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# EXPERIMENT 10

PHYSICS 213-06
MOMENT OF INERTIA
DECEMBER 2014

During this lab we will study what rotational Inertia is and how different shapes of masses and
different masses behave inertially when compared to each other. We will specifically study the
differences of inertia between a disk and a ring. We will use increasing forces to induce angular
acceleration of both a disk and a ring of a certain mass. We will then then measure the
differences in the acceleration to determine how the ring and the disk resist rotational movement.
Afterward we will compare how the radius of the masses and the torque(force) applied relate to
the angular acceleration. We will achieve a predictable force by using

for

this acceleration.
In this experiment we will measure the inertia of a disk and a ring by dividing an applied torque
by the resulting acceleration.

## . Then we will calculate the theoretical inertia using the

moment of inertia equations for a disk and a ring. Then we will compare the two values and
determine a percent error.
Discussion
The law of inertia states that it is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
Copernicus and then Galileo were the first to dispute Aristotle's thought on movement and in
doing so they developed the first thoughts on inertia. Galileo Galilei was the first state A body
moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at a constant speed unless
disturbed. Johannes Kepler was the first to look specifically at Inertia, he even gave the name
which come from the latin for laziness. But it was Newton who echoed Gallilei with added
precision and quantification buy stating that an object will remain in motion or at rest. This

resistive force that objects contain is described and Inertia, and should be considered the single
term that describes Newtons First Law.
The rotational inertia of an object is dependent on the mass the the arrangement of the
mass within the object. A simple rule of thumb is- the more compact an object's mass, the less
rotational inertia an object will have. We studied to shapes and their inertia. A ring and a disk.
The rotational inertia of a ring with consistent density is dependent of its mass and the inner and
outer radius. The relationship between the mass and the radii is described as
. A disk is nothing but a ring with no inner radius so its inertia is simply a function of its
mass and its outer radius, specifically

Experimentally and inertia can be found by applying a known torque to the object and
dividing that torque by the resulting acceleration.

## . We gathered this data by

suspending a rotary motion sensor with its rotating axis perpendicular to the earth, thus its pulley
is parallel. A second pulley was mounted with its axis parallel and its face perpendicular to the
earth. In order run a cord downward, thus a weight could be hung from the cord to induce a force
on the rotary sensor. Careful attention was given to the alignment of the two pulleys. we wanted
the face of the second pulley to run tangential to the circumference of the rotary sensors pulley.
If this was not achieved the force applied to the rotary sensor would actually be the
where theta is the angle off from ideal.

## Procedure: Calbiration of the Disk

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the moment of inertia of a rotating
disk.
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2. Hang up a 100 g mass on the holder.
3. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.
4. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.
5. Calculate the acceleration (a). To do this, use the formula:
y = at2 a = 2y/t2
6. Calculate the tension (T) on the string:
T = m (g-a).
7. Calculate the torque on the disk:
= Tr, where r is the radius of rotation.

## 8. Calculate the angular acceleration:

= a/r.
9. Repeat the procedure for 4 different masses, icreasing 20 g each time: 120 g, 140 g
and 160 g
10. Plot vs. , and since = I the slope will give you the moment of inertia of the disk
(Idisk ).
Part 2. Dependence of I with M and R
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the influence of mass (M) and radius
(R) on the moment of inertia.
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2. Put a 200g mass (M) on the disk at 4 cm from the center (R). Distribute the mass.
3. Hang up a 100g mass on the holder.
4. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.
5. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.
6. Calculate the falling acceleration (a).

## 7. Calculate the tension (T) on the string:

T = m (g-a)
8. Calculate the torque on the disk: = Tr, where r is the radius of turn (constant).
9. Calculate the angular acceleration: = a/r.
10. Calculate the moment of inertia of the system from the equation: Isys = /.
11. Calculate the moment of inertia of the disk and the mass added from: Icalc = Idisk
+MR2
12. Repeat steps 2 to 11 for 400g and 600g at 4cm.
13. Repeat steps 2 to 11 with 200g 400g and 600g at 8 cm.
Part 3. Moment of inertia of a hollow cilynder
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the moment of inertia of an object
an to compare the value with the teoretical one.
1. Measure the mass (MC), the internal radius (Ri) and the outer radius (Ro) of the
cylinder.
2. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
3. Put the hollow cylinder on the disk.
4. Hang up a 100g mass on the holder.
5. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.
6. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.
7. Calculate the falling acceleration (a).
8. Calculate the tension (T) on the string:
T = m (g-a)
8. Calculate the torque on the disk: = Tr, where r is the radius of turn (constant).
9. Calculate the angular acceleration: = a/r.
10. Calculate the moment of inertia of the com bination (disk plus cylinder) from the
equation: Icomb = /.
11. Determine the moment of inertia of the cylinder from: Icomb = Idisk + Icyl
Calculate the % error with respect to the theoretical value: Icyl (t)= MC(Ri2+Ro2)

Exp. 10

Moment of Inertia

## I Calibartion of the disk

Falling distance: y =57.4 cm =0.574 m

0.1
0.12
0.14
0.15

## Moment of Inertia of the disk. Use g=9.8 m/s2.

t1
t2
t3
tav
a (m/s2)
T (N)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(2y/
) [m(ga)]
5.28 4.88 5.26 5.14
4.35
0.546
4.57 4.83 4.38 4.59
5.44
0.524
4.23 4.28 4.31 4.27
6.29
0.492
4.31 4.04 4.09 4.15
6.67
0.470

(Nm)
(Tr)
0.02039
0.01959
0.01838
0.01756

(a/r)
116.435
145.610
168.362
178.533

0.021

0.0204

0.0205
0.02

Torque (Nm)

m
(kg)

## Rotation radius: r =3.736 cm r = 0.03736m

0.0196

0.0195
0.019

Series1

0.0184

0.0185
0.018

Linear (Series1)
Linear (Series1)

0.0176

0.0175
0.017
0

50

100

Angular Acceleration

150

200

Idisk (kgm2)
(/ )
0.0001752
0.0001341
0.0001092
0.0000984

## II Dependence of I with M and R

Comparison between the calculated and measured Moment of Inertia of the system.
M (kg)
R (m)
t (s)
0.2
0.04
5.12
0.4
0.04
5.25
0.6
0.04
5.51
0.2
0.08
5.69
0.4
0.08
5.89
0.6
0.08
6.24
Falling mass: m=100g
a (m/s2)
T (N)
(Nm)
Isys (kgm2)
[2y/t2]
[m(g-a)]
[Tr]
[a/r]
[/]
4.38
1.08
0.0432
109.5
0.000395
4.17
2.25
0.0901
104.3
0.000864
3.78
3.612
0.1445
94.5
0.001529
3.55
1.250
0.1000
44.4
0.002252
3.31
2.596
0.2077
41.4
0.005017
2.95
4.116
0.3293
36.9
0.008924
Note. Use: % diff = 200|Isys - Icalc|/ (Isys + Icalc)

Icalc (kgm2)
[Idisk +MR2]
0.000321
0.000640
0.000960
0.001280
0.002560
0.003840

Inertia

0.01
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0

Series1

0.000395

0.000864

0.001529

0.002252

0.005017

0.008924

Series2

0.000321

0.00064

0.00096

0.00128

0.00256

0.00384

Series1

## Series 1= Measured (kgm2)

Series 2= Calculated (kgm2)

Series2

% diff (I)
See note
20.6
29.8
45.7
55.1
64.9
79.6

## III Comparison with a theoretical value

D) Comparison between the calculated and measured Moment of Inertia of the cylinder.
Mass of Cylinder: MC= 1.4315 (kg) Outer radius; Ro=0.126 (m) Internal radius; Ri=0.1081(m)
Icyl (t) = MC(Ro2+Ri2) = (kg m2)= 0.01973
m
(kg)
0.1

t1
(s)

t2
(s)

t3
(s)

tav
(s)

a (m/s2)
(2y/
)

T (N)
[m(ga)]

(Nm)
(Tr)

(a/r)

Icomb
(kgm2)
(/ )

Ical
(kgm2)
(Icomb Idisk)
6.79 6.65 6.60 6.68
2.57
0.724 0.091 20.397 0.00446 0.00433
Use: % error = 100|Icalc - Icyl|/ Icalc= (0.00433kgm2-0.01973kgm2)/0.01973 = 78.05%

Sample Calculations
a (m/s2)=(2y/

)= 2(57.4m)x(5.14s)2 = 4.35m/s

T (N)=[m(g-a)]=(9.81m/s2-4.35m/s2) = 5.46N
(Nm)=(Tr)= 5.46N x 0.03736m = 0.2039Nm
Idisk = (/ ) = 0.2039Nm/116.435 rad/s2= 0.001752kgm2
MR2=0.20kg x (0.04)2=0.00032 kgm2
% diff = 200|Isys - Icalc|/ (Isys + Icalc)=
200[(0.000395kgm2-0.000321kgm2)/(0.000395kgm2+0.000321kgm2)]=20.6%
I cylinder= MC(Ro2+Ri2) = (kg m2)= 0.01973 kgm2
Use: % error = 100|Icalc - Icyl|/ Icalc= (0.00433kgm2-0.01973kgm2)/0.01973 = 78.05%

Conclusion
All rotating objects have a property called rotational inertia or moment of inertia (I). The
moment of inertia is dependent on its mass M and the distribution of that mass. The unit
of rotational inertia is (kg-m2) we can break down objects into pieces and analyze each piece

mathematically. We can conclude the the moment of inertia is both affected by its radius, disk
rotation and mass.