Anda di halaman 1dari 132

Effective Use of PID

Controllers
ISA New Orleans 3-7-2013

Standards
Certification
Education & Training
Publishing
Conferences & Exhibits

Presenter
Greg is a retired Senior Fellow from Solutia/Monsanto and an ISA Fellow.
Greg was an adjunct professor in the Washington University Saint Louis
Chemical Engineering Department 2001-2004. Presently, Greg contracts as a
consultant in DeltaV R&D via CDI Process & Industrial and is a part time
employee of Experitec and MYNAH. Greg received the ISA Kermit Fischer
Environmental Award for pH control in 1991, the Control Magazine Engineer
of the Year Award for the Process Industry in 1994, was inducted into the
Control Process Automation Hall of Fame in 2001, was honored by InTech
Magazine in 2003 as one of the most influential innovators in automation, and
received the ISA Life Achievement Award in 2010. Greg is the author of 20
books on process control, his most recent being Advanced Temperature
Measurement and Control. Greg has been the monthly Control Talk
columnist for Control magazine since 2002 and has started a Control Talk
Blog. Gregs expertise is available on the Control Global and Emerson
modeling and control web sites:
http://community.controlglobal.com/controltalkblog
http://modelingandcontrol.com/author/Greg-McMillan/

Resources

Top Ten Ways to Impress Management with Trends

(10) Make large setpoint changes that zip past valve dead band and nonlinearities.

(9) Change the setpoint to operate on the flat part of the titration curve.

(8) Select the tray with minimum process sensitivity for column temperature control.

(7) Pick periods when the unit was down.

(6) Decrease the time span so that just a couple data points are trended.

(5) Increase the reporting interval so that just a couple data points are trended.

(4) Use really thick line sizes.

(3) Add huge signal filters.

(2) Increase the process variable scale span so it is at least 10x control region

(1) Increase the historian's data compression so changes are screened out

Contribution of Each PID Mode

Proportional (P mode) - increase in gain increases P mode contribution

Integral (I mode) - increase in reset time decreases I mode contribution

Provides an immediate reaction to magnitude of measurement change to minimize


peak error and integrated error for a disturbance
Too much gain action causes fast oscillations (close to ultimate period) and can make
noise and interactions worse
Provides an immediate reaction to magnitude of setpoint change for P action on Error
to minimize rise time (time to reach setpoint)
Too much gain causes falter in approach to setpoint
Provides a ramping reaction to error (SP-PV) to minimize integrated error if stable (since
error is hardly ever exactly zero, integral action is always ramping the controller output)
Too much integral action causes slow oscillations (slower than ultimate period)
Too much integral action causes an overshoot of setpoint (no sense of direction)

Derivative (D mode) - increase in rate time increases D mode contribution

Provides an immediate reaction to rate of change of measurement change to minimize


peak error and integrated error for a disturbance
Too much rate action causes fast oscillations (faster than ultimate period) and can make
noise and interactions worse
Provides an immediate reaction to rate of change of setpoint change for D action on
Error to minimize rise time (time to reach setpoint)
Too much rate causes fast oscillation in approach to setpoint

Contribution of Each PID Mode

kick from filtered


derivative mode

Signal
(%)

%CO1
step from
proportional
mode

seconds/repeat

%CO2 = %CO1
repeat from
Integral mode

%SP

PID structure with proportional, integral, and derivative action on error

Time
(seconds)
Contribution of Each PID Mode for a Step Change in the Set Point
Structure of PID on error (=1 and =1)

Effect of Gain on P-Only Controller


Red is 150% of maximum, Green is 100% of maximum, Purple is 50% of maximum of Gain Setting

Effect of Reset Time on PI Controller


Red is 150% of maximum, Green is 100% of maximum, Purple is 50% of maximum Reset Time

Effect of Rate Time on PD Controller


Red is 200% of maximum, Green is 100% of maximum, Purple is 0% of maximum Rate Time

Proportional Mode Basics


Note that many analog controllers used proportional band instead of gain for the proportional mode tuning
setting. Proportional band is the % change in the process variable (%PV) needed to cause a 100% change
in controller output (%CO). A 100% proportional band means a 100% %PV would cause a 100 % %CO
(a gain of 1). It is critical that users know the units of their controller gain setting and convert accordingly.
Gain = 100 % / Proportional Band

Proportional Mode Advantages

Minimize dead time from stiction and backlash


Minimize rise time
Minimize peak error
Minimize integrated error

Proportional Mode Disadvantages

Abrupt changes in output upset operators


Abrupt changes in output upset other loops
Amplification of noise

10

Integral Mode Basics


Note that many analog controllers used reset settings in repeats per minute instead of reset time
for the integral mode tuning setting. Repeats per minute indicate the number of repeats of the
proportional mode contribution in a minute. Todays reset time settings are minutes per repeat or
seconds per repeat which gives the time to repeat the proportional mode contribution. Often the
per repeat term is dropped giving a reset time setting in minutes or seconds.
Seconds per repeat = 60 / repeats per minute
Integral Mode Advantages

Eliminate offset
Minimize integrated error
Smooth movement of output

Integral Mode Disadvantages

Limit cycles
Overshoot
Runaway of open loop unstable reactors

11

Derivative Mode Basics


Nearly all derivative tuning settings are given as a rate time in seconds or minutes. The effective
rate time setting must never be greater than the effective reset time setting. The effective settings
are for an ISA Standard Form. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivative mode are
similar to that of the proportional mode except the relative advantages is less and the relative
disadvantages are greater for the derivative mode.
Seconds = 60 minutes

Derivative Mode Advantages

Minimize dead time from stiction and backlash


Minimize rise time
Minimize peak error
Minimize integrated error

Derivative Mode Disadvantages

Abrupt changes in output upset operators


Abrupt changes in output upset other loops
Amplification of noise
12

Reset Gives Operations What They Want


Should steam or water valve be open ?
TC-100
Reactor Temperature
CO

PV

SP

temperature

steam
valve
opens

SP

50%

PV
water
valve
opens

48

52

time

Open Loop Time Constant (controller in manual)


Signal
(%)

%CO

Controller is in Manual

Open Loop
Error Eo (%)

%PV

0.63Eo

Dead Time
(Time Delay)

%SP

Time
(seconds)
Open Loop
(process)
Time Constant
(Time Lag)

Closed Loop Time Constant (controller in auto)


Signal
(%)
Controller is in Automatic

%CO

%SP

%SP
%PV

0.63%SP

Dead Time
(Time Delay)

Time
(seconds)
Closed Loop
Time Constant
(Time Lag)
Lambda ()

Top Ten Signs Loops Need to be Tuned

(10) Lots of trials and errors.

(9) When asked what the controller gain setting is, the answer is given in %.

(8) When asked what the controller reset time setting is, the answer is in repeats/min.

(7) The data historian compression setting is 25%.

(6) There is more recycle than product.

(5) Valves are wearing out.

(4) Tempers are wearing thin.

(3) Operators are placing bets on what loop will cause the next shutdown.

(2) The output limits are set to keep the valve from moving.

(1) Preferred mode is manual.

16

Conversion of Signals for PID Algorithm


Final Control Element

%
SCLR

%
SUB

SP
%PV
SCLR
PV
(e.u.)

PID
%

%
AO

SCLR
OUT
(e.u.)

%CO

MV
(e.u.)

Process
Equipment

PID
AI

DCS

Control
Valve

PV - Primary Variable
SV - Second Variable*
TV - Third Variable*
FV - Fourth Variable*

Sensing
Smart
Element
Transmitter PV
(e.u.)
Measurement

* - additional HART variables

The scaler block (SCLR) that convert between engineering units of application and % of scale
used in PID algorithm is embedded hidden part of the Proportional-Integral-Derivative block (PID)
To compute controller tuning settings, the process variable and controller output
must be converted to % of scale and time units of dead times and time constants
must be same as time units of reset time and rate time settings!

Series Form
Form in analog controllers and early DCS available as a choice in most modern DCS

Gain

Inverse
Reset All signals are % of scale in PID algorithm but
Time inputs and outputs are in engineering units

%SP

filter

%PV

proportional

Rate
Time

integral

%CO

Filter Time =
Rate Time

filter

derivative

filter
Switch position for no derivative action

18

Parallel Form
Form in a few early DCS and PLC and in many control theory textbooks
Proportional
Gain Setting

%SP

Integral
Gain Setting

filter

%PV

proportional
All signals are % of scale in PID algorithm but
inputs and outputs are in engineering units

integral

%CO

Derivative
Gain Setting

derivative

filter

19

ISA Standard Form


Default Form in most modern DCS

Gain

Inverse
Reset All signals are % of scale in PID algorithm but
Time inputs and outputs are in engineering units

%SP

filter

%PV

proportional

Rate
Time

integral

%CO

Filter Time =
Rate Time

filter

derivative

filter

20

Positive Feedback Implementation of Integral


Form for Enhanced PID developed for wireless
Gain

* Back out positive feedback of Feedforward (*FF) and ISA Standard Form of
Proportional (*P) and Derivative (*D) modes with and factors
P = ( 1) Gain %SP

%SP

All signals are % of scale in PID algorithm but


inputs and outputs are in engineering units

For reverse action,


Error = %SP - %PV
+

filter

Out2

%PV

FF

Filter Time =
Reset Time

Rate
Time

filter

%CO

D
*P

*FF
Switch position
for external
reset feedback

*D

filter

filter

Positive
Feedback

For zero error


Out1 = 0
Out1

Feedforward

Filter Time =
Rate Time

derivative
E-R
Filter Time =
Reset Time

E-R is external reset


(e.g. secondary %PVs)
Dynamic Reset Limit

21

Conversion of Series to ISA Form


To convert from Series to ISA Standard Form controller gain:

Ti ' + Td'
'
Kc =

K
c
Ti '

Interaction factor

To convert from Series to ISA Standard Form reset (integral) time:

Ti ' + Td'
'
'
'
Ti =
+

T
=
T
T
i
i
d
Ti '
To convert from Series to ISA Standard Form rate time:

Ti '
'
Td = '

T
d
Ti + Td'
Primed tuning settings are Series Form
Note that if the rate time is zero, the ISA Standard and Series Form settings are identical.
When using the ISA Standard Form, if the rate time is greater than the reset time the
response can become oscillatory. If the rate time exceeds the reset time, the response can
become unstable from a reversal of action form these modes. The Series Form inherently
prevents this instability by increasing the effective reset time as the rate time is increased.
22

Anti Reset Windup (ARW) and Output Limits


For digital positioners and precise throttling valves
ARW & Out Lo Lim = 0%, ARW & Out Hi Lim = 100%

For pneumatic positioners & on-off heritage valves


Lo Lim = -5%, Hi Lim = 105%
ARW set inside output limits to get thru zone of ineffective valve
response (stick-slip, shaft windup, & poor sensitivity)

For primary PID in cascade control, limits are set to match


secondary setpoint limits in engineering units

Checklist for PID Migration - 1


There are many features and parameters that vary with the DCS supplier. It is imperative the DCS
documentation and supplier expertise be fully utilized and all migrations tested by a real time
simulation for stability. Note the default of 0% low and 100% high output and ARW limits do not
change to match changes made in output scale or engineering units.
For cascade control did you set the output scale of the primary PID in engineering units of the PV
scale of the secondary loop?
For cascade control did you set the primary PID low and high output limits in engineering units to
match setpoint limits of secondary PID?
Did you set the anti-reset windup (ARW) limits to match the output limits using same units as
output limits unless there is some special need for ARW limits to be set otherwise?
Did you convert controller gain setting units (being especially aware of the inverse relationship
between proportional band and gain)?
Did you convert reset units setting (being especially aware of the inverse relationship between
repeats per minute and seconds per repeat)?
Did you convert rate units setting and make the alpha setting the same for the rate filter?
If rate time is not zero and ISA Standard Form is used, did you convert Series Form gain, reset,
and rate settings to corresponding ISA Standard Form settings?
24

Checklist for PID Migration - 2


For override control if the positive feedback implementation of integral mode is used, did you
remove the filter on external reset signal used to prevent walk-off since this filter is already there?
For cascade control, id you turn on external reset feedback (dynamic reset limit) and use PV of
secondary loop for external reset feedback to automatically prevent burst of oscillations from violation
of cascade rule that secondary loop must be 5x faster than primary loop?
For slow or sticky valve, did you turn on external reset feedback (dynamic reset limit) and use a fast
PV readback for external reset feedback to automatically prevent burst of oscillations from violation of
cascade rule that positioner feedback loop must be 5x faster than primary loop and to prevent limit
cycles from stick-slip? Did you realize the PV readback must normally be faster than a secondary HART
variable update time?
For wireless control and at-line or on-line analyzer, did you use an enhanced PID developed for
wireless that suspends integral action between updates (PIDPlus option) and uses elapsed time in the
derivative action. The external-reset option should automatically be turned on?
Did you make sure the BKCAL signals are connected properly paying particular attention to the
propagation of the BKCAL settings for intervening blocks for split range, signal characterization, and
override control?

25

Top 10 Things You Shouldn't Say


When You Enter a Control Room

(10) Does this hard hat make my butt look big?

(9) At the last plant I was in we always did it this way.

(8) I added alarms to each loop.

(7) Does that flare out there always shoot up that high?

(6) Ooooh! Did you mean to do that?

(5) Can't somebody do something about all those alarms?

(4) We just downloaded the version released yesterday

(3) Here, I will show you how to operate this plant.

(2) Are you ready to put all your loops in Remote Cascade?

(1) We want a "lights out" plant!

26

Triple Cascade Loop Block Diagram

Process Primary Controller Secondary Flow Controller Digital Valve Controller

DCS
Process
SP

Drive Signal

Flow
SP
PID

Valve Positioner

PID
External
Reset
BKCAL

CO
External
Reset
BKCAL

AO

PID*

I/P

Relay

Control
Valve

Flow
Meter

Process

Position (Valve Travel)

PV

PV

Position Loop Feedback


AI

AI

* most positioners use proportional only


Secondary (Inner) Loop Feedback

Primary (Outer) Loop Feedback

Process
Sensor

Effect of Slow Secondary Tuning (cascade control)

Secondary loop slowed down by a factor of 5


Secondary CO

Primary PV

Secondary SP

Secondary SP
Secondary CO

Primary PV

External Reset Feedback (Dynamic Reset Limit)

Prevents PID output changing faster


than a valve, VFD, or secondary
loop can respond

Secondary PID slow tuning


Secondary PID SP Filter Time
Secondary PID SP Rate Limit
AO, DVC, VFD SP Rate Limit
Slow Valve or VFD
Use PV for BKCAL_OUT
Position used as PV if valve is very
slow and readback is fast
Enables Enhanced PID for Wireless

Stops Limit cycles from deadband,


backlash, stiction, and threshold
sensitivity or resolution limits
Key enabling feature that simplifies
tuning and creates more advanced
opportunities for PID control

PID Structure Options


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

PID action on error ( = 1 and = 1)


PI action on error, D action on PV ( = 1 and = 0)
I action on error, PD action on PV ( = 0 and = 0)
PD action on error, no I action ( = 1 and = 1)
P action on error, D action on PV, no I action ( = 1 and = 0)
ID action on error, no P action ( = 1)
I action on error, D action on PV, no P action ( = 0)
Two degrees of freedom controller ( and adjustable 0 to 1)

(1) PID action on error


Fastest response to rapid (e.g. step) SP change by
Step in output from proportional mode
Spike in output from derivative mode can be made more like a kick by
decreasing gamma factor ( <1)
Zero dead time from deadband, resolution limit, & stiction

Burst of flow may affect other uses of fluid


Operations do not like sudden changes in output
Fast approach to SP more likely to cause overshoot
Setpoint filter & rate limits eliminate step & overshoot

(2) PI action on error, D action on PV


Slightly slower SP response than structure (1)
Still have step from proportional mode
Spike or bump from derivative mode eliminated

Decrease in SP response speed is negligible if


Output hits output limit due to large SP change or PID gain
Rate time is less than total loop dead time
Alpha factor is increased ( > 0.125) (rate filter increased)

Setpoint filter & rate limits eliminate step & overshoot


Most popular structure choice

(3) I action on error, PD action on PV

Provides gradual change in output for SP change


Slows down SP response dramatically
Eliminates overshoot for SP changes
Used for bioreactor temperature and pH SP changes
(overshoot is much more important than cycle time)
Used for temperature startup to warm up equipment
Generally not recommended for secondary loops

(4 - 5) No Integral action

Used if integral action adversely affects process


Used if batch response is only in one direction
Must set bias (output when PV = SP)
Highly exothermic reactors use structure 4 because
integral action and overshoot can cause a runaway
10x reset time (Ti > 40x dead time) to prevent runaway

Traditionally used on Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) drum


and surge tank level control because of slow integrating
response and permissibility of SP offset.
Low controller gain (Kc) cause slow rolling oscillations due to
violation of inequality for integrating process. The inequality is
commonly violated since Ki (integrating process gain) is extremely
small on most vessels (Ki < 0.000001 %/sec/%).
Most common problem is use of too small of a reset time for vessel batch
composition and temperature, level, and gas pressure control causing
violation of following rule

2
K c * Ti >
Ki

(6 -7) No Proportional Action


Predominantly used for valve position control (VPC)
Parallel valve control (VPC SP & PV are small valve desired & actual
position, respectively, & VPC out positions large valve)
Optimization (VPC SP & PV are limiting valve desired & actual
position, respectively, & VPC out optimizes process PID SP)
VPC reset time > 10x residence time to reduce interaction
VPC reset time > KcTi of process PID to reduce interaction
VPC tuning is difficult & too slow for fast & large disturbances

Better solution is external reset feedback & SP rate limits

Improvement in Batch Temperature by


Elimination of Integral action
Batch temperature response in a single ended temperature
control. Integral action causes overshoot.

Typical Batch Temperature

80
70
degrees C

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

51

101

151

201

251

301

351

401

Time (min)
Setpoint

PV

CO%

Batch temperature response in a single ended temperature


control. PD on error. No I action.

degrees C

Batch Temperature (new tuning)

45.0
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
1

51

101

151

201

251

301

351

401

Time (min)
Setpoint

PV

CO%

36

(8) Two Degrees of Freedom


and SP weighting factors are adjusted to balance fast
approach & minimal overshoot for SP response
Alternative is using SP lead-lag with lag = reset time and lead =
20% of lag to achieve fast SP response with minimal overshoot

Effect of Options on SP Response

Top Ten Reasons to Use a DCS for Your BBQ

(10) Automated recipes

(9) Predicted BBQ times

(8) Five-course meal no problem

(7) Don't have to watch cooking shows

(6) Feed-forward control

(5) Process control comes home

(4) Children want to become automation engineers

(3) Spouse finally appreciates your expertise

(2) Griller not grilled

(1) More time to drink beer

39

Fed-Batch and Startup Time Reduction - 1

PID on Error Structure

Maximizes the step and kick of the controller output for a setpoint change.
Overdrive (driving of output past resting point) is essential for getting slow loops, such
as vessel temperature and pH, to the optimum setpoint as fast as possible.
The setpoint change must be made with the PID in Auto mode.
SP track PV will generally maximize the setpoint change and hence the step and kick
(retaining SP from last batch or startup minimizes kick and bump)

SP Feedforward

For low controller gains (controller gain less than inverse of process gain), a setpoint
feedforward is particularly useful. For this case, the setpoint feedforward gain is the
inverse of the dimensionless process gain minus the controller gain.
For slow self-regulating (e.g. continuous) processes and slow integrating (e.g. batch)
processes, even if the controller gain is high, the additional overdrive can be beneficial
for small setpoint changes that normally would not cause the PID output to hit a limit.
If the setpoint and controller output are in engineering units the feedforward gain must
be adjusted accordingly.
The feedforward action is the process action, which is the opposite of the control
action, taking into account valve action. In other words for a reverse control action, the
feedforward action is direct provided the valve action is increase-open or the analog
output block, I/P, or positioner reverses the signal for a increase-close.

Fed-Batch and Startup Time Reduction - 2

Full Throttle (Bang-Bang Control) - The controller output is stepped to it output


limit to maximize the rate of approach to setpoint and when the projected PV
equals the setpoint less a bias, the controller output is repositioned to the final
resting value. The output is held at the resting value for one dead time. For more
details, check out the Control magazine article Full Throttle Batch and Startup
Response. http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2006/096.html

A dead time (DT) block must be used to compute the rate of change so that new values of
the PV are seen immediately as a change in the rate of approach.
If the total loop dead time (o) is used in the DT block, the projected PV is simply the current
PV minus the output of the DT block (PV) plus the current PV.

If the process changes during the setpoint response (e.g. reaction or evaporation), the
resting value can be captured from the last batch or startup
If the process changes are negligible during the setpoint response, the resting value can be
estimated as:

If the PV rate of change (PV/t) is useful for other reasons (e.g. near integrator or true integrating
process tuning), then PV/t = PV/o can be computed.

the PID output just before the setpoint change for an integrating (e.g. batch) process
the PID output just before the setpoint change plus the setpoint change divided by the process gain
for a self-regulating (e.g. continuous) process

For self-regulating processes such as flow with the loop dead time (o) approaching or
less than the largest process time constant (p ), the logic is revised to step the PID
output immediately to the resting value. The PID output is held at the resting value for
the T98 process response time (T98 = o + 4 o ).

Fed-Batch and Startup Time Reduction - 3

Output Lead-Lag

A lead-lag on the controller output or in the digital positioner can kick the signal though
the valve deadband and stiction, get past split range points, and make faster
transitions from heating to cooling and vice versa.
A lead-lag can potentially provide a faster setpoint response with less overshoot when
analyzers are used for closed loop control of integrating processes When combined
with the enhanced PID algorithm (PIDPlus) described in:

Deminar #1 http://www.screencast.com/users/JimCahill/folders/Public/media/5acf213538c9-422e-9eb9-33ee844825d3
White paper http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/DeltaV-v11-PID-Enhancements-forWireless.pdf

Dead Time Compensation

The simple addition of a delay block with the dead time set equal to the total loop dead
time to the external reset signal for the positive feedback implementation of integral
action described in Deminar #3 for the dynamic reset limit option
http://www.screencast.com/users/JimCahill/folders/Public/media/f093eca1-958f-4d9c96b7-9229e4a6b5ba .
The controller reset time can be significantly reduced and the controller gain increased
if the delay block dead time is equal or slightly less than the process dead time as
studied in Advanced Application Note 3
http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/repository/AdvancedApplicationNote003.pdf

Fed-Batch and Startup Time Reduction - 4

Feed Maximization

Model Predictive Control described in Application Note 1


http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/repository/AdvancedApplicationNote001.pdf
Override control is used to maximize feeds to limits of operating constraints via valve
position control (e.g. maximum vent, overhead condenser, or jacket valve position with
sufficient sensitivity per installed characteristic).
Alternatively, the limiting valve can be set wide open and the feeds throttled for temperature
or pressure control. For pressure control of gaseous reactants, this strategy can be quite
effective.
For temperature control of liquid reactants, the user needs to confirm that inverse response
from the addition of cold reactants to an exothermic reactor and the lag from the
concentration response does not cause temperature control problems.
All of these methods require tuning and may not be particularly adept at dealing with fast
disturbances unless some feedforward is added. Fortunately the prevalent disturbance that
is a feed concentration change is often slow enough due to raw material storage volume to
be corrected by temperature feedback.

Profile Control

If you have a have batch measurement that should increase to a maximum at the batch end
point (e.g. maximum reaction temperature or product concentration), the slope of the batch
profile of this measurement can be maximized to reduce batch cycle time. For application
examples checkout Direct Temperature Rate of Change Control Improves Reactor
Yield in a Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Control Room
http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/FunnyThing/ and the Control magazine article
Unlocking the Secret Profiles of Batch Reactors
http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2008/230.html .

Dead Time Compensator Configuration

Must enable dynamic reset limit !


Insert
deadtime
block

Dead Time Myths Busted

Dead time is eliminated from the loop. The smith predictor, which created a PV without
dead time, fools the controller into thinking there is no dead time. However, for an
unmeasured disturbance, the loop dead time still causes a delay in terms of when the loop
can see the disturbance and when the loop can enact a correction that arrives in the
process at the same point as the disturbance. The ultimate limit to the peak error and
integrated error for an unmeasured disturbance are still proportional to the dead time, and
dead time squared, respectively.
Control is faster for existing tuning settings. The addition of dead time compensation
actually slows down the response for the existing tuning settings. Setpoint metrics, such as
rise time, and load response metrics, such as peak error, will be adversely affected.
Assuming the PID was tuned for a smooth stable response, the controller must be retuned
for a faster response. For a PID already tuned for maximum disturbance rejection, the gain
can be increased by 250%. For dead time dominant systems where the total loop dead
time is much greater than the largest loop time constant (hopefully the process time
constant), the reset time must also be decreased or there will be severe undershoot. If you
decrease the reset time to its optimum, undershoot and overshoot are about equal. For the
test case where the total loop dead time to primary process time constant ratio was 10:1,
you could decrease the reset time by a factor of 10. Further study is needed as to whether
the minimum reset time is a fraction of the underestimated dead time plus the PID module
execution time where the fraction depends upon the dead time to time constant ratio

For access to Deminar 10 ScreenCast Recording or SlideShare Presentation go to


http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2010/10/review_of_deminar_10_-_deadtim.html

Dead Time Myths Busted

Compensator works better for loops dominated by a large dead time. The reduction in
rise time is greatest and the sensitivity to per cent dead time modeling error particularly for
an overestimate of dead time is least for the loop that was dominated by the process time
constant. You could have a dead time estimate that was 100% high before you would see
a significant jagged response when the process time constant was much larger than the
process dead time. For a dead time estimate that was 50% too low, some rounded
oscillations developed for this loop. The loop simply degrades to the response that would
occur from the high PID gain as the compensator dead time is decreased to zero. While
the magnitude of the error in dead time seems small, you have to remember that for an
industrial temperature control application, the loop dead time and process time constant
would be often at least 100 times larger. For a 400 second dead time and 10,000 second
process time constant, a compensator dead time 200 seconds smaller or 400 seconds
larger than actual would start to cause a problem. In contrast, the dead time dominant loop
developed a jagged response for a dead time that was high or low by just 10%. I think this
requirement is unreasonable in industrial processes. A small filter of 1 second on the input
to the dead time block in the BKCAL path may have helped.
An underestimate of the dead time leads to instability. In tuning calculations for a
conventional PID, a smaller than actual dead time can cause an excessively oscillatory
response. Contrary to the effect of dead time on tuning calculations, a compensator dead
time smaller than actual dead time will only cause instability if the controller is tuned
aggressively after the dead time compensator is added.
An overestimate of the dead time leads to sluggish response and greater stability. In
tuning calculations for a conventional PID, a larger than actual dead time can cause an
excessively slow response. Contrary to the effect of dead time on tuning calculations, a
compensator dead time greater than actual dead time will cause jagged irregular
oscillations.

Top Ten Reasons Why Automation Engineers


Makes Great Spouses or at Least a Wedding Gifts

(10) Reliable from day one

(9) Always on the job

(8) Low maintenance (minimal grooming, clothing, and entertainment costs

(7) Many programmable features

(6) Stable

(5) Short settling time

(4) No frills or extraneous features

(3) Relies on feedback

(2) Good response to commands and amenable to real time optimization

(1) Readily tuned

General PID Checklist - 1


Does the measurement scale cover the entire operating range, including abnormal
conditions?
Is the valve action correct (increase-open for fail close and increase-close for fail open)?
Is the control action correct (direct for reverse process and reverse for direct process if the
valve action is set)?
Is the best Form selected (ISA standard form)?
Is the obey setpoint limits in cascade and remote cascade mode option selected?
Are the external reset feedback (BKCAL) signals correctly connected between blocks?
Is the PV for BKCAL selected in the secondary loop PID?
Is the best Structure selected (PI action on error, D action on PV for most loops)?
Is the setpoint track PV in manual option selected to provide a faster initial setpoint
response unless the setpoint must be saved in PID?

48

General PID Checklist - 2


Are setpoint limits set to match process, equipment, and valve constraints?
Are output limits set to match process, equipment, and valve constraints?
Are anti-reset windup (ARW) limits set to match output limits?
Is the module scan rate (PID execution time) less than 10% of minimum reset time?
Is the signal filter time less than 10% of minimum reset time?
Is the PID tuned with a proven tuning method or by an auto-tuner or adaptive tuner?
Is the rate time less than the dead time (the rate is typically zero except for temperature)
Is external-reset feedback (dynamic reset limit) enabled for cascade control, analog output
(AO) setpoint rate limits, and slow control valves or variable speed drives?
Are AO setpoint rate limits set for blending, valve position control, and surge valves?
Is integral deadband greater than limit cycle PV amplitude?
Can an enhanced PID be used for loops with wireless instruments or analyzers?

49

Feedforward Applications

Feedforward is the most common advanced control technique used - often the
feedforward signal is a flow or speed for ratio control that is corrected by a feedback
process controller (Flow is the predominant process input that is manipulated to set
production rate and to control process outputs (e.g. temperature and composition))

Blend composition control - additive/feed (flow/flow) ratio


Column temperature control - distillate/feed, reflux/feed, stm/feed, and bttms/feed (flow/flow) ratio
Combustion temperature control - air/fuel (flow/flow) ratio
Drum level control - feedwater/steam (flow/flow) ratio
Extruder quality control - extruder/mixer (power/power) ratio
Heat exchanger temperature control - coolant/feed (flow/flow) ratio
Neutralizer pH control - reagent/feed (flow/flow) ratio
Reactor reaction rate control - catalyst/reactant (speed/flow) ratio
Reactor composition control - reactant/reactant (flow/flow) ratio
Sheet, web, and film line machine direction (MD) gage control - roller/pump (speed/speed) ratio
Slaker conductivity control - lime/liquor (speed/flow) ratio
Spin line fiber diameter gage control - winder/pump (speed/speed) ratio

Feedforward is most effective if the loop deadtime is large, disturbance speed is fast
and size is large, feedforward gain is well known, feedforward measurement and
dynamic compensation are accurate
Setpoint feedforward is most effective if the loop deadtime exceeds the process time
constant and the process gain is well known
For more discussion of Feedforward see May 2008 Control Talk
http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2008/171.html

Feedforward Implementation - 1

Feedforward gain can be computed from a material or energy balance ODE * &
explored for different setpoints and conditions from a plot of the controlled variable
(e.g. composition, conductivity, pH, temperature, or gage) vs. ratio of manipulated
variable to independent variable (e.g. feed) but is most often simply based on
operating experience

* http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/repository/AdvancedApplicationNote004.pdf
Plots are based on an assumed composition, pressure, temperature, and/or quality
For concentration and pH control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if the changes in the composition
of both the manipulated and feed flow are negligible.
For column and reactor temperature control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if the changes in the
composition and temperature of both the manipulated and feed flow are negligible.
For reactor reaction rate control, the speed/flow is valid if changes in catalyst quality and void
fraction and reactant composition are negligible.
For heat exchanger control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if changes in temperatures of coolant
and feed flow are negligible.
For reactor temperature control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if changes in temperatures of
coolant and feed flow are negligible.
For slaker conductivity (effective alkali) control, the speed/flow ratio is valid if changes in lime
quality and void fraction and liquor composition are negligible.
For spin or sheet line gage control, the speed/speed ratio is valid only if changes in the pump
pressure and the polymer melt quality are negligible.

Dynamic compensation is used to insure the feedforward signal arrives at same


point at same time in process as upset

Compensation of a delay in the feedforward path > delay in upset path is not possible

Feedforward Implementation - 2

Feedback correction is essential in industrial processes

Feedforward gain is a ratio for most load upsets.


Feedforward gain is the inverse of the process gain for setpoint feedforward.

While technically, the correction should be a multiplier for a change in slope and a bias for a change
in the intercept in a plot of the manipulated variable versus independent variable (independent from
this loop but possibly set by another PID or MPC), a multiplier creates scaling problems for the user,
consequently the correction of most feedforward signal is done via a bias.
The bias correction must have sufficient positive and negative range for worst case.
Model predictive control (MPC) and PID loops get into a severe nonlinearity by creating a controlled
variable that is the ratio. It is important that the independent variable be multiplied by the ratio and
the result be corrected by a feedback loop with the process variable (composition, conductivity,
gage, temperature, or pH) as the controlled variable.

Process gain is the open loop gain seen by the PID (product of manipulated variable, process
variable, and measurement variable gain) that is dimensionless.

Feedforward action must be in the same direction as feedback action for upset.
Feedforward action is the opposite of the control action for setpoint feedforward.
Feedforward delay and lag adjusted to match any additional delay and lag,
respectively in path of upset so feedforward correction does not arrive too soon.
Feedforward lead is adjusted to compensate for any additional lag in the path of the
manipulated variable so the feedforward correction does not arrive too late.
The actual and desired feedforward ratio should be displayed along with the bias
correction by the process controller. This is often best done by the use of a ratio block
and a bias/gain block instead of the internal PID feedforward calculation.

Linear Reagent Demand Control


(PV is X axis of Titration Curve)

Signal characterizer converts PV and SP from pH to % Reagent Demand

PV is abscissa of the titration curve scaled 0 to 100% reagent demand


Piecewise segment fit normally used to go from ordinate to abscissa of curve
Fieldbus block offers 21 custom space X,Y pairs (X is pH and Y is % demand)
Closer spacing of X,Y pairs in control region provides most needed compensation
If neural network or polynomial fit used, beware of bumps and wild extrapolation

Special configuration is needed to provide operations with interface to:


See loop PV in pH and signal to final element
Enter loop SP in pH
Change mode to manual and change manual output

Set point on steep part of curve shows biggest improvements from:

Reduction in limit cycle amplitude seen from pH nonlinearity


Decrease in limit cycle frequency from final element resolution (e.g. stick-slip)
Decrease in crossing of split range point
Reduced reaction to measurement noise
Shorter startup time (loop sees real distance to set point and is not detuned)
Simplified tuning (process gain no longer depends upon titration curve slope)
Restored process time constant (slower pH excursion from disturbance)

53

Output Tracking for SP Response

Head-Start logic for startup & batch SP changes:

For SP change PID tracks best/last startup or batch final settling


value for best/last rise time less total loop deadtime
Closed loop time constant is open loop time constant (f =1)
Not as fast as Bang-Bang (PID OUT is not at output limit)

Bang-Bang logic for startup & batch SP changes:

For SP change PID tracks output limit until the predicted PV one
deadtime into future gets within a deadband of setpoint, the output is
then set at best/last startup or batch final settling value for one
deadtime
Implementation uses simple DT block (loop deadtime) to create an
old PV subtracted from the new PV to give a delta PV that is added to
old PV to create a PV one deadtime into future
Works best on slow batch and integrating processes

Output Tracking for Protection - 1

Open Loop Backup to prevent compressor surge:

Open Loop Backup to prevent RCRA violation:

Once a compressor gets into surge, cycles are so fast & large that
feedback control can not get compressor out of surge
When compressor flow drops below surge SP or a precipitous drop
occurs in flow, PID tracks an output that provides a flow large enough
to compensate for the loss in downstream flow for a time larger than
the loop dead time plus the surge period.
An excursion < 2 pH or > 12 pH for even a few sec can be a
recordable RCRA violation regardless of downstream volume
When an inline pH system PV approaches the RCRA pH limit the PID
tracks an incremental output (e.g. 0.25% per sec) opening the
reagent valve until the pH sufficiently backs away

Open Loop Backup for evaporator conductivity

Open Loop Backup Configuration - 2


SP_Rate_DN and SP_RATE_UP used to insure fast getaway and slow approach

Open Loop Backup Configuration

Open loop backup used for prevention of


compressor surge and RCRA pH violation

Output Tracking for Protection - 3

Feedback Action

Output Tracking for Protection - 4

Open Loop Backup

RCRA pH Kicker
Optimization of pH filter and kicker increment saved $50K in reagent costs

MPC-1
MPC-2

Waste
middle selector

RCAS

RCAS

ROUT

AC-1

AC-2

splitter

Kicker

splitter
middle selector

FT

AY

Stage 1
Mixer

AT

AT

AT

AY
AT

AY

AY
FT

AY

AY

Filter

middle selector
AY

Stage 2
Mixer

AT

AT

Attenuation
Tank

AT
FT

AT

AT

Evaporator Conductivity Kicker

Conductivity spike

WBL Flow Kicker

Setpoint Filter
PID SP filter reduces overshoot enabling fast tuning
Setpoint filter time set equal reset time

PID SP filter coordinates timing of flow ratio control


Simultaneous changes in feeds for blending and reactions
Consistent closed loop response for model predictive control

PID SP filter sets closed loop time constant


PID SP filter in secondary loop slows down cascade control
system rejection of primary loop disturbances
Secondary loop must be > 4x faster than primary loop

Primary PID must have dynamic reset limit enabled


Setpoint Lead-Lag minimizes overshoot and rise time
Lag time = reset time
Lead time = 20% lag time

Setpoint Rate Limits


AO & PID SP rate limits minimize disruption while protecting
equipment and optimizing processes
Offers directional moves suppression
Enables fast opening and slow closing surge valve
VPC fast recovery for upset and slow approach to optimum

AO SP rate limits minimize interaction between loops


Less important loops are made 10x slower than critical loops

PID driving AO SP or secondary PID SP rate limit must have


dynamic reset limit enabled so no retuning is needed
PID faceplate should display PV of AO to show rate limiting

Top Ten Reasons to do APC from your Home

(10) Can immediately implement an inspiration.

(9) Can watch the ball game on one of your screens.

(8) Get to wear shorts and sandals.

(7) Get to listen to music rather than alarms.

(6) Lose weight from not eating doughnuts.

(5) Can BBQ while solving control problem.

(4) No more lonely nights and meals.

(3) Your kids start to recognize you.

(2) Your kids want to become automation engineers.

(1) Your spouse starts to offer you advanced process control.

63

Enhanced PID for Wireless Features

Positive feedback implementation of reset with external-reset


feedback (dynamic reset limit)
Immediate response to a setpoint change or feedforward signal or
mode change
Suspension of integral action until change in PV
Integral action is the exponential response of the positive feedback
filter to the change in controller output in elapsed time (the time
interval since last update)
Derivative action is the PV or error change divided by elapsed time
rather than PID execution

Flow Setpoint Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV

Traditional PID
Sensor PV

Flow Load Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV
Traditional PID
Sensor PV

Flow Signal Failure Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV

Traditional PID
Sensor PV

pH Setpoint Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV

Traditional PID
Sensor PV

pH Load Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV Traditional PID
Sensor PV

pH Sensor Failure Response

Enhanced PID
Sensor PV

Traditional PID
Sensor PV

Stop Limit Cycles

Traditional PID

PID PV

PID Output

Limit Cycles from Valve Stick-Slip

Enhanced PID

Benefits Extend Beyond Wireless - 1

The PID enhancement for wireless offers an improvement wherever


there is an update time in the loop. In the broadest sense, an update
time can range from seconds (wireless updates and valve or
measurement sensitivity limits) to hours (failures in communication,
valve, or measurement). Some of the sources of update time are:

Wireless update time for periodic reporting (default update rate)


Wireless measurement trigger level for exception reporting (trigger level)
Wireless communication failure
Broken pH electrode glass or lead wires (failure point is about 7 pH)
Valve with backlash (deadband) and stick-slip (resolution)
Operating at split range point (no response & abrupt response discontinuity)
Valve with solids, high temperature, or sticky fluid (plugging and seizing)
Plugged impulse lines
Analyzer sample, analysis cycle, and multiplex time
Analyzer resolution and threshold sensitivity limit
To completely stop a valve limit cycle from backlash or stick-slip,
measurement updates must not occur due to noise

Benefits Extend Beyond Wireless - 2

Enhanced PID executes for a change in setpoint, feedforward, or


remote output to provide an immediate reaction based on PID structure
The improvement in control by the enhanced PID is most noticeable as
the update time becomes much larger than the 63% process response
time (defined in the white paper as the sum of the process deadtime
and time constant). When the update time becomes 4 times larger than
this 63% process response time ( 98% response time frequently cited in
the literature), the feedforward and controller gains can be set to
provide a complete correction for changes in the measurement and
setpoint.

Helps ignore inverse response and errors in feedforward timing


Helps ignore discontinuity (e.g. steam shock) at split range point
Helps extend packing life by reducing oscillations and hence valve travel

Since enhanced PID can be set to execute only upon a significant


change in user valve position, this PID as a valve position controller
offers less interaction and cycling for optimization of unit operations by
increasing reactor feed, column feed or increasing refrigeration unit
temperature, or decreasing compressor pressure till feed, vent,
coolant, and/or steam, valves are at maximum good throttle position.
Website entries on Enhanced PID Benefits
http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2010/08/wireless_pid_benefits_extend_t.html
http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2010/10/enhanced_pid_for_wireless_elim.html
http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2010/11/a_delay_of_any_sorts.html

Why over 100 PID Tuning Rules?


Aidan ODwyers Handbook of PI and PID Controller Tuning
Rules - 2nd Edition has over 500 pages of rules
The originators all think their rules are best due to

Gamesmanship
Diverse sources of change
Diverse objectives
Diverse dynamics
Diverse metrics

Convergence of Tuning Rules


The most popular PID rules converge to the same equations
for 99% of temperature, composition, level, and gas pressure
loops despite diversity of metrics, dynamics, objectives, and
sources of change if the following is used:

Tuning to minimize the effect of unmeasured disturbances


Tuning to maximize absorption of variability (e.g. surge tank level)
Dead time block in identification of process dynamics
Primary PID Setpoint Lag = reset time and Lead = 20% of Lag
Analog output setpoint rate limit and PID external-reset feedback
Enhanced PID developed for wireless with threshold sensitivity

For the remaining cases:


For drastic deceleration from dead time dominance decrease gain,
reset time, and rate time
For severe acceleration from runaway reaction, increase gain,
reset time, and rate time

Diverse Sources of Change

Raw material and recycle composition and impurities


Weather (temperature, humidity, snow, rain)
Utility temperature and pressure
Operators (production rate changes and manual actions)
Interactions and Optimization
Batch sequences and on-off control
Startups, transitions, and shutdowns
Measurement and process noise
Limit cycles

Diverse Process Objectives


Maximize safety
Prevent activation of relief devices and Safety Instrumented
Systems (SIS)

Maximize equipment, environmental, & process protection


Minimize product variability

Minimize limit cycles


Minimize oscillatory loop response
Minimize interaction between loops
Maximize coordination between loops

Maximize process capacity and efficiency


Increase production rate and decrease raw material and utility use

Diverse Process Objectives


Automated Risk Reduction

SIS

PID

Diverse Process Objectives


Maximize Protection
Eliminate temperature shock and water hammer
Slow action of control valve in direction of causing shock

Eliminate compressor surge


Slow closing of surge valves and downstream user valves
Fast opening of surge valves

Eliminate flare stack emissions


Fast opening of runaway reactor coolant valves

Eliminate RCRA pH Violations


Fast opening of base reagent valve when approaching 2 pH
Fast opening of acid reagent valve when approaching 12 pH

Diverse Process Objectives


Minimize Product Variability
Minimize cycling from valve discontinuities
Suspension of integral action when valve is not moving or for an
impending unnecessary crossing of the split range point

Minimize oscillatory response


Slow approach to setpoint and suspension of integral action between
updates from analyzers and wireless transmitters

Minimize interaction between loops


Slow and fast action of less and more critical loop, respectively

Maximize coordination of loops


Identical ratioed rates of change of feeds particularly for plug flow
reactors, and inline systems, such as blenders and static mixers

Diverse Process Objectives


Maximize Efficiency and Capacity
Use PID for valve position control (VPC) to increase feed or
reduce raw material or energy use for valve constraint.
Slow approach by VPC to optimum to avoid upsetting loops
Fast getaway by VPC for upset to avoid running out of valve
Suspension of integral action in VPC for valve that is not moving or
whose movements are inconsequential

Key PID Features for VPC


Feature

Function

Advantage 1

Advantage 2

Direction Velocity
Limits

Limit VPC Action


Speed Based on
Direction

Prevent Running Out


of Valve

Minimize Disruption
to Process

Dynamic Reset
Limit

Limit VPC Action


Speed to Process
Response

Direction Velocity
Limits

Prevent Burst of
Oscillations

Adaptive Tuning

Automatically Identify
and Schedule Tuning

Eliminate Manual
Tuning

Compensation of
Nonlinearity

Feedforward

Preemptively Set VPC


Out for Upset

Prevent Running Out


of Valve

Minimize Disruption

Enhanced PID
(PIDPlus)

Suspend Integral
Action until PV Update

Eliminate Limit Cycles


from Stiction &
Backlash

Minimize Oscillations
from Interaction & PV
Update Delay

Examples of Optimization by VPC


Optimization

VPC PID PV

VPC PID SP

VPC PID Out

Minimize Prime
Mover Energy

Reactor Feed
Flow PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Compressor or Pump
Pressure SP

Minimize Boiler
Fuel Cost

Steam Flow PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Boiler
Pressure SP

Minimize Boiler
Fuel Cost

Equipment
Temperature PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Boiler
Pressure SP

Minimize Chiller
or CTW Energy

Equipment
Temperature PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Chiller or CTW
Temperature SP

Minimize Purchased
Reagent or Fuel Cost

Purchased Reagent or
Fuel Flow PID Out

Min Throttle Position

Waste Reagent
Or Fuel Flow SP

Minimize Total
Reagent Use

Final Neutralization
Stage pH PID Out

Min Throttle Position

First Neutralization
Stage pH PID SP

Maximize Reactor
Production Rate

Reactor or Condenser
Temperature PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Feed Flow or Reaction


Temperature SP

Maximize Reactor
Production Rate

Reactor Vent
Pressure PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Feed Flow or Reaction


Temperature SP

Maximize Column
Production Rate

Reboiler or Condenser
Flow PID Out

Max Throttle Position

Feed Flow or Column


Pressure SP

Maximize Ratio or
Feedforward Accuracy

Process Feedback
Correction PID Out

50%
(Zero Correction)

Flow Ratio or
Feedforward Gain

Liquid Reactants (Jacket CTW)


Liquid Product Optimization
ZC1-4
OUT

ratio
calc

FC
1-1

CAS

1-8

FY
1-6
reactant A

LY
1-8

PT

PC

1-5

1-5

FT

FT

1-1

1-5

residence
time calc
CAS

ZC1-4 is an enhanced PID VPC

LC

FC

FC 1-1
CAS

ZC
1-4

vent

LT

TT

TC

1-8

1-3

1-3

1-2

reactant B

FT

TT

TC

1-4

1-4

1-2
return

Valve position controller (VPC) setpoint


is the maximum throttle position. The
VPC should turn off integral action to
prevent interaction and limit cycles. The
correction for a valve position less than
setpoint should be slow to provide a slow
approach to optimum. The correction for
a valve position greater than setpoint must
be fast to provide a fast getaway from the
point of loss of control. Directional velocity
limits in AO with dynamic reset limit in an
enhanced PID that tempers integral action
can achieve these optimization objectives.

AT

AC

1-6

1-6

makeup
CTW

FC
1-7

FT

product

1-7

84

Liquid Reactants (Jacket CTW)


Gas & Liquid Products Optimization
ZY1-1
OUT

ratio
calc

FC

PT

PC

ZC

1-1

1-5

1-5

1-5

CAS

FY
1-6
reactant A

LC

TT

FT

1-8

1-10

1-5

residence
time calc
CAS

FC

ZY-1
IN1

1-10

1-8

TC

FT
1-1

LY

product

LT

TT

1-8

1-3

TC

ZC

1-3

1-10

TT

TC

1-4

1-4

ZY-1
IN2

1-2

reactant B

FT
1-2

return
ZC-5
OUT

FC1-1
CAS

low signal
selector
ZC-10
ZY
OUT
1-1

ZC
AT

AC

1-6

1-6

1-4

ZY-1
IN3
makeup

ZC-4
OUT

CTW
CAS

FC
1-7

ZC1-4, ZC-5, & ZC-10 are enhanced PID VPC

FT

product

1-7

85

Innovative PID System to Optimize


Ethanol Yield and Carbon Footprint
Corn
Production Rate
Enhanced PID
setpoint

AC
1- 4

Average Fermentation Time


Enhanced PID
SC
1-4

AY
1- 4

XC
1- 4

AT
NIR-T
1- 4

XY
1- 4

Slurry Solids
Enhanced PID
Feedforward

Fermentable Starch
Correction

DX
2- 4

DC
2- 4

RCAS

FC
1- 5

Dilution Water

FT
1- 5
FC
1- 6

Backset Recycle

DT
2- 4

FT
1- 6

Slurry
Tank 1

Coriolis
Meter

Slurry
Tank 2

Lag and Delay


DY
2- 4

Predicted Fermentable Starch

86

Loop Block Diagram


(First Order Approximation)
Delay

Lag

Gain

Kd

DV

Delay <=> Dead Time


Lag <=>Time Constant

Load Upset
Delay

Lag

Gain

Kv

Secondary
Delay

Secondary
Lag

Primary
Delay

Primary
Lag

Gain

Kp

Fv

Kv = slope of installed
flow characteristic

%CO

PID

Kc

Ti
%

Td
%PV

PV

Process

Valve

o is the largest lag in the loop (hopefully p)


For self-regulating processes: Ko = Kv Kp Km

For near integrating processes: Ki = Kv (Kp / p) Km

Local
Set Point
%SP

Km = 100% / span
of Wireless Default Update Rate

%
Delay

Lag

Gain

Lag

Delay

Lag

c2

c1

Km

m2

m2

m1

Lag

Controller

Measurement

m1
Delay

First Order Approximation: v + s + p + m1 + m2 + c + Yv + Ys + Ym1 + Ym2 + Yc1 + Yc2


(set by automation system design for flow, pressure, level, speed, surge, and static mixer pH control)

87

Open Loop Response of


Self-Regulating Process

% Process Variable (%PV)


or
% Controller Output (%CO)

Response to change in controller output with controller in manual

%PV

Ko = %PV / %CO
Self-regulating process gain (%/%)

%CO
%PV

Maximum speed
in 4 dead times
is critical speed

0.63%PV

%CO

Noise Band

observed
total loop
dead time

ideally

Time (seconds)

Self-regulating process open loop


negative feedback time constant
88

Open Loop Response of


Integrating Process
Response to change in controller output with controller in manual

% Process Variable (%PV)


or
% Controller Output (%CO)

%PV

Ki = { [ %PV2 / t2 ] [ %PV1 / t1 ] } / %CO


Integrating process gain (%/sec/%)

%CO

%CO

Maximum ramp rate


in 4 dead times is used
to estimate integrating
process gain

ramp rate is
%PV2 / t2

ramp rate is
%PV1 / t1

observed
total loop
dead time

Time (seconds)

89

Open Loop Response of


Runaway Process
Response to change in controller output with controller in manual

% Process Variable (%PV)


or
% Controller Output (%CO)

Ko = %PV / %CO
Runaway process gain (%/%)

Acceleration

For safety reasons, tests are


terminated within 4 dead times
before noticeable acceleration

1.72%PV

%PV
%CO

Noise Band

observed
total loop
dead time

must be

runaway process open loop


positive feedback time constant

Time (seconds)

90

Diverse Loop Metrics

Peak and integrated errors for load disturbances


Rise time for setpoint change (time to reach setpoint)
Overshoot for setpoint change
Settling time for setpoint change
Standard deviation of oscillations

Diverse Metrics
Peak and Integrated Error

The use of a setpoint lead-lag with the lag equal to the reset time and the lead
20% of the lag will provide a fast setpoint response with minimal overshoot
despite tuning for maximum load rejection

Ultimate Limit to Loop Performance


Peak error is proportional to the ratio of loop dead time to 63% response time
(Important to prevent SIS trips, relief device activation, surge prevention, and RCRA pH violations)
Total loop deadtime
that is often set by
automation design

o
Ex =
Eo
( o + o )
Largest lag in loop
that is ideally set by
large process volume

Integrated error is proportional to the ratio of loop dead time squared to 63% response time
(Important to minimize quantity of product off-spec and total energy and raw material use)

o2
Ei =
Eo
( o + o )
For a sensor lag (e.g. electrode or thermowell lag) or signal filter that is much larger
than the process time constant, the unfiltered actual process variable error can be
found from the equation for attenuation

Effect of Disturbance Lag on Integrating Process

Periodic load disturbance time constant


increased by factor of 10

Adaptive loop
Baseline loop

Adaptive loop

Baseline loop

Primary reason why bioreactor control loop tuning


and performance for load upsets is a non issue!

Practical Limit to Loop Performance


Peak error decreases as the controller gain increases but is essentially the
open loop error for systems when total dead time >> process time constant

1
Ex =
Eo
(1 + K o K c )

Open loop error for


fastest and largest
load disturbance

Integrated error decreases as the controller gain increases and reset time decreases
but is essentially the open loop error multiplied by the reset time plus signal
delays and lags for systems when total dead time >> process time constant

Ei =

Ti + t x + f
Ko Kc

Eo

Peak and integrated errors cannot be better than ultimate limit - The errors predicted
by these equations for the PIDPlus and deadtime compensators cannot be better
than the ultimate limit set by the loop deadtime and process time constant

Implied Dead Time from Slow Tuning


Slow tuning (large Lambda) creates an implied dead time where the loop performs
about the same as a loop with fast tuning and an actual dead time equal to the
implied dead time (i)

i = 0.5 ( + o )
For most aggressive tuning Lambda is set equal to observed dead time
(implied dead time is equal to observed dead time)
Money spent on improving measurement and process dynamics
(e.g. reducing measurement delays and process dead times)
will be wasted if the controller is not tuned faster to take
advantage of the faster dynamics

You can prove most any point you want to make in a comparison
of control system performance, by how you tune the PID.
Inventors of special algorithms as alternatives to the PID
naturally tend to tune the PID to prove their case. For example Ziegler-Nichols
tuning is often used to show excessive oscillations that could have be
eliminated by cutting gain in half

Disturbance Speed
Effect of load disturbance lag (L) on peak error can be estimated by replacing the
open loop error with the exponential response of the disturbance during the loop dead time

For Ei (integrated error), use closed loop time constant instead of dead time

E L = (1 e o / L ) Eo
For a load disturbance lag much larger than the dead time, the load error in one dead time
Is very small, allowing a very large implied dead time from slow tuning. In other words,
tuning and control loop dynamics are not important in terms of disturbance rejection. The focus
is then on the effect of tuning and dynamics on rise time (time to reach a new setpoint)

Setpoint Response Rise Time

Rise time (time to reach a new setpoint) is inversely proportional to controller gain

% SP
Tr =
+ o
K i min ( | %COmax |, ( K c + K ff ) % SP )
Rise time can be decreased by setpoint feedforward and bang-bang logic that
sets and holds an output change at maximum (%COmax) for one dead time until
future PV value is projected to reach setpoint. The fastest possible rise time is:

% SP
Tr =
+ o
K i | %COmax |

Basic Lambda Tuning (Self-Regulating Processes)


Self-Regulation Process Gain:

Ko =

% PV
%CO

Controller Gain

Ti
Kc =
K o ( + o )
Lambda (Closed Loop Time Constant for Setpoint Response)

= f o

Controller Integral Time

Ti = o
Lambda tuning excels at coordinating loops for blending,
fixing lower loop dynamics for model predictive control,
and reducing loop interaction and resonance

Fastest Lambda Tuning (Self-Regulating Process)

For max load rejection set lambda equal to dead time

= o
K c = 0.5

o
Ko o

Ti = o

Basic Lambda Tuning Integrating Processes


Lambda (closed loop arrest time in load response)

= f / Ki
Integrating Process Gain:

Ki =

% PV2 / t 2 % PV1 / t1
%CO
Controller Gain:

Kc =

Ti

K i [ + o ]2

Controller Integral (Reset) Time:

Ti = 2 + o
Controller Derivative (Rate) Time:
Td = s secondary lag

Fastest Lambda Tuning Integrating Processes


For max load rejection set lambda equal to dead time

= o
Controller Gain:

3
Kc =
Ki 4 o
Controller Integral (Reset) Time:

Ti = 3 o
Controller Derivative (Rate) Time:
Td = s secondary lag
Check for prevention of slow rolling oscillations:

2.25
K c * Ti =
Ki

Often Violated Criteria for Integrating Processes

To prevent slow rolling oscillations:

2
K c * Ti >
Ki

103

Near Integrator Approximation (Short Cut Method)


For Near Integrating gain approximation use maximum
ramp rate divided by change in controller output
K
K i = o = Max [(% PV / t ) / %CO ]
p
Compute maximum ramp rate as maximum delta between input (new %PV)
and output (old %PV) of dead time block divided by the block dead time
and finally the change in controller output
(block dead time is total loop dead time)
% PVmax
o
Ki =
%CO
Estimate open loop gain as the difference between
current operating point and original operating point

% PV % PVo
Ko =
%CO %COo

Fastest Controller Tuning (short cut method)


For self-regulating processes:

o
K c = 0.4
Ko o

Near integrator (o >> o):

Dead time dominant (o << o):

1
K c = 0.2
Ko

1
K c = 0.4
Ki o

For integrating processes:

K c = 0.6

1
Ki o

Td = s

Ti = 4.0 o

Ti = 4 o

Ti = 0.5 o

Td = 0

1.0 for Enhanced PID if Wireless Default


Update Rate > Process Response Time !

Td = s

For runaway processes:

'p
K c = 0.8
Ko o

Near integrator (p >> o):

1
K c = 0.8
Ki o

Ti = 40 o

Td = 2 s

These tuning equations provide maximum


disturbance rejection but will cause
some overshoot of setpoint response
unless a setpoint lead-lag is used

Top Ten Things Missing in University


Courses on Process Control

(10) Control valves with stick-slip and deadband

(9) Measurements with repeatability errors and turndown limits

(8) Volumes with variable mixing and transportation delays

(7) Process input load disturbance

(6) Control action (direct & reverse) & valve action (increase-open & increase-close)

(5) PID algorithms using percent

(4) PID structure, anti-reset windup, output limits, and dynamic reset

(3) Industry standards for function blocks and communication

(2) Control Talk

(1) My books

Ultimate Period and Ultimate Gain

Ultimate Period
Tu

Measurement
(%)

If o >> o then Tu = 4

If o << o then u = 2

Set Point

Ultimate Gain is Controller Gain that Caused


these Nearly Equal Amplitude Oscillations (Ku)
0

Time
(min)

Damped Oscillation - (Proportional-Derivative)

Quarter Amplitude
Period To

Measurement
(%)

Offset
Set Point
110%
of o

Time
(min)

Damped Oscillation Tuning Method


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

Put the controller in auto at normal setpoint.


Choose largest step change in controller setpoint that is safe. Increase the reset time
by a factor of 10x for test.
Add a PV filter to keep the controller output fluctuations from noise within the valve
deadband.
Step the controller setpoint. If the response is non-oscillatory, increase the controller
gain and step the controller setpoint in opposite direction. Repeat until you get a slight
oscillation (ideally amplitude decay). Make sure the controller output is not hitting the
controller output limits and is on the sensitive part of the control valves or variable
speed drives installed flow characteristic.
Estimate the period of the oscillation. Reduce the controller gain until the oscillation
disappears ( current gain), set the reset time equal to the period, and the rate time
equal to of the reset time. If the oscillation is noisy or resembles a square wave or
the controller gain is high (e.g. > 10), set the rate time to zero. The factors are the
ultimate period and twice the ultimate gain factors because the controller gain that
triggered the amplitude oscillation is about the ultimate gain and the amplitude
period is larger than the ultimate period.
If a high controller gain is used (e.g. > 10) use AO setpoint rate of change (velocity)
limits if a big kick in the controller output for setpoint changes is disruptive to operations
from PD action on error (enable external reset feedback).
Make setpoint changes across the range of operation to make sure an operating point
with a higher controller gain or larger process dead time does not cause oscillations.
Monitor the loop closely over several days of operation.

Traditional Open Loop Tuning Method


1.
2.

Choose largest step change in controller output that is safe.


Add a PV filter to keep the controller output fluctuations from noise within the valve
deadband.
3. Make a change in controller output in manual.
4. Note the time it take for the process variable to get out of the noise band as the loop
dead time.
5. Estimate the process time constant as the time to reach 63% of the final value.
6. Estimate the process gain as final change in the process variable (%) after it reaches a
steady state divided by change in the controller output (%).
7. To use reaction curve tuning, set the controller gain equal to the process time
constant divided by the product of the process gain and dead time.
8. If the process lag is much larger than the loop dead time, set the reset time setting
equal to 4x the dead time and set the rate time setting equal to the dead time. If
process lag is much smaller than the loop dead time, set the reset time to 0.5x the loop
dead time and the rate time to zero.
9. If a high controller gain is used (e.g. > 10) use setpoint rate of change (velocity) limits if
a big kick in the controller output for setpoint changes is disruptive to operations for PD
on error (enable external reset feedback).
10. Make setpoint changes across the range of operation to make sure an operating point
with a higher controller gain or larger process dead time does not cause oscillations.
Monitor the loop closely over several days of operation.

Short Cut Ramp Rate Tuning Method


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Choose largest step change in controller output and setpoint that is safe. If the test is to
be made in auto, increase the reset time by factor of 10x for test.
Add a PV filter to keep the controller output fluctuations from noise within the valve
deadband. Measure the initial rate of change of the process variable (PV1/t).
Make a either a change in controller output in manual or change in set point in auto
Note the time it take for the for the process variable to get out of the noise band as the
loop dead time.
Estimate the rate of change of the process variable (PV2/t) over successive dead time
intervals (at least two). Choose the largest rate of change. Subtract this from initial rate of
change of the process variable and divide the result by the step change in controller
output to get the integrating process gain.
Set the controller gain equal to the inverse of the product of integrating process gain and
loop dead time multiplied by 0.4 (self-regulating), 0.6 (integrating), and 0.8 (runaway)

7.

8.

If the inverse of the integrating gain is much larger than the loop dead time, set the reset time
setting equal to 4x the process dead time and set the rate time setting equal to the process dead
time, otherwise set the reset time to 0.5x the process dead time and the rate time to zero

If a high controller gain is used (e.g. > 10) use setpoint rate of change (velocity) limits if a
big kick in the controller output for setpoint changes is disruptive to operations from PD
action on error (enable external reset feedback).
Make setpoint changes across the range of operation to make sure an operating point
with a higher controller gain or larger process dead time does not cause oscillations.
Monitor the loop closely over several days of operation.

On-Demand Tuning Algorithm

Ultimate Gain
4d
Ku =
e

Signal
(%)

Ultimate Period
Tu

Set Point

Time
(min)
e = sq rt (a2 - n2) If n = 0, then e = a
alternative to n is a filter to smooth PV

Adaptive Tuning Algorithm

Multiple Model
Interpolation with
Re-centering

Estimated
Gain

For each iteration, the squared error is


computed for every model I each scan

E=
i (t )
( y (t ) Yi (t ) )

Where:

y (t ) is the process output at the time t


Yi (t ) is i-th model output

K
Changing
Process Input Pure Gain
Process

A norm is assigned to each parameter value


k = 1,2,.,m in models l = 1,2,,n.
N

Ep kl (t ) = kl Ei (t )

Initial Model
Gain = G1

i =1

kl
kl = 1 if parameter value p is used in

the model, otherwise is 0

G2-
G3-

G2
G3

G2+
G3+

Multiple
iterations per
adaptation
cycle

For an adaptation cycle of M scans


M

sumEp kl = Ep kl (t )
t =1

Fkl =

1
sumEp kl

The interpolated parameter value is

p k (=
a ) p k 1 f k 1 + ... + p kl f kl + ... + p kn f kn

f k1 =

Fkl

sumFk

Broadley-James Corporation Bioreactor Setup

Hyclone 100 liter


Single Use
Bioreactor (SUB)
Rosemount
WirelessHART
gateway and
transmitters for
measurement
and control of pH
and temperature.
(pressure
monitored)
BioNet lab
optimized control
system based on
DeltaV

Bioreactor Adaptive Control Performance

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Setup

Bioreactor Adaptive Model Viewing

Bioreactor Adaptive Learning Setup

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Gain 40 Reset 500

0.30 oC overshoot

Output comes off high limit at 36.8 oC

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Gain 40 Reset 5,000

0.12 oC overshoot

Output comes off high limit at 35.9 oC

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Gain 40 Reset 10,000

0.13 oC overshoot

Output comes off high limit at 36.1 oC

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Gain 40 Reset 15,000

0.20 oC overshoot

Output comes off high limit at 36.4 oC

Bioreactor Adaptive Tuning Gain 80 Reset 15,000

0.11 oC overshoot

Output comes off high limit at 36.1 oC

Integrating and Runaway Process Tuning

It is difficult to prevent overshoot in processes without self-regulation


Controller gain adds self-regulation via closed loop response
Examples of integrating processes (ramping response) are

Examples of runaway processes (accelerating response) are

Liquid and solids level


furnace, column, or vessel pressure
batch composition, pH, or temperature
exothermic reactor temperature
strong acid - strong base pH
exponential growth phase biomass
compressor speed during surge

An overdrive of the controller output beyond its resting value is needed to reach a
set point or compensate for a disturbance (achieved by high controller gain)
The maximum allowable controller gain for many integrating processes is well
beyond the comfort level of most users. Measurement noise and resolution often
sets the practical high limit to the controller gain rather than process dynamics
Too much reset action (too small of a reset time) cause severe overshoot
A higher controller gain creates more overdrive for small setpoint changes and
gets controller off its output limit sooner for large setpoint changes
There is a window of allowable controller gains.

Instability from too high of a controller gain (not likely for industrial processes)
Slow rolling oscillations from too low of a controller gain (common case) that slowly
decay for integrating processes but can grow for runaway till it hits physical limits

Arrest Time for Max Variability Absorption - 1


The arrest time ( ) is the max allowable % excursion (%PVmax) divided by the max PV ramp rate. The max ramp
rate is the PV rate of change per % output change multiplied by the max available % output change (%COmax).

% PVmax

% PV
%COmax
t
%CO

Realizing that the integrating process gain is the PV rate of change per percent output change:

1 % PVmax

K i %COmax

For a PV limit (%PVmax) and corresponding CO limit (%COmax) we have

% PVLimit % SP
1

K i %COLimit %CO

The above calculation would be done for high and low operating limits and various setpoints.
The smallest of the arrest times would be used in tuning.

Arrest Time for Max Variability Absorption - 2


The integrating process gain is the product of the valve, process, and measurement gains:

Ki = Kv K p K m
The valve gain or variable speed drive gain for a linear installed characteristic or flow loop is:

Kv =

Fv
Fmax
=
%CO 100%

The level process gain for mass flow is (omit density term for volumetric flow):

Kp =

1
A

The level measurement gain is:

Km =

% PV 100%
=
L
Lmax

Arrest Time for Max Variability Absorption - 3


Substituting in the valve, process, and measurement gains, the integrating process gain is:

Ki = Kv K p K m =

Fmax
1
100% Fmax
1

100% A Lmax Lmax A

The consequential arrest time for a level loop is:

A Lmax % PVmax

Fmax
%COmax

An equivalent setpoint rate limit on the controller output (e.g. flow controller setpoint):

%CO

t max

%COmax

%COmax
Fmax
=

A Lmax % PVmax

Simplified Approach for Diverse


Applications and Requirements
Use lambda integrator tuning rules for integrating, runaway, and
lag dominant self-regulating processes
For maximum disturbance rejection set arrest time = dead time ( = o)
To absorb variability compute arrest time () from integrating process gain,
allowable %PVmax excursion, and available %COmax per last slide
Compute controller gain and reset time based on selected arrest time
Set rate time equal to secondary time constant

Use external-reset feedback (dynamic reset limit)


Use setpoint filter and rate limits (directional move suppression)
to improve coordination, optimization, and reduce interaction
Use enhanced PID to eliminate oscillations from valve backlash
or stiction, split range point, interaction, or large and variable
update time (e.g., at-line or offline analyzers)
Use output tracking for equipment protection and bang-bang logic
Use feedforward for fast and large measured disturbances

Effect of Wireless Measurement


Update Time and Interval on Performance
o + w + v
Ex =
Eo
T63

(o + w + v ) 2
Ei =
Eo
T63

w = Min( T , S )

T = 0.5 Tw

( % PV / t ) max = K i ( Eo / K o )

S =

Ki =

Ko

T63 = o + w + o

0 .5 S m
S =
( % PV / t ) max

( % PV / t ) max =

Eo

0.5 S m o
Eo
129

Additional Dead Time from


Valve Stick-Slip, Resolution, or Deadband

v =

0.5 S v
( %CO / t ) max

( %CO / t ) max = K c ( % PV / t ) max

Sv
K c = min x o ,

[
]

K
N
S

max
(

),
0
.
002
m
m
o o

( %CO / t ) max =

K x Eo
Ko o

( % PV / t ) max =

v =

Eo

0.5 S v K o o
K x Eo

Increase in process gain from elimination of controller reaction to noise by wireless trigger level or
PID threshold sensitivity setting decreases dead time from valve stick-slip, resolution, or deadband
130

Nomenclature
A = cross sectional area (m2) (ft2)
Kc = controller gain (dimensionless)
Ki = integrating process gain (%/sec/% or 1/sec)
Kp = process gain (dimensionless) also known as open loop gain
Lmax = max change in level (e.g. level span) (m) (ft)
Fmax = max change in manipulated flow (e.g. flow span) (kg/sec) (lb/sec)
%CO = change in controller output (%)
%PV = change in process variable (%)
%SP = change in setpoint (%)
%SPff = setpoint feedforward (%)
t = change in time (sec)
tx = execution or update time (sec)
o = total loop dead time (sec)
f = filter time constant or well mixed volume residence time (sec)
m = measurement time constant (sec)
s = secondary (small) self-regulating process time constant (sec)
p = primary (large) runaway process time constant (sec)
p = primary (large) process time constant (sec)
Ti = integral (reset) time setting (sec/repeat)
Td = derivative (rate) time setting (sec)
Tr = rise time for setpoint change (sec)
to = oscillation period (sec)
= Lambda (closed loop time constant or arrest time) (sec)
f = Lambda factor (ratio of closed to open loop time constant or 1/Ki factor)

131

Nomenclature
Ei = integrated error for unmeasured load disturbance (% sec)
Ex = peak error for unmeasured load disturbance (%)
Eo = open loop error (loop in manual) for unmeasured load disturbance (%)
Ki = near integrator process gain (% per % per sec)
Ko = open loop gain (dimensionless product of valve, process, and measurement gains)
Kx = detuning factor for controller gain (dimensionless)
Nm = measurement noise (%)
%CO/t = rate of change in PID % controller output (% per sec)
%PV/t = rate of change in PID % process variable (% per sec)
Tw = wireless default update rate (update time interval) (sec)
Sm = wireless measurement trigger level (threshold sensitivity) (%)
Sv = valve stick-slip, resolution, or deadband (%)
T63 = 63% process response time (sec)
o = original loop dead time (sec)
t = additional dead time from default update rate (sec)
s = additional dead time from wireless trigger level (sec)
v = additional dead time from valve (sec)
w = additional dead time from wireless measurement (sec)
= fluid density (kg/m3) (lb/ft3)
o = self-regulating open loop time constant (largest time constant in loop) (sec)
o = runaway open loop time constant (positive feedback process time constant) (sec)
132