostratigraphic ranks (groups, members, beds), it
should be based on field description (i.e., fossil content
and age do not play a role)
Mode of deposition (genesis) is not a criterion in the
distinction of lithostratigraphic units; this requires
interpretation and is therefore likely to undergo revision
over time
Lithostratigraphic units should have some degree of
overall lithologic homogeneity, although diversity in
detail may in itself characterize a lithostratigraphic unit

Lithostratigrafi
Lithostratigraphic units are commonly diachronous, as
opposed to chronostratigraphic units
Detailed geologic mapping is usually strongly based on
lithostratigraphy, whereas overview geologic maps
usually show chronostratigraphic units
Although objective lithostratigraphic classification should
be as simple and straightforward as possible, reality
demonstrates that this is not always the case; as a
result, in many areas revisions are frequently proposed
which can lead to extremely complicated and confusing
situations

Comparison of a lithostratigraphic and a chronostratigraphic correlation and


stratigraphic interpretation of two pseudo-wells. After Bashore et al. (1994).
(Reprinted with permission of AAPG, whose permission is required for further use.)

Comparison of a lithostratigraphic and a chronostratigraphic


correlation for a series of progradational depositional complexes.
Hiatal surfaces represent time intervals with no significant
deposition. After Frasier (1974). (Reprinted with permission of
AAPG, whose permission is required for further use.)

Comparison of well log cross-sections correlated on the basis of


(A) chronostratigraphy and (B) lithostratigraphy.

Lithostratigrafi
Satuan lithostratigrafi dikelompokkan
menjadi dua, yaitu: satuan stratigrafi
(formal name) dan satuan stratigrafi tak
resmi (non formal or informal name).
Penggambaran urut-urutan stratigrafi,
meliputi tebal masing-masing lapisan,
komposisi mineralogi, struktur sedimen,
kandungan fosil dan sifat-sifat fisik
mencirikan lain kolom lithologi

Lithostratigrafi
Kolom litologi gabungan sistematis dari
kolom lithologi singkapan
Kolom lithologi bagian dari kolom
stratigrafi daerah penelitian
Bagaimana hubungan keterkaitan antara:
Kolom stratigrafi
Kolom lithologi (satuan batuan)
Kolom lithologi singkapan

Kolom lithologi
Kolom stratigrafi suatu daerah yang dipetakan
susunan stratigrafis (dua atau lebih) dari kolom
lithologi (satuan batuan) suatu daerah yang dipetakan
Kolom lithologi (satuan batuan) Susunan stratigrafi
(dua atau lebih) kolom lithologi singkapan batuan yang
dijumpai di setiap lokasi pengamatan
Kolom lithologi singkapan batuan hasil pengamatan
secara langsung variasi lithologi (secara stratigrafis) di
setiap lokasi pengamatan (dilengkapi dengan hasil
analisa laboratorium)

Kolom lithologi
Penggambaran urut-urutan
stratigrafi, meliputi
tebal masing-masing lapisan,
komposisi mineralogi,
struktur sedimen,
kandungan fosil
dan sifat-sifat fisik mencirikan
lain

Kolom Stratigrafi

Lithologi bawah permukaan

Data Bor
Penyusunan kolom lithologi
bawah permukaan

Kolom Lithologi