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[Geotech] SEMINAR MONDAY APRIL 29TH,2013

Georgia Tech, Atlanta

Pressuremeter testing and


foundation design
Roger FRANK
Universit Paris-Est, Navier, CERMES (ENPC-LCPC), Paris
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents
Introduction to design rules. Why use
the MPT ?
 Shallow foundations
 Axial capacity of piles
 Transverse capacity of piles
 Conclusions


R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Main references




-

Work of Mnard (1954-1967), Cambefort, Gambin, Cassan, etc.


Work of Laboratoires des ponts et chausses (LPCs) from
1963- by Amar, Baguelin, Bustamante, Canpa, Frank,
Garnier, Jzquel and others
3 synthetical papers:
Gambin, M., Frank, R. (2009) "Direct Design Rules For Piles Using
Mnard Pressuremeter Test", Proc Int Foundation Congress and
Equipment Expo09 (IFCEE09), Orlando, Florida, ASCE
Canpa, Y., Garnier J. (2004). "Etudes exprimentales du comportement
des fondations superficielles - Etat de l'art", Proc. Int Symp. Fondsup
2003
Bustamante M., Frank R. (1999) "Current French design practice for
axially loaded piles". Ground Engineering (note : MPM & CPT)

Foundation engng code for public works (Fascicule 62-V, 1993)


and course taught at Ecole nationale des ponts et chausses
under rere-drafting to match Eurocode 7
7
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents
 Introduction

to design rules.
Why use the MPM?

Shallow foundations
 Axial capacity of piles
 Transverse capacity of piles
 Conclusions


R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

The Mnard pressuremeter test (MPT)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

DOCUMENT APAGEO - XPRESSIO

1200

VS + 2V1
1000

800

EM = 23 MPa
600

Pl = 1,7 MPa

400

p2

200

pf

p1
0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,4

1,6

1,8

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Pressuremeter soil profile

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Bearing capacity : the pressuremeter faith

qu = qo + kp (ple - po)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

The pressuremeter test can be performed


in all types of soils and soft rocks

It provides the soil engineer with both a


failure parameter and a deformation
parameter measured in situ

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Use of in situ test results




The direct method (semi-empirical) should be preferred


i.e direct rules for determining the bearing capacity of
foundations from the test results :
Rd,N,qc, etc.
(and possibly the displacements)

Specific advantages of the Pressuremeter


with the limit pressure pLM :
 bearing capacity of shallow foundations (qp)
 axial bearing capacity of deep foundations (qp and qs)
With the pressuremeter modulus EM :
 settlement of shallow foundations (s)
 analysis of the behaviour of deep foundations under
transverse loading
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents


Introduction to design rules. Why use


the MPM ?

 Shallow

foundations

Axial capacity of piles


 Transverse capacity of piles
 Conclusions


R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Tests at Jossigny & La Benne (1980s)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

LCPC Centrifuge (Nantes) 1985 -

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Bearing factors - strip and square footings

(AFNOR, 2013)
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Design bearing capacity


Reference stress qrf :

i reduction factor depends on , , d/Be, De/Be

With (model factor) RD 1.2


and

R;v = 1.4 for ULS


R;v = 2.3 for SLS
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Pressuremeter method for settlement


prediction

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Mnards formula for settlement


years)

is the volumetric settlement


is the deviatoric settlement

Rheological coefficient

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Selection of moduli Ec and Ed

Ec = E 1 and
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

LPCs 1978-1987

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents
Introduction to design rules. Why use
the MPM ?
 Shallow foundations


 Axial

capacity of piles

Transverse capacity of piles


 Conclusions


R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Pile load tests at Dunkirk (1985)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Revised MPM rules for bearing capacity : kp

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Revised MPM rules for bearing capacity : qs

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Settlement of piles
t-z curves from Mnard pressuremeter modulus EM
(laws of Frank-Zhao, 1982)

for fine grained soils :


k = 2.0 EM/(2ro) and kq = 11.0 EM/(2ro)
for granular soils
k = 0.8 EM/(2ro) and kq = 4.8 EM/(2ro)
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

2nd example : CFA pile in silt and clay (Northern France)


B = 0.5 m ; D = 12 m
pLM(MPa)

EM(MPa)
0

10

20

30

0,0

40

EM moyen

EM-Forage100

1,5

z (m )

z (m )

EM-Forage-10
EM-Forage20

1,0

0,5

10

10

12

12

14

14

16

16

pLM moyen
pLM-Forage100
pLM-Forage10
pLM-Forage20

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

2,0

Charge en tte / vertical load (kN)


200
400
600
800
1000 1200

1400

0
5

dplacement / settlement (mm)

10
15
20
25

Pieu test/pile tested


(Bustamante M. et Gianeselli L.)
Antoinet et al.

30

Bahar et al.

35

Robas et Kuder
Said et al.

40
45

Mecsi
Monnet

50

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents
Introduction to design rules. Why use
the MPM (and CPT) ?
 Shallow foundations
 Axial capacity of piles


 Transverse


capacity of piles

Conclusions

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Transverse load tests at Plancot (1975-)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

P-y curves

Short duration

Accidental actions

with Kf = 2ESM
EsM = EM

18
--------------------------------------------4(2,65 B/Bo) Bo/B + 3

18
or EM -------------------------4(2,65) + 3

EsM = Mnard reaction modulus


R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

g(z) method

d4y
EI ---- + P(y - g) = 0
dz4
R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Reaction curve for long duration loads

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Pile of Provins (1974)

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Contents
Introduction to design rules. Why use
the MPM (and CPT) ?
 Shallow foundations
 Axial capacity of piles
 Transverse capacity of piles


 Conclusions

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

The pressuremeter allows the determination of the


bearing capacity and of the displacement of
foundations
The base capacity is based on the analogy with
the cavity expansion theory (sounder than limit
equilibrium approaches)
The shaft friction of piles is determined essentially
in an empirical manner (numerous full scale load
test results)
MPM results yield easily p-y and t-z curves.

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Eurocode 7 issues/challenges


All design rules compatible with Eurocode 7


should be based on pile load test results

Important role of displacement of foundations of


structures (more than safety with regard to ground
failure)

Are we ready of SLS checks only based on


displacements? and is the structural engineer
ready himself ?

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013

Thank you for your attention !

R Frank Pressuremeter testing and foundation design, GT Seminar, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, 29 April 2013