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# when youre given a reference day

## when youre given no referen

What day of week was it on 5th November, 1989 if it was Monday on 4th April, 1988 ?

## What was the day on 15th aug

a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Monday
Tuesday
Saturday
Sunday

Here question tells us that 4th April 88 was Monday, so we have a reference day.

Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Friday

## can be solved with just two concepts

1. 7 day cycle
2. day gain-Day loss concept

## need to just mugup 2 table, a

Although calendar question is not asked every year in every exam. But If and when calendar
is guaranteed=in that sense, cost: benefit is great.

## Name of the day will repeat after seven days.

1st August 2013= Thursday. Therefore 1st August + 7 =8th August also has to be Thursday.
Then what day will be 10th August 2013?
1st August =Thursday => 1+7=8 August is also Thursday

## And 8 August + 2 =10 August will be Thursday + 2 days =>Saturday.

lets try a simple question from SSC

## SSC-CGL 2000 Question on 7-Day cycle

If 9th of the month falls on the day preceding Sunday, then on what day will 1st of the month
fall?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Monday

## As per the question 9th of the Month=Saturday. (day preceding Sunday)

Day name repeats after 7 days.
Therefore 9 minus 7=2nd of the given month is also Saturday.
Then 1st of the given month= Saturday Minus one day = Friday, Ans A

## Concept: Day Gain Day loss

+1 year

When we proceed forward by one year, then 1 day is gained and vice-versa.Example,9th August 2013 is
Friday+1=Saturday.Reverse is also true. When we move backward by one year, then 1 day is lost.
9th August 2014 is Saturday, therefore 9th August 2013 has to be Saturday minus 1=Friday.

+2 Leap
Year

When we proceed forward by one leap year, then 2 days are gained and vice-versa. Example If it is We
would be Friday (Wednesday +2) on 10th august 2012 [because 2012 is a leap year]. The reverse is als
then 22nd April,1987 = Wednesday. (-2 days)

Exception to Leap Year day gain day loss the date must have crossed 28th February if the
coming year is a leap year for adding 2 days otherwise add 1 day.
For e.g.

If 26th January 2011 is Wednesday then 26th January 2012 would be Thursday (even if
2012 is leap year we have added +1 day, because 28th of February is not crossed).
If 23rd March 2011 is Wednesday then 23rd march 2012 would be Friday (+2 days. As
28th February of leap year is crossed).

## What is Leap year?

A normal year has 365 days. A leap year has 366 days (the extra day is the 29th of February)
A year which is divisible by 4 is a leap year except, if it is divisible by 100 then we have to
check it by dividing by 400. For e.g.
1. 1988, 2008, 2012, 2016 etc. all are leap years as divided by 4.
2. 2000, 2400, 1600 etc. all are leap as divided by 400 (100 and 4 too).
3. 1700, 1800, 2100, 2200 etc. are not leap years as they are not divisible by 400 (even if they
are divisible by 4).
Lets try a sum

## SSC Investigator 2010 (Anniversary)

On 5th December 1993, Nirmala and Raju celebrated their anniversary on Sunday. What will be
the day on their anniversary in 1997?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Tuesday

Years

day gain

1994

1995

1997

total days

## Sunday plus five days

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Monday
Tue
Wed
Thursday
Friday

lets try one more with a bit difference:

## SSC CGL 2011 (Anniversary)

Mrs. Susheela celebrated her wedding anniversary on Tuesday 30th September 1997. What will
she celebrate her next wedding anniversary on same day (Tuesday)?
1.
2.
3.
4.

30 Sept 2003
30 Sept 2004
30 Sept 2002
30 October 2003

## After 7 days=> day name will repeat

30th September

day gain

1998

99

2000 (leap)

2001

2002

2003

total days

Meaning whatever was the day on 30th sep. 1997 itll repeat on 2003
Therefore, after 1997, next time Mrs.Susheelas anniversary will be on same Tuesday on
30th September 2003 Ans A.
Now, How about a CAT level question:

## CAT-2001 Question on calendar

Dec 9, 2001 is Sunday then what was the day on Dec 9, 1971?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Thursday
Wednesday
Saturday
Sunday

## Same day gain, Day loss

1971 to 2001=how many jumps?
2001-1971=Total 30 years jump
Out of those 30 years, how many leap years?
72, 76,.,00 (multiples of of 4 and 2000 is also leap year because It is multiple of 400)
but no need to manually count leap years.
if you observe
18 x 4 =(19)72
25 x 4 =(20)00
so from 18 to 25 = total 8 leap years. (plz note: 25-18=7 years, but weve to include both years as
welltherefore.. in such counting, itll be 25-18+1=8 leap years)

back to the start: 30 years jump and out of them 8 were leap years.
Meaning 22 normal years + 8 leap years = total 30 years
22 normal years (+1 day gain)

22 x 1 =22 days

## 8 leap years (+2 days gain)

8 x 2= 16 days

total gain

22+16=38 days

38/7=(75)+3 remainder
Meaning whatever was the day on Dec 9, 1971, itll move to +3 days on dec 9 2001
Reverse is also true: Whatever was the day on Dec 2001, itll be three days less on Dec 9 1971:
Since Dec 2001 was Sunday therefore,

## Question 1988 to 1989

What day of week was it on 5th November,1989 if it was Monday on 4th April, 1988 ?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Monday
Tuesday
Saturday
Sunday

## Recall our Day gain Day loss principle

For Non-Leap year, When we proceed forward by one year, then 1 day is gained and vice-versa.
If 4th April, 1988 = Monday, then 4th April, 1989 = Tuesday (Because 1989 is a non-leap year)

## Remaining days until 5th Nov.89

Month

Day

April (4 to 30)

26

May

31

June

30

July

31

Aug

31

Sep

30

Oct

31

Nov

Total

215

=Tuesday + 215
Divide 215 with 7 to find the remainder
215=(30*7)+5 Hence five is the remainder
Back to the problem
= Tuesday + [5 days]
What is the 5th day after Tuesday? Count on your fingertip: Wed, Thurs., Fri, Sat., Sunday

## Speed Technique tip#1

in above problem, if you dont want to waste time in adding the days like 26+31+30. then use
following approach
30 days=(7*4)+2=> 2 remainder
31 days=(7*4)+3=> 3 remainder.
Month

Days

Remainder with 7

April (4 to 30)

26

5 (because 26=7*3+5)

May

31

June

30

July

31

Aug

31

Sep

30

Oct

31

Nov

total

dont need

26

## Divide this by 7 and find remainder: 26=(7*3)+5 so remainder is 5

=Tuesday + 5

= Tuesday + 5 days
=Sunday

## Speed Technique tip#2

in speed tech #1, if you dont want to waste time in adding the remainders of seven: 5+3+2.
then do following
pickup remainders that add upto 7 and cancel them.
for example 5+2=7. So Ill cancel each such pair in the table. Observe
Month

Days

## Remainder with 7after cancelling numbers that add upto 7 (e.g. 5

April (4 to 30)

26

May

31

June

30

July

31

Aug

31

Sep

30

Oct

31

Nov

total

dont need

12

After cancelling the two pairs of (5+2), Im left with four 3s= 12 (because 4 x 3=12)

=Tuesday + 12
now divide 12 with 7 find remainder: 12=7*1 +5
= Tuesday + 5 days
=Sunday

## Example: What was the day on 15th August 1947?

To solve this type of questions, youve to first mug up these two tables:

100

200

300

## 400, 800, 1200, 1600 etcmultiples of 400

^ok but what is the use of above table? It tells us the number of odd days in that given year. I
dont want to bore you with the theory so just mug up those values.

0, 7

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

## Just remember that 1 to 6 is Monday to Saturday and 0 or 7=Sunday.

^ok but what is the use of above table? just hang on for a few more paragraphs and youll know!
Now lets try a sum

## What day of week was on 15th ugust,1947?

Step 1:
Subtract the given year by 1.
1947 -1 = 1946
Step 2:
Break into relevant years as in table #1.
100

200

300

Therefore,

## 1946 = 1600 + 300 + ( 46 )

Step 3:
Now write corresponding values from the table: 1600=0 and 300=1
1946=>0+1+(46)
Step 4:
Now for the number in bracket (46), divide it by 4 and add quotient in same line.
in this case 46=(11x4)+2 therefore, 11 is quotient and 2 is remainder. Were concerned with
number and quotient here
1946=0+1+(46+11)
Step5:
Now add all these numbers and divide by 7
0+1+(46+11)
=58
And when you divide 58 by 7, you get 58= (7*8)+2. Therefore remainder is 2.
we got the number 2 = well call this our 31Dec Number
Observe second table
0, 7

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

## From this table we can see that 2=>Tuesday

It means 31st December 1946 was Tuesday. Now we apply our 7day cycle concept to find out
the day on 15th August 1947 using the following formula
Given day= (our 31Dec Number 2)+ *how many days till we reach 15th August?*
Step 6
from 1st Jan 1947 till we reach 15th August 1947

days

Jan

31

28

March

31

April

30

May

31

June

30

July

31

15

Total

227

## back to the bold part

(Our 31Dec Number)+ *how many days till we reach 15th August?*
=2 + 227
=229
Step 7
Divide this number (229) by 7 and whatever remainder you get= that is our day from table #2
229/7=(32*7)+5
so 5 is the remainder and as per table#2
0, 7

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

5=>Friday.
That means 15th August 1947 was Friday.

## Speed increase tip#1:

in above 15th August example, Back to the step6
31Dec Number+ *how many days till we reach 15th August?*
after that, we did following:
from 1st Jan 1947 till we reach 15th August 1947

days

Jan

31

28

march

31

april

30

may

31

june

30

july

31

## august (upto 15th Aug)

15

total

227

^as you see we had to sum of 31+28+31.=lot of time taken in doing the addition (+).
So, it is better to just add remainders for each month with 7
30=(7*4)+2=> 2 remainder
31=(7*4)+3=> 3 remainder.
Now observe again
from 1st Jan 1947till we reach 15th August 1947

Jan

31

28

march

31

april

30

may

31

june

30

july

31

15

total

## now instead of 227 we can simply write 17

Our 31Dec Number+ *how many days till we reach 15th August?*
=2+17
=19
Therefore 19/7 = its remainder will tell us the final day
19=(7*2) + 5=therefore remainder is 5 and as per table#2, 5 means Friday.

## Find the day on 10th May, 1857?

Subtract 1 from the given year
1857-1=1856
Now breakup 1856 as per our table #1
100

200

300

## 400, 800, 1200, 1600 etc (multiples of 400)

1856
=1600+200+(56)
write corresponding values from table#1

227 days

=0+3+(56)
Divide the bracket number by 4 and write quotient along with number
56=14*4 + 0 therefore quotient is 14
1856
=0+3+(56+14)
add these numbers and divide by 7 find remainder
=73/7
=remainder 3

Speed Technique #3
after doing the division with 4 to find quotient step, you got following
=0+3+(56+14)
Whenever you see the multiple of 7, just scratch that number (because itll give remainder zero
anyways)
for example
=0+3+(56+14)
Here both 56 and 14 are multiples of 7 so even if you divide them by 7, youre going to get zero
as remainder.
=0+3+0+0=3 is 31Dec Number
as per table#2: 3 means Wednesday. Meaning 31st December 1856 was Wednesday

now our 31Dec Number+ how many days till 10th May, 1857?
from 1st Jan 1857till we reach 31th May 1857

Jan

31

28

march

31

april

30

may

10

total

*not needed*

## back to our problem

our 31Dec Number+ how many days till 10th May, 1857?
=3 + 11
=14
when 14 is divided by 7 we get zero as remainder.
as per table#2
0, 7

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Zero means Sunday. so final answer 10th May 1857 was Sunday.

Extra facts:
1. The 1st day of a century must be Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday.
2. The last day of a century cannot be Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday.

Mock questions
1. In 2013, Gandhis birth-anniversary is on Wednesday. In which nearest future year, will his
birth-anniversary be on Monday?
2. If 29th April 2013 is Monday then what is the day on 30th November 2013?
3. If June 11, 2013 is Monday, what was the day on July 11, 2000
4. What was the day on 9/11 attacks in 2001
5. What was the day on 26/11 attacks in 2008