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What is RMAN?

Recovery Manager (RMAN) is a utility that can manage your entire Oracle backup and recovery
What is the difference between using recovery catalog and control file?
When new incarnation happens, the old backup information in control file will be lost. It will be
preserved in recovery catalog. In recovery catalog we can store scripts. Recovery catalog is central
and can have information of many databases.
Can we use same target database as catalog?
No, The recovery catalog should not reside in the target database (database should be backed up),
because the database cant be recovered in the mounted state.
How do you know that how much RMAN task has been completed?
By querying v$rman_status (or) v$session_longops
From where list & report commands will get input?
Both the commands command querying v$ and recovery catalog views. V$BACKUP_FILES or many
of the recovery catalog views such as RC_DATAFILE_COPY or RC_ARCHIVED_LOG.
Command to delete archive logs older than 7days?
RMAN> delete archivelog all completed before sysdate-7;
How many times does oracle ask before dropping a catalog?
The default is two times one for the actual command, the other for confirmation.
How to view the current defaults for the database.
RMAN> show all;
What is the use of crosscheck command in RMAN?
Crosscheck will be useful to check whether the catalog information is intact with OS level
information. This command only updates repository records with the status of the backups. e.g. If
user removes archived logs from disk with an operating system command, the repository still
indicates that the logs are on disk, when in fact they are not.
What are the differences between crosscheck and validate commands?
Validate command is to examine a backup set and report whether it can be restored. RMAN scans all
of the backup pieces in the specified backup sets and looks at the checksum to verify that the
contents are intact so that backup can be successfully restored if necessary.

Crosscheck command is to verify the status of backups and copies recorded in the RMAN repository
against media such as disk or tape. The crosscheck command only processes files created on the
same device type as the channel running crosscheck.
Which one is good, differential (incremental) backup or cumulative (incremental) backup?
A differential backup, which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup
at level 1 or 0
A cumulative backup, which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup
at level 0
Cumulative backups are preferable to differential backups when recovery time is more important
than disk space, because during recovery each differential backup must be applied in succession. Use
cumulative incremental backups instead of differential, if enough disk space is available to store
cumulative incremental backups. This is command for taking Level 0 backup.
What is the difference between backup set and backup piece?
Backup set is logical and backup piece is physical.
RMAN command to backup for creating standby database
RMAN> duplicate target database
You loss one datafile and DB is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. You have full database backup of 1
week/day old and dont have backup of this (newly created) datafile. How do you restore/recover
Create data file and recover datafile.SQL> alter database create datafile
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/xyz.dbf size 2G;RMAN> recover datafile file_id;
What is obsolete backup & expired backup?
A status of expired means that the backup piece or backup set is not found in the backup
destination. A status of obsolete means the backup piece is still available, but it is no longer
needed. The backup piece is no longer needed since RMAN has been configured to no longer need
this piece after so many days have elapsed, or so many backups have been performed.
What is the difference between hot backup &RMAN backup?
For hot backup, we have to put database in begin backup mode, then take backup .RMAN wont put
database in backup mode.

How to put manual/user-managed backup in RMAN (recovery catalog)?

By using catalog command.
RMAN> CATALOG START WITH /tmp/backup.ctl;
What are the Architectural components of RMAN?
1. RMAN Executables
2. Server process
3. Channels
4. Target database
5. Recovery catalog database (optional)
6. Media management Layer (optional)
7. Backups, backup sets and backup pieces

What are channels?

A channel is an RMAN server process started when there is a need to communicate with an I/O
device, such as a disk or a tape. A channel is what reads and writes RMAN backup files. It is through
the allocation of channels that you govern I/O characteristics: Type of I/O device being read or
written to, either a disk or an sbt_tapeNumber of processes simultaneously accessing an I/O device
Maximize size of files created on I/O devices Maximize rate at which database files are read
Maximize number of files open at a time
Why is the catalog optional?
Because RMAN manages backup and recovery operations, it requires a place to store necessary
information about the database. RMAN always stores this information in the target database control
file. You can also store RMAN metadata in a recovery catalog schema contained in a separate
database. The recovery catalog schema must be stored in a database other than the target database.
What is a Backup set?
A logical grouping of backup files the backup pieces that are created when you issue an RMAN
backup command. A backup set is RMANs name for a collection of files associated with a backup. A
backup set is composed of one or more backup pieces.
What are the benefits of using RMAN?
1. Incremental backups that only copy data blocks that have changed since the last backup.
2. Tablespaces are not put in backup mode, thus there is no extra redo log generation
during onlinebackups.
3. Detection of corrupt blocks during backups.
4. Parallelization of I/O operations.
5. Automatic logging of all backup and recovery operations.
6. Built-in reporting and listing commands.
What are the various reports available with RMAN
RMAN>list backup; RMAN> list archive;

In catalog database, if some of the blocks are corrupted due to system crash, How will
using RMAN BLOCK RECOVER command
How do you enable the auto backup for the controlfile using RMAN?
Issue command at RMAN prompt.
RMAN> configure controlfile autobackup on;
Also we can configure controlfile backup format.
RMAN> configure controlfile autobackup format for device type disk to2>'$HOME/BACKUP/RMAN/
How do you identify what are the all the target databases that are being backed-up with RMAN
You dont have any view to identify whether it is backed up or not. The only option is connect to
thetarget database and give list backup this will give you the backup information with date and
How do you identify the block corruption in RMAN database? How do you fix it?
Using v$block_corruption view you can find which blocks corrupted.
RMAN> block recover datafile <fileid> block <blockid>;
Using the above statement You recover the corrupted blocks. First check whether the block is
corrupted (or) not by using this command
SQL>select file# block# from v$database_block_corruption;
file# block2 507the above block is corrupted
conn to Rman >> To recover the block use this command
RMAN>blockrecover datafile 2 block 507;
the above command recover the block 507
Now just verify it..
Rman>blockrecover corruption list;
How do you clone the database using RMAN software? Give brief steps? When do you
usecrosscheck command?
Check whether backup pieces proxy copies or disk copies still exist. Two commands available in
RMAN to clone database:1) Duplicate 2) Restore.
List some of the RMAN catalog view names which contain the catalog information?

How do you install the RMAN recovery catalog?

Steps to be followed:
1) Create connection string at catalog database.
2) At catalog database create one new user or use existing user and give that user
arecovery_catalog_owner privilege.
3) Login into RMAN with connection string
a) export ORACLE_SID
b) rman target catalog @connection string
4) rman> create catalog;
5) register database;

What is the difference between physical and logical backups?

In Oracle Logical Backup is which is taken using either Traditional Export/Import or Latest Data
Pump. Where as Physical backup is known when you take Physical O/s Database related Files as
What is RAID? What is RAID0? What is RAID1? What is RAID 10?
RAID: It is a redundant array of independent diskRAID0: Concatenation and strippingRAID1:
How to enable Fast Incremental Backup to backup only those data blocks that have changed?
How do you set the flash recovery area?
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET db_recovery_file_dest_size = 100G;
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET db_recovery_file_dest = /u10/oradata/school;
What is auxiliary channel in RMAN? When do you need this?
An auxiliary channel is a link to auxiliary instance. If you do not have automatic channels configured,
then before issuing the DUPLICATE command, manually allocate at least one auxiliary channel within
the same RUN command.
How do you use the V$RECOVERY_FILE_DEST view to display information regarding the flash
recovery area?
name, space_limit, space_used,space_reclaimable, number_of_filesFROMv$recovery_file_dest;
How can you display warning messages?
object_type, message_type,message_level, reason, suggested_actionFROMdba_outstanding_alerts;

How do you backup the entire database?

How do you backup an individual tablespaces?
How do you backup datafiles and control files?
Use a fast recovery without restoring all backups from their backup location to the location specified
in the controlfile.