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Knitted Fabric Defects, their Root Causes & Remedies

Sr.
No
.
1

Defect
Name
Width
Variatio
n

Root Causes
1. Moisture

2. Method of knotting

3. Tension setting of elastic


yarn

Remedies
1. The humidity and temperature in knitting
department should be 60 5 % and 25 5C.
However during dry season when the outside
humidity level falls, humidification in the
department needs to be controlled more
efficiently. Maintaining required humidity
level improves the performance of knitting
machine without affecting the metallurgy of
the machines.
2. Whenever yarn breaks or finished, it
should be knotted instead of twisting as this
is normal practice used in industry. Because,
in case of twisting it is likely that it may open
and may cause cut in the fabric. It is also one
of the ways to reduce the cut in the fabric.
During yarn knotting, the operator should use
scissor / clippers for cutting the extra knot
edges. The extra knot edges should not be
more than 5 mm in lengths Knot the yarn
only after stop the machine.
3. Yarn Tension plays an important role in the

Remarks

4. Elastic yarn stretch


variation

knitting. It should be set properly at start of


each order and monitored as well. Yarn
tension meter should be used to set the yarn
tension. All yarn eye guides play an
important roll in knitting process. Missing
yarn eye guides cause variation in yarn
tension and high friction hence affecting
smooth flow of yarn. This also results in yarn
breakage, knitting holes and more fluff in the
department. Therefore, missing eye guides
must be checked at regular intervals and
replaced accordingly.

5. Elastic yarn gauge


variation

4. Maintain equal yarn tension on both the


elastic feeders, which are feeding the yarn
through kulfi device.

6. Wrong knotting at elastic


yarn cone end.

5. Both the elastic yarn should be same


gauge.

7. Faulty elastic yarn


feeding.

6. Always stop the the machine at finish of


elastic yarn on cone & then knot the yarn as
per instructed by knitting supervisor.
7. Yarn passage should be as smooth as
possible. It should not touch any part of the
machine other than guides. Similarly, the
correct passage of yarn should be followed. If
yarn touches any part of knitting machine

8. Elastic yarn breakage.

other than guides, it will give the variation in


yarn feeding from feeder to feeder.
8. Avoid to use the yarn having too much
breakages. Always use good quality of yarn.

Less
Length

Waste
due to
Length
More
Thread
Defects

4.

Stain
/Spot
/Dirt

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Count mixing.
Yarn lot mixing.
Yarn shade mixing.
Slub in the yarn.
Uneven fabric.
6. Bar (patta) line

1. If any rust on the


machine & inners machine
parts.
2. Improper & excess
greasing.
3. During fabric knitting too

1. Preventing count mixing.


2. Preventing different lot of yarn. mixing
3. Preventing different shade of yarn mixing.
4. As per yarn count, slub catchers are
recommended
5. Use the yarn without thick & thin places
6. To control patta in knitted fabric due to
yarn tension variations, detect the feeders
where the patta is visible and find out the
respective feeders. Then keep on changing
the position of the cones on the stand till no
such effect is visible.
1. If any rust on the machine or inner parts of
the machine, clean it.
2. Proper greasing as well as proper
maintenance.
3.
a. Blow air for cleaning & different parts

much lint is flying to and fro


that are created from yarn
due to low twist as well as
yarn friction. This lint may
adhere or attached to the
fabric surface tightly during
knit fabric production.
4. Foreign materials knit
with the yarn.
5. Fabric touching the floors
& other soiled places,
during transportation, in the
trolleys.
6. Improper covering of the

after a certain period of time.


b. By cleaning the floor continuously.
c. Over all ensure that lint does not attach
to the fabric.
4. Blowing the grooves of the cylinder, dial,
feeder ring & yarn storage(iro) with dry air
during normal cleaning.
5. Fabric roll should not be placed on the floor
as it causes oil marks on the fabric. A clean
plastic sheet may be used to place the fabric
roll on the floor. Also place plastic sheet over
the stored rolls to avoid accumulation of fluff
on the fabric.
6. The knitting machines should be covered or
divided by some covering which would help
reducing fly contamination.

machine.

Oil
Marks
due to
Oiling

1. When oil lick through the


needle trick then it pass on
the fabric & make a oil line.
2. Due to improper oiling
3. Fibers & fluff
accumulated in the needle
trick, which remain soaked
with oil, causes the oil to
seep into the fabric.

1.
a. Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.
b. Ensure that oil does not pass on the
fabrics.
2. Feed the oil to machine as per
recommended oil drops finalized by knitting
supervisor.
3. Remove all the needled from dial &
cylinder of the machine, periodically.
Cleaning the grooves of the dial & cylinder of
the machine throughly. Blowing the grooves

Defects
due to
Needle
s

1. Defective needle.
2. Dirty needle slot.
3. Needle too tight or loose
in the slot.
4. Improper lubrication of
needles.
5. Needle hook is slightly
bend.
6. Latch of the needle bend.

Defects
due to
Knot

7. Wrong needle of different


gauge.
1. Presence of knots in
yarn due to spinning/yarn
manufacturing.
2. Wrong method of
knotting after breakage or
finish of yarn cone during
knitting.

of the cylinder, dial & feeder ring with dry air


after cleaning.
1. Replace all the defective needles having
bent latch or bent hook.
2. Removing the fibers, dust accumulated in
the needle tricks/grooves.
3. Replacing any bent needle running tight or
loose in the grooves of dial or cylinder.
4. Clean the excess sticky oil in the dial &
cylinder grooves.
5. Change the slightly bend hook needle.
6. Identify the defective bend latch needle &
change it.
7. Change the wrong gauge needle
1. Presence of knot in the yarn is symbol of
bad quality of yarn & if if number of knots
regularly comes in the yarn, inform the
knitting supervisor & change that yarn
immediately.
2. Whenever yarn breaks or finished, it
should be knotted instead of twisting as this
is normal practice used in industry. Because,
in case of twisting it is likely that it may open
and may cause cut in the fabric. It is also one
of the ways to reduce the cut in the fabric.
During yarn knotting, the operator should use
scissor / clippers for cutting the extra knot
edges. The extra knot edges should not be

Tight
Loose
Elastic

1.Wrong Yarn passage in


knitting machine during
knitting

2. Wrong yarn feeding in


elastic yarn.
3. Faulty elastic yarn
feeding on one feeder out
off 2 yarn feeders.

more than 5 mm in lengths Knot the yarn


only after stop the machine.
1. Yarn passage should be as smooth as
possible. It should not touch any part of the
machine other than guides. Similarly, the
correct passage of yarn should be followed. If
yarn touches any part of knitting machine
other than guides, it will increase the
hairiness in yarn due to rubbings. It will also
affect the yarn tension and affects the
machine efficiency and increase fabric faults.
2. Set the same yarn setting & yarn tension
on both the elastic yarn feeders.
3. Check the setting of both the yarn feeder
and if, find any fault in any feeder in yarn
feeder, correct the same as per the standard
setting, set by knitting supervisor.