Anda di halaman 1dari 27
Seismic Seismic Isolation Isolation for for Small Small Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Structures Structures Advisor: Advisor:

Seismic

Seismic Isolation

Isolation for

for Small

Small
Small

Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced

Concrete Structures

Structures

Seismic Seismic Isolation Isolation for for Small Small Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Structures Structures Advisor: Advisor:

Advisor:

Advisor:

Seismic Seismic Isolation Isolation for for Small Small Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Structures Structures Advisor: Advisor:
Cost Cost
Cost
Cost

Presented by:

by:

AAA Preliminary

Preliminary Investigation

Preliminary

Investigation

Investigation ononon Material

Material

Material Cost

Investigated and

Investigated

and Presented

Dr. George C. Lee

Dr. George C. Lee

Samuel P. Capen Professor

Samuel P. Capen Professor

Abiel Carrillo

Abiel Carrillo

Objective Objective The objective The objective of of this this isis toto show investigation effectiveness the

Objective

Objective

Objective Objective The objective The objective of of this this isis toto show investigation effectiveness the
Objective Objective The objective The objective of of this this isis toto show investigation effectiveness the
Objective Objective The objective The objective of of this this isis toto show investigation effectiveness the

The objective

The

objective of

of this

this

investigation isis toto show

investigation

show

the effectiveness

the

effectiveness of

of aa

specific

specific rubber

rubber bearing

bearing

isolation design

isolation

design of

of aa

symmetrical,

symmetrical, low

low--rise

rise

reinforced

reinforced concrete

concrete

structure inin the

structure

the region

region of

of

Algeria, Africa

Algeria,

Africa

for this this investigation investigation
for this
this investigation
investigation

Motivation for

Motivation

for this this investigation investigation Motivation for Motivation One One evening One evening in May, 2003,

One

One evening

One evening in May, 2003, Algeria was struck by its worst earthquake

evening inin May,

May, 2003,

2003, Algeria

Algeria was

was struck

struck by

by itsits worst

worst earthq

earthquake

uake

inin 2323 years.

in 23 years. More than 2,000 people were killed and over 9,000

years. More

More than

than 2,000

2,000 people

people were

were killed

killed and

and over

over 9,000

9,000

injured. Many

injured.

injured. Many homes were destroyed in the initial quake and

Many homes

homes were

were des

destroyed

troyed inin the

the initial

initial quake

quake and

and

thousands

thousands more

thousands more were damaged and made uninhabitable.

more were

were damaged

damaged and

and made

made uninhabitable.

uninhabitable.

for this this investigation investigation Motivation for Motivation One One evening One evening in May, 2003,
for this this investigation investigation Motivation for Motivation To To explore explore aa system system that
for this this investigation investigation
for this
this investigation
investigation

Motivation for

Motivation

for this this investigation investigation Motivation for Motivation To To explore explore aa system system that
To To explore explore aa system system that that could could protect protect similar similar structures,
To
To explore
explore aa system
system
that
that could
could protect
protect
similar
similar structures,
structures,
preventing
preventing disasters
disasters
like
like this.
this.

Slide 5

A1

Some structures experienced non structural damage, others buckled, other completely destroyed

Abiel Carrillo, 7/25/2004

Objective Objective As will As As will be explained later, will bebe explained explained later, later,

Objective

Objective

Objective Objective As will As As will be explained later, will bebe explained explained later, later,
Objective Objective As will As As will be explained later, will bebe explained explained later, later,
Objective Objective As will As As will be explained later, will bebe explained explained later, later,

As will

As

As will be explained later,

will bebe explained

explained later,

later,

base isolation

base

base isolation in general

isolation inin general

general

can be one of the safest

can

can bebe one

one of

of the

the safest

safest

or most cost effective

or

or most

most cost

cost effective

effective

ways of designing a

ways

ways of

of designing

designing aa

structure inin aa highly

structure

structure in a highly

highly

seismic

seismic zone.

seismic zone. The results

zone. The

The results

results

of

of this

of this investigation, focus

this investigation,

investigation, focus

focus

onon aa specific

on a specific example .

specific example

example..

Overview Overview o o Method Method and and Codes Codes o o Design Design Loads Loads

Overview

Overview

Overview Overview o o Method Method and and Codes Codes o o Design Design Loads Loads

oo Method Method and and Codes Codes

oo Design Design Loads Loads

oo Parameters Parameters and and Assumptions Assumptions

oo Base Base Isolation Isolation

oo Summary Summary of of Results Results

oo Conclusions Conclusions

oo References References

Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were desi gned, A and B, and the total

Method and Codes Used

Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were desi gned, A and B, and the total
Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were desi gned, A and B, and the total

Two possible frames were designed, A and B, and the total

required material was then compared:

A. Moment resisting frame

Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were desi gned, A and B, and the total

B. Base isolated frame

Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were desi gned, A and B, and the total

Isolator

and Codes Codes
and Codes
Codes

Method and

Method

and Codes Codes Method and Method The design steps for base isolation ultimately shift the frame’s

The design steps for base isolation ultimately shift the frame’s period.

Acceleration is

significantly reduced,

which means that

smaller lateral forces

are developed

and Codes Codes Method and Method The design steps for base isolation ultimately shift the frame’s
Method and Codes ! American Concrete Institute (1999) For floor system, girder, column and foundation design.

Method and Codes

Method and Codes ! American Concrete Institute (1999) For floor system, girder, column and foundation design.
  • ! American Concrete Institute (1999)

For floor system, girder, column and foundation design.

  • ! Uniform Building Code (1997) For design loads and base isolation design.

  • ! Algerian Seismic Code

For Equivalent static earthquake loading applied to moment frame A

Loads Design Loads Design ! ! Earthquake ! Earthquake loads were determined from a Earthquake loads

Loads

Design Loads

Design

Loads Design Loads Design ! ! Earthquake ! Earthquake loads were determined from a Earthquake loads

!! Earthquake

! Earthquake loads were determined from a

Earthquake loads

loads were

were determined

determined from

from aa

static lateral

static

static lateral equivalent calculation based

lateral equivalent

equivalent calculation

calculation based

based

onon Algerian

on Algerian Seismic Codes.

Algerian Seismic

Seismic Codes.

Codes.

72

72

kip

kip

40

40

kip

kip

Loads Design Loads Design ! ! Earthquake ! Earthquake loads were determined from a Earthquake loads
Parameters and Assumptions Details Details were as follows: follows: were as 27 ft 90 ft 90

Parameters and Assumptions

Parameters and Assumptions Details Details were as follows: follows: were as 27 ft 90 ft 90
Parameters and Assumptions Details Details were as follows: follows: were as 27 ft 90 ft 90

Details

Details were

as follows:

follows:

were as

27 ft

Parameters and Assumptions Details Details were as follows: follows: were as 27 ft 90 ft 90
90 ft 90 ft
90 ft
90 ft

Steel

Steel ff yy

6060 ksi

ksi

Conc.

Conc. ffcc

33

ksi

ksi

Allowable

Allowable

Soil

Soil stress

stress

44

ksi

ksi

Occupancy

Occupancy

Offices

Offices

Seismic

Seismic

33

Zone

Zone

Dead Load

Dead

Load

1212 psf

psf

Roof

Roof Live

Live

2020

psf

psf

Floor Live

Floor

Live

5050

psf

psf

Design
Design

Base Isolation

Base

Isolation Design

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design There are various isolation methods and devices available and are

There are various isolation methods and devices available

and are being developed, and the Code does not “prefer” a

type, nevertheless it requires that the system have the

following three properties:

1. Be stable for the required displacement

  • 2. Provide increasing resistance with increasing displacement

  • 3. Does not degrade under cyclic loading

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing Steel plate Rubber cylinder
Design
Design

Base Isolation

Base

Isolation Design

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing Steel plate Rubber cylinder

Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing

Steel plate Rubber cylinder
Steel plate
Rubber
cylinder

Thin steel shims

Thin steel shims

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing Steel plate Rubber cylinder

(circular plates)

(circular plates)

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing Steel plate Rubber cylinder

increase bearing

increase bearing

strength

strength

Slide 14

A2

There are many others which i encourage you to look at but in the interest of time ..

Abiel Carrillo, 7/25/2004

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Steps for aa Code based design: 1. 1. Determine and
Design
Design

Base Isolation

Base

Isolation Design

Steps

Steps for

for aa Code

Code based

based design:

design:

Design Base Isolation Base Isolation Design Steps for aa Code based design: 1. 1. Determine and
  • 1. 1. Determine and establish parameter-dependent factors.

Determine and establish parameter-dependent factors.

  • 2. 2. Select a type of bearing and estimate target values,

Select a type of bearing and estimate target values,

such as stiffness, damping ratio and bearing

such as stiffness, damping ratio and bearing

displacement.

displacement.

  • 3. 3. Relate required dimensions of the isolation bearing

Relate required dimensions of the isolation bearing

unit with target values from step 2.

unit with target values from step 2.

  • 4. 4. Detail actual dimensions for isolation unit.

Detail actual dimensions for isolation unit.

Slide 15

A3

There are many steps but basically...

Abiel Carrillo, 7/25/2004

of Results Results
of Results
Results

Summary

Summary of

of Results Results Summary Summary of The resultant design called for 16 units with the following

The resultant design called for 16 units with the following dimensions:

11 “ height 12 gage shims
11 “ height
12 gage shims

17 ” rubber diameter

of Results Results Summary Summary of AA A B AA // BB weight weight ratios ratios
of Results Results
of Results
Results

Summary

Summary of

of Results Results Summary Summary of AA A B AA // BB weight weight ratios ratios
of Results Results Summary Summary of AA A B AA // BB weight weight ratios ratios
of Results Results Summary Summary of AA A B AA // BB weight weight ratios ratios
AA A B AA // BB weight weight ratios ratios of of main main structural structural
AA A
B
AA // BB weight
weight ratios
ratios of
of main
main structural
structural elements
elements
Concrete ratio
Steel ratio
Steel
Steel inin Base
Base IsIsolated
olated frframe
ame isis
Girders
1.7 1.7
not
not continuous
continuous
3.2 AA minimum
minimum amount
amount of
of concrete
concrete
Columns
1.5
1.5
3.2
required
required inin both
both columns
columns
Same
Same rebar
rebar diameter,
diameter, just
just larger
larger
Foundations
2.3
2.3
1.8
1.8
dimensions
dimensions
Conclusions Conclusions ! Base Isolators can be expensive, but the rubber bearings chosen are very common.

Conclusions

Conclusions

Conclusions Conclusions ! Base Isolators can be expensive, but the rubber bearings chosen are very common.

! Base Isolators can be expensive, but the rubber

bearings chosen are very common. The final

design calls for 16 units, which doesn’t compare

to having a total of 3.3 times more steel as

required in the larger reinforced frame.

Conclusions Conclusions ! ! Results for other structures can vary significantly Results for other structures can

Conclusions

Conclusions

Conclusions Conclusions ! ! Results for other structures can vary significantly Results for other structures can
  • ! ! Results for other structures can vary significantly

Results for other structures can vary significantly

Factors that influence structural design:

Factors that influence structural design:

  • - - Importance of building

Importance of building

  • - - Soil profile

Soil profile

  • - - Availability and shipping

Availability and shipping

  • - - Height of structure

Height of structure

-

-

Labor

Labor

  • - - Site plan

Site plan

  • - - Architectural requirements

Architectural requirements

  • - - Other factors

Other factors

Conclusions Conclusions ! ! Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and Base Isolation also protects non-structural

Conclusions

Conclusions

Conclusions Conclusions ! ! Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and Base Isolation also protects non-structural
  • ! ! Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and

Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and

equipment by reducing the entire structure’s acceleration

equipment by reducing the entire structure’s acceleration

during an earthquake, as opposed to reinforcement

during an earthquake, as opposed to reinforcement

alone.

alone.

Frame is still standing but

Frame is still standing but

non-bearing walls could not

non-bearing walls could not

withstand the strong shaking.

withstand the strong shaking.

Conclusions Conclusions ! ! Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and Base Isolation also protects non-structural

Slide 20

A5

include equipment isolation, like in a museum

Abiel Carrillo, 7/26/2004

References References ! Paz, Mario. International Handbook of Earthquake Engineering : Codes, Programs and Examples. October,

References

References

References References ! Paz, Mario. International Handbook of Earthquake Engineering : Codes, Programs and Examples. October,
  • ! Paz, Mario. International Handbook of Earthquake Engineering : Codes, Programs and Examples. October, 1994; Chapman and Hall. London, England.

  • ! McCormack, Jack. Design of Reinforced Concrete.

2001; John Wiley & sons, Inc. New York, New York.

  • ! Kelly, James M.; Naeim, Farzad. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures: From Theory to Practice.

1999; John Wiley & sons, Inc. New York, New York.

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements ! - Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research ! Dr. George C. Lee Samuel

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements ! - Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research ! Dr. George C. Lee Samuel

!

 

- Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake

Engineering Research

!

Dr. George C. Lee

Samuel P. Capen Professor

!

Civil Engineering Dept. , Univ. at Buffalo

“One's mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimension.” - Oliver Wendell
“One's mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimension.” - Oliver Wendell

“One's mind, once stretched by a new idea,

never regains its original dimension.”

- Oliver Wendell Holmes