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Antimicrobial Drugs
1. What is an antibiotic? Narrow vs broad spectrum.
2. What is a synthetic drug?
3. Early History
4. Properties of antibiotics
5. List the five major ways by which an antibiotic or antimicrobial synthetic drug
6. What are the properties of antibiotics?
7. What are the mechanisms of antibiotics
8. What is selective toxicity? What groups of antibiotics have the best selective
toxicity? Why?
9. Are the sulfa drugs selectively toxic? Why or why not?
10.Know the action of each of the following: chloramphenical, streptomycin,
erythromycin, tetracyclines, vancomycin, polymyxins, rifamycin, penicillin
11.List three drugs that stop the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
12.Why are there so many penicillins on the market today? (What is a
13.What does the 'R' group of penicillin do? How does it affect the activity of the
14.List four ways bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.

1.How does the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage differ from the lysogenic
2.Know the steps of each life cycle
3.How does generalized transduction differ from specialized transduction?
4.What is the form of nucleic acid found of viruses?
5.Do viruses infect all forms of life or just some forms of life?
a. All forms of life. There is a cell out there that can attack another
6.What is a viral capsid? The envelope? The nucleic acid? Know Function of
7.How is a viral envelope made?
a. Made up of host cell lipids and viral proteins.
i. Pepside and nucleic acid
b. It may contain gycloproteins called peplomers or spikes.
8.How are viruses classified?
9.What does the suffix oma mean? The prefix onco?
10. The virus that causes chickenpox is in the ___________ family.
11. The poliovirus is a ___________virus, Two other viruses in the family.
12. What does the EBV cause? The HBV virus? The HIV?
13. What is the structure of the poliovirus? The influenza virus? The West
Nile virus? Rubella? Mumps?

14. What is unique about the Rhabdoviridae? The Orthomyxoviridae? The

15. Explain the replicative cycle of the Retroviridae. DNA virus. RNA virus
(+ and -), ds RNA
16. What are the five basic steps of virus replication (viral and
bacteriophage)? What happens during each step?
17. What did we learn about Ebola?
18. How do viruses cause disease?
19. How do animal viruses get into cells?
20. What is the difference between a lytic and a lysogenic bacteriophage?
21. What is transduction (generalized vs specific)?
22. What is viral lactency?
23. What is an oncogene?
24. Do viruses cause human malignancies? (Know a few)
25. What are prions?
26. Why is it so hard to find antiviral drugs?
27. How does AZT work?, Acylovir?
28. Do antibiotics do anything to viruses? Why or why not?

Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

1.Know the definitions of each of the following: epidemiology,
commensalism, etiology, parasitism, symbiosis, mutualism, endemic,
epidemic, pandemic, sign, symptom, syndrome.
2.What is the definition of an infectious disease?
3.What is herd Immunity?
4.Are all infectious diseases communicable diseases? Why or why not?
5.What is the difference between an infection and a disease?
6.How does an acute disease differ from a chronic disease? From a latent
disease? Name a microorganism that causes an acute disease, a chronic
disease, and a latent disease.
7.What is a systemic infection? A local infection?
8.Predisposing factors towards a disease.
9.What is a zoonotic disease?
10. Where do the microorganisms that cause disease in humans hide out?
That is, where are they when they are not causing disease in a
population of people? (Spread of infection)
11. Reserviors

12. How are microorganisms transmitted to people? (know vectors,

13. What is a nosocomial infection?

Common Causes of Nosocomial

Percentage of
Total Infections

Resistant to




S. aureus



Gram-negative rods
C. difficile






Not reported

2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

14. What does the CDC do?

15. List the 5 stages of an infectious disease. What happens during each


Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

1.List the four "musts" for a bacterium to cause disease. (What happens?)
Damage host
2.What is virulence? What is pathogenicity? How do they differ?
3.What are the portals of entry? Portals of exit?
4.What surface structures do bacteria use to adhere to tissues?
5.Bacterial Virulence Factors
6.List 5 extracellular enzymes bacteria use to avoid and evade the immune
7.Why are capsules important to a pathogenic bacterium?
8.How do pathogens damage hosts?
9.How do exotoxins differ from endotoxins? (Compare the two)
10. List some properties of exotoxins.
11. How do these toxins work?
12. What is endotoxin? Where is it found on the cell? What bacteria have
13. What does endotoxin do and how does it do it? Why is endotoxin a
virulence factor ?
14. What is endotoxic shock? (Symptoms)

Nonspecific Immunity
1.What is nonspecific immunity?
2.What makes up the first line of defense? The second line of defense? The
third line of defense?
3.Physical barriers, mechanical and chemical factors.
4.What is sebum? What role does it play in immunity?
5.What does lysozyme do? Where is it found in the body?
6.Why don't bacteria grow in our eyes?
7.What are the four categories of granulocytes? (What do they do?)
8.What cells are agranulocytes?
9.What cells are professional phagocytes?
10. What is a leukocyte?
11. What is the role of macrophages in nonspecific immunity?
12. What is a wandering macrophage?
13. Fixed macrophages make up the ______________ system.
14. List the four steps of phagocytosis and explain what happens in each
15. How does a phagocyte kill a bacterium?
16. How do bacteria evade phagocytosis?
17. What is vasodilation? Is it important in inflammation? Why or why not?
a. An increase in permeability of capillaries.
b. Blood cells and blood fluid goes into tissue.
18. What promotes vasodilation?

a. Occurs when mast cells and tissue cells are injured, and release.
i. Histamine (Vasodilation, increase permability of blood
ii. Kinins (Vasodilation, increase permability of blood vessels)
iii. Postaglandins (Intensity histamine and kinin effect)
iv. Leukotrienes (Increased permeability of blood vessels,
phagocytic attachment)
19. What is a fever? Advantages/disadvantages
20. Describe the complement system, that is, state what the system is,
what it does, and how it does that.
a The purpose of the complement system.
b The three pathways, and how each is activated.
c The biologically active compounds formed, and what each does.
21. What is interferon?
release of protstaglandins, vasodilation, diapedesis, formation of pus, tissue
repair order of inflammation.