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Integration with change management methodologies,


approaches and models
Since many organizations employ various change management methodologies, approaches and models, the Change Activation
Toolkit has been designed in a modular fashion to support and boost the effectiveness of these approaches. The tables below detail
which Change Activation Toolkit modules boost engagement and activate positive change behaviors during the stages of the most
common methodologies, approaches and models.

ADKAR Model for Change Management

AIM (Accelerating Implementation Methodology)

Beckhard and Harris Change Management Process

Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Change Delta

Bridges Leading Transition Model for Change

The Change Leaders Roadmap Model

GEs Change Acceleration Process (CAP)

John Kotter Eight Step Model for Change

Kubler Ross Change Curve Model

Kurt Lewins Three Stage Change Model

LaMarsh Change Management Model

People Centered Implementation (PCI) Model

Prosci Enterprise Change Management Model

Prosci Change Management Levers

Viral Change Roadmap Model

ADKAR Model for Change Management


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the ADKAR Model for
Change Management. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules align to the five key stages of the ADKAR model and can
be used to build change capability and engage staff through those stages.

ADKAR goal

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules


Choosing Communication Channels

Awareness

Creating a Communication Strategy


Thinking about Organizational Change
Inspiring Action not Despair

Desire

Telling Stories

Knowledge

Accommodating Different Communication Styles


Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Ability

Overcoming Resistance
Four Common Responses to Change

Reinforcement

Culture and Change


Measuring Change Effectiveness

The ADKAR change management model was first published in the 1998 book The Perfect Change by Jeff Hiatt, founder and CEO
of Prosci Research. For more information, see Hiatt. J.M. (2006) ADKAR: a Model for change in business, government and our
community.

AIM (Accelerated Implementation Methodology)


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Accelerated
Implementation Methodology. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and engage
staff through its stages.

AIM goal

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Define the Implementation

Conducting Gap Analysis


Change Readiness Assessment

Telling Stories
Generate Sponsorship
Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Project Management & Change Management


Build Change Agent Capability

Thinking about Organizational Change


Why Changes Fail

Inspiring Action not Despair


Develop Target Readiness

Overcoming Resistance
Four Common Responses to Change

Creating a Communication Strategy


Communication

Choosing Communication Channels


Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Culture and Change


Develop Reinforcement Strategy

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Measuring Change Effectiveness

Beckhard and Harris Change Management Process


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Beckhard and Harris
Change Management Process. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and engage
staff through its stages.

Beckhard and Harris phase

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Conducting Gap Analysis


Establishing the need for change

Why Changes Fail


Change Readiness Assessment

Building the change team

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement


Project Management & Change Management

Thinking about Organizational Change


Creating vision and values
Telling Stories

Creating a Communication Strategy


Choosing Communication Channels
Communicating and engaging
Telling Stories
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Inspiring Action not Despair


Four Common Responses to Change
Empowering others
Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers
Overcoming Resistance

Noticing improvements and energizing

Measuring Change Effectiveness

Consolidating

Culture and Change

Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Change Delta


The Change Activation Toolkit is a useful learning resource for organizations undergoing Boston Consulting Groups Change Delta
approach to change management. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules align to the four factors of the Change Delta
and can be used to build change capability and engage staff.

BCG Change Delta factors

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Measuring Change Effectiveness


Choosing a Change Management Methodology
Executional Certainty

Change Isnt Easy


Thinking about Organizational Change

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Enabled Leaders

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement


Telling Stories

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Change Readiness Assessment
Engaged Organization

Inspiring Action not Despair


Accommodating Different Communication Styles
Choosing Communication Channels
Creating a Communication Strategy

Overcoming Resistance
Culture and Change

Project Management & Change Management

Governance & PMO

Choosing Communication Channels

For more information on the BCG Change Delta approach, see BCGs Change Perspectives.

Bridges Leading Transition Model for Change


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Bridges Leading
Transition Model for Change. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and engage
staff through its stages.

Bridges stage

Specific activity

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Letting Go

Inspiring Action not Despair


Describe change reasons

Choosing Communication Channels


Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Communicate during transition

Creating a Communication Strategy

Telling Stories
Consider & encourage endings

Thinking about Organizational Change


Overcoming Resistance

The Neutral Zone

Four Common Responses to Change


Listen, empathize, support

Why Changes Fail


Change Readiness Assessment

Develop temporary roles

Change Stakeholder Analysis

Short term goals


Dont over promise

Conducting Gap Analysis

Celebrate small wins

Measuring Change Effectiveness

Provide learning opportunities

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Model new attitudes & behaviors

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

New Beginnings

Be consistent

Telling Stories
Symbolize new identity
Culture and Change

Celebrate successes

Measuring Change Effectiveness

Bridges explores human behaviors relating to change and defines typical emotions individuals might exhibit during the change
process. Bridges provides strategies on how to overcome some of the emotional barriers to change, without getting stuck. For
example, in the New Beginning phase, there may be a great deal of fear of the unknown. One strategy might be to provide training
on specific tools or educational materials. In the Neutral Zone, allow creative ways to think about work. During the Ending and
Losing phase, people will feel committed and requires the need to sustain the new way of working, possibly through goal setting.
Include individuals through each phase of the transition. For more information, see Bridges. W. (2009). Managing transitions:
Making the most of change.

The Change Leaders Roadmap


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Change Leaders
Roadmap model. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules closely align to the phases of the Change Leaders Roadmap
and can be used to engage staff through those phases:

Change Leaders Roadmap phase

Phase I Prepare to Lead the Change

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Why Changes Fail


Thinking about Organizational Change

Phase II Create Organizational Vision, Commitment & Capability

Phase III Assess the Situation to Determine Design Requirements

Phase IV Design the Desired State

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Change Readiness Assessment

Conducting Gap Analysis

Phase V Analyze the Impact


Phase VI Plan & Organize for Implementation

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Creating a Communication Strategy

Choosing Communication Channels


Telling Stories
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Phase VII Implement the Change

Inspiring Action not Despair


Four Common Responses to Change
Overcoming Resistance

Measuring Change Effectiveness


Phase VIII Celebrate and Integrate the New State

Culture and Change


Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Phase IX Learn and Course Correct

Project Management & Change Management

For more information, see Anderson, L.A. & Anderson, D. (2010) The change leaders roadmap.

General Electric Change Acceleration Process (CAP)


The Change Activation Toolkit is an ideal accompanying learning resource for organizations following the General Electric Change
Acceleration Process (CAP). The modules can be used to engage staff through its seven phases.

CAP phase

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Project Management & Change Management


Leading Change
Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Creating a Communication Strategy


Choosing Communication Channels
Creating A Shared Need
Accommodating Different Communication Styles
Inspiring Action not Despair

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Shaping a Vision

Change Readiness Assessment


Conducting Gap Analysis

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Four Common Responses to Change
Mobilizing Commitment
Overcoming Resistance
Telling Stories

Culture and Change


Making change last
Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Measuring Change Effectiveness


Monitoring progress
Why Changes Fail

Changing Systems and Structures

Thinking about Organizational Change

John Kotter Eight Step Model for Change


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the John Kotter Eight Step
Model for Change. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules closely align to Kotters eight stages and can be used to build
change understanding engage staff through each of the stages:

Kotter model step

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Inspiring Action not Despair


Establish a sense of urgency

Choosing Communication Channels


Why Changes Fail

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement


Creating the Guiding Coalition

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Project Management & Change Management

Developing a Change Vision

Thinking about Organizational Change

Creating a Communication Strategy


Communicating the Vision for Buy-in

Accommodating Different Communication Styles


Telling Stories

Inspiring Action not Despair


Empowering Broad-based Action
Four Common Responses to Change

Generating Short-term Wins

Measuring Change Effectiveness

Never Letting Up

Overcoming Resistance

Incorporating Changes into the Culture

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Culture and Change

The John Kotter Eight Step Change model is a linear model that focuses on the importance of gaining buy-in. It is relatively simple
to understand and works well in organizations that are organized in a relatively narrow organizational structure. The selling point is
its simplicity, memorable eight steps and basis in Kotters thirty-plus years of research into organizational change. For more
information, see Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change and Kotter, J. (1998) Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail , Harvard
Business Review.

Kubler Ross Change Curve Model


The Change Activation Toolkit is a superb accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Kubler Ross Change
Curve model of individual change. The following modules can be used to engage individuals through each of its phases, as well as
develop broader organizational change capability.

Kubler Ross phase

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Four Common Responses to Change


Shock
Why Changes Fail

Choosing Communication Channels


Denial
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Anger

Overcoming Resistance

Bargaining

Telling Stories

Depression

Inspiring Action not Despair

Acceptance

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Integration

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Kurt Lewin Three Stage Change Methodology


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Lewin Three Stage
Change Management Methodology. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and
engage staff through its stages.

Lewin stage

Specific activity

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Unfreeze

Change Stakeholder Analysis


1. Determine what needs to change
Conducting Gap Analysis

2. Ensure there is strong support from upper


Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement
management

Creating a Communication Strategy


3. Create the need for change
Telling Stories

Four Common Responses to Change


4. Manage and understand the doubts and concerns

Overcoming Resistance
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Change

1. Communicate often

Choosing Communication Channels

2. Dispel rumors

Overcoming Resistance

3. Empower action

Inspiring Action not Despair

Overcoming Resistance
4. Involve people in the process
Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Refreeze

1. Anchor the changes into the culture

Culture and Change

2. Develop ways to sustain the change

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

3. Provide support and training

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

4. Celebrate success!

Measuring Change Effectiveness

LaMarsh Change Management Model


The Change Activation Toolkit is the an excellent accompanying resource for organizations following the LaMarsh Change
Management model. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and engage staff
through its phases.

LaMarsh phase

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Identify the Change

Change Readiness Assessment


Conducting Gap Analysis

Thinking about Organizational Change


Plan and Prepare the Change

Why Changes Fail


Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Creating a Communication Strategy


Choosing Communication Channels
Telling Stories
Implement the Change

Accommodating Different Communication Styles


Inspiring Action not Despair
Four Common Responses to Change
Overcoming Resistance

Culture and Change


Sustain the Change

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Measuring Change Effectiveness

People Centered Implementation (PCI) Model


The Change Activation Toolkit is the perfect accompanying learning resource for organizations following the People Centered
Implementation (PCI) Model. The modules can be used to engage staff through its phases:

PCI Critical Success Factor

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Why Changes Fail


Shared Change Purpose
Inspiring Action not Despair

Effective Change Leadership

Thinking about Organizational Change

Creating a Communication Strategy


Choosing Communication Channels
Powerful Engagement Processes

Telling Stories
Accommodating Different Communication Styles
Overcoming Resistance

Committed Local Sponsors

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Inspiring Action not Despair


Strong Personal Connection
Four Common Responses to Change

Culture and Change


Sustained Personal Performance

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Measuring Change Effectiveness

Prosci Enterprise Change Management


The Change Activation Toolkit is an extremely useful accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Prosci
Enterprise Change Management methodology. The Change Activation Toolkit modules listed below can be used to both build
change capability as well as assist in the implementation of change activities during its three main stages.

Prosci stage

Specific activity

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Vision

Thinking about Organizational Change


Define future state
Conducting Gap analysis

Change Stakeholder Analysis


Assess current state

Change Readiness Assessment


Measuring Change Effectiveness

Strategy

Engage primary sponsor

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Form & prepare project team

Why Changes Fail

Select deployment strategy

Choosing a Change Management Methodology

Build project plan

Project Management & Change Management

Create change management plan

Creating a Communication Strategy

Implementation

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Create and present business case

Telling stories

Inspiring Action not Despair


Choosing Communication Channels
Implement integrated plan

Four Common Responses to Change


Overcoming Resistance
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Prosci Change Management Levers


The Change Activation Toolkit can assist organizations to build change capability aligning with the five Prosci Change Management
Levers through its engaging format and practical, relevant takeaways in each of the following modules:

Prosci change lever

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Creating a Communication strategy


Communications lever

Choosing Communication Channels


Telling Stories
Accommodating Different Communication Styles

Sponsor roadmap lever

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement

Coaching lever

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Training lever

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers

Inspiring Action not Despair


Resistance management lever

Overcoming Resistance
Four Common Responses to Change

Viral Change Roadmap


The Change Activation Toolkit is an excellent accompanying learning resource for organizations following the Viral Change
Roadmap. The following Change Activation Toolkit modules can be used to build change capability and engage staff through its five
phases:

Viral Change Roadmap phase

Relevant Change Activation Toolkit modules

Thinking about Organizational Change


Discovery
Why Changes Fail

Choosing a Change Management Methodology


Change Stakeholder Analysis
Development
Change Readiness Assessment
Conducting Gap Analysis

Engaging & Maintaining Sponsor Involvement


Creating a Communication Strategy
Choosing Communication Channels
Engagement

Telling Stories
Accommodating Different Communication Styles
Inspiring Action not Despair
Four Common Responses to Change

Diffusion

Overcoming Resistance

Culture and Change


Sustain

Learning & Coaching as Change Enablers


Measuring Change Effectiveness

Change Management Terminology Glossary


Use our free online dictionary of change management terms & definitions to ensure your
organizational transformation efforts are clearly communicated.

As-is state

Assister and resister analysis

Baseline

Benefit

Benefit map

Burning ambition

Burning platform

Change curve

Change fatigue

Change initiative

Change management

Change management methodology

Change readiness assessment

Coaching/ mentoring

Communication channels

Communication strategy

Dis-benefit

Force field analysis

Gap analysis

Geert Hofstedes 5 dimension model

Gestalt theory

GROW process

Incremental change

Lagging indicator

Leading indicator

Learning programs

McKinsey 7S

Mediator sponsor

Metrics/ measures

Newtons First Law of Motion

Objective

Organizational culture

Outcome

PESTLE analysis

Planner sponsor

Primary sponsor

Product

Project management

Purse-holder sponsor

Qualitative

Quantitative

ROI

Speech-maker sponsor

Sponsor

Stakeholder

Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder mapping

SWOT analysis

To-be state

Training needs analysis

Transformational change

Unblocker sponsor

VIRO Framework analysis

Vision statement

Visionary sponsor

As-is state
This is the current situation in the organization, i.e. the pre-change people, processes, technology, structure, strategy, culture, etc.

Assister and resister analysis


Assister and resister analysis involves studying who is in favour of a change initiative and who is resisting it with a view to
harnessing the Assisters and either minimising the impact or altering the opinions of resisters.

Baseline
The level of performance which is used for comparison after the change. This may just be past performance, but where other
changes are going on this needs to be adjusted to take account of their impact.

Benefit
A measurable improvement, resulting from change, which is considered advantageous by at least one stakeholder, and contributes
to the overall organizational objectives.

Benefit map
Also known as a dependency network, a diagram showing the benefits, dis-benefits, objectives, outcomes, products and work and
the connections between them.

Burning ambition
Peter Foudas burning ambition concept is about creating a positive motivator for change. He suggests asking the following
questions as a starting point:

What does success look like for me/us?


What gets me/us out of bed in the morning?
What do I/we want to be remembered for?

If these questions feel too ambitious in a crisis situation he suggests that you can always turn fear into focus by asking this
simple but powerful question: what is the best outcome from here?

Being the opposite of the burning platform approach, the aim of the burning ambition approach is to reduce the anxiety about trying
something new rather than increasing survival anxiety.

Burning platform
The burning platform is a is a concept made famous by the burning platform memo written by the CEO of Nokia in February 2011
through which he intended to motivate his staff to help turn around Nokias fortunes. In one way, it is a good example of storytelling.
It comes from the true story of a worker on the Piper Alpha oil rig when it exploded in July 1988, killing 167 people. An oil worker is
woken in the middle of the night by an explosion on the oil rig. Despite the risks of falling from a great height, being eaten by sharks
or dying of hypothermia, your worker decides better probable death than certain death.

Change curve
The change curve is a way of understanding and visually representing the level of an individuals confidence, morale and roll
competence through a period of change. From its starting level, for most people it rises slightly, dips, rises again and levels out.
Effective change management involves ensuring that the dip is as shallow and narrow as possible and that the curb levels out
higher than it started.

Change fatigue
Change fatigue is neither an acceptance nor rejection of change, but is the state of being overwhelmed and exhausted by the
amount of change going on and unable to absorb any more.

Change initiative
An organized, concerted effort to alter part of or all of an organization.

Change management
Change management is an approach to moving organizations and their stakeholders, in an organized manner, from their current
state to a desired future state. Effective change management tries to do so in a manner which causes the least anxiety and
resistance and therefore is the most likely to succeed.

Change management methodology


A system or approach which guides change implementers in performing a change.

Change readiness assessment


Change readiness is the capacity for change of a stakeholder of a change initiative.

Coaching/ mentoring
Coaching and mentoring tend to be used interchangeably, although there are subtle differences. Both involve helping the subject,
for example through questioning, challenging or educating them. Mentoring tends to primarily relate to identifying and nurturing their
potential to improve their prospects or position, whereas coaching is usually focused more on a particular circumstance or issue and
is often more educative. Mentors often use their own personal networks to assist the progression of their mentee, coaching can be
less personal than this.

Communication channels
Communication channels are the routes used to pass messages, such as social media, email, verbal presentations, reports, etc.

Communication strategy
A communications strategy usually outlines the
Background for the change outlining what is going on in the organization as the change unfolds; the overall demands in
communications,
Communication Principles
Target audience or audiences
Objectives for each audience
Plan for where the communications efforts are to be coordinated
Roles & Responsibilities
Budget and other resources
And relevant standards & measurements to ensure there are feedback loops which tell change management leaders if the
communication efforts are having the desired effect

Dis-benefit
The opposite of a benefit.

Force field analysis


Force field analysis involves listing the factors (forces) which are in favor of a particular action/change and those which are against.
Each factor is then given a score and the total of those scores determine whether the analysis is favorable or not. Organizations
which do you force field analysis need to decide what will be considered in order to allocate a score what the range of scores will be.
This can therefore be quite subjective approach, despite its seeming use of statistics.

Gap analysis
A process of assessing the current (as-is) state and the future (to-be) state in order to assess how to make the transition from one
state to another.

Gap analysis is a technique that can help organizations understand where they are, where they want to go and what actions are
needed in order to get there. It is the process of assessing the current, as-is state and the future, to-be state in order to assess how
to make the transition from one state to another.

Geert Hofstedes 5 dimension model


Geert Hofstedes 5 dimension model is a cultural dimensions theory which breaks down the characteristics of a culture into five
factors: power distance, individualism vs collectivism, masculinity vs femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term vs short term
orientation. Power distance relates to hierarchy, with flat structures reducing the distance between the least and most powerful.
Individualism vs collectivism relates to competition and an individualistic approach juxtaposed with a collective, cooperative, teamcentric approach. Masculine traits are seen as task orientation, whereas feminine traits are people orientation. Uncertainty
avoidance relates to the degree of tolerance of risk and the unknown i.e. both the level of knowledge about a subject and the
degree of certainty about an outcome. Long term vs short term orientation relates to which way in time an organisation focuses.
Those with a long term orientation focus on the future, how to get there, how to manage along the way and the rewards at the end of
it. Short term oriented organisations relate more to the past and present, looking for consistency with historical values, tradition and
persisting social norms.

Gestalt theory
Gestalt theory is the basis for a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility against a background of our present
experience and the sum of our relationships. Gestalt psychology therefore focuses on patterns and the whole set of circumstances,
rather than individual elements, seeing them all as interconnected.

GROW process
A popular structure for coaching is the GROW process, whereby the coach guides the conversation with the person being coached
to talk about the
Goal what they want to achieve
Reality where is that person now, what things are getting in their way
Options what can be done in order to help them reach their goal
Will and wrap-up create a plan of action and the motivation to carry out that plan

Incremental change
Continuous improvements made to the organization in an ongoing, adaptive manner. These are gradual changes to the current
state. Incremental change does not usually challenge the existing culture of an organization.

Lagging indicator
These are metrics which demonstrate the performance levels in the future state, once achieved. Examples would include postchange initiative profit levels or customer satisfaction.

Leading indicator

These are metrics which give an indication of the progress of the change initiative towards the future state performance levels.
Examples would include the number of enquiries about a product due to be released or the occupancy levels of a building which,
once empty, can be closed and sold.

Learning programs
Organizations often have a coordinated and standard set of training requirements delivered through a learning program which
makes available the necessary training for employees to carry out their current roles and, in some organizations, to develop further.
Having a program allows for training effectiveness to be increased by coordinating and reinforcing and the impact of additional
training requirements on the existing learning program needs to be considered. For this reason, training departments are often
considered stakeholders, as well as members of the change team.

McKinsey 7S
The 7S are structure, strategy, systems, skills, style, staff and shared values. The framework postulates that these seven
interdependent aspects of an organisation must be in alignment with each other in order to successfully implement change. Either
they must be maintained and reinforced to maintain performance during a change or they are used to identify the parts of an
organisation which need to change. For example, when thinking about launching a new service, the organisations structure must be
adapted to contain and support the new service, the organisations strategy needs to be supported by the service, the companys
systems such as IT or finance need to support and have incorporated in their business as usual functions the new service, those
providing the service will need the skills, the leadership approach in the organisation needs to support the new service, the
appropriate staff to provide the new service are needed and the service needs to contribute to the shared goals or values.

Mediator sponsor
A leader who is able to help resolve any conflicts between individuals or teams affected by changes.

Metrics/ measures
These are specific statistics which demonstrate the progress or success of the change. Individual lagging or leading indicators are
metrics.

Newtons First Law of Motion


Things in motion continue to move in the same direction unless some effort is exerted upon them.

Objective
The key aim of the organization which the benefits contribute to and the dis-benefits detract from. For example, improving market
share, expanding services, or minimizing risk.

Organizational culture

Organizational culture is the shared story of the individuals within it. It is the deeply ingrained social fabric of the organization that
drives peoples behavior. It is made up of the values, belief systems, dominant leadership styles, collective unspoken assumptions,
stories, myths, legends and rituals as well as its character and orientation.

Outcome
A change of state (from as-is to to-be, or a stage along the way). This may be as the results of a product being made available or a
transformational change being completed. Examples include revised team structures, revised working practices, ability to access IT
systems on the move, or a production line going operational.

PESTLE analysis
PESTLE analysis looks at the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors which affect an organisation.
It is a way of ensuring that a situation has been thought of in a practical manner from all sides. It can be combined with some of the
other diagnostic models, for example by using it as a checklist to ensure that each of the 7Ss in the McKinsey framework have been
fully considered. It is a more practical and less conceptual method of analysis.

Planner sponsor
A highly process-oriented senior manager who is able to assist in the planning and implementation of change activities.

Primary sponsor
The leader who authorizes and is responsible for the change initiative. Typically they lead the change management leadership team
and provide the funds for the project.

Product
A tangible item which the organization requires in order to make a change and realize a benefit. Examples include IT systems, new
teams, buildings, machinery or research results.

Project management
Project management is the discipline which manages projects, through planning and organizing the resources, controlling the quality
and is ensuring adherence to the time constraints. For example, they would ensure that the machine is delivered on time, at the right
price and that it is being built to the specifications and quality level required by the organization to bring about the desired benefits.

Purse-holder sponsor
A manager who exerts authority by funding only projects and initiatives that are in-line with the change initiatives goal.

Qualitative
Measures which indicate a level of performance but which cannot be given a specific value. For example, customer satisfaction can
be measured through satisfaction scores, but the degree of value of the increase in these scores cannot be quantified.

Quantitative
Measures which indicate a level of performance and where the increase or decrease in these measures can be valued. For
example, staff turnover is a measure whose variation can be given a fixed value (n.b., value does not have to be financial).

ROI
Return on investment is a specific quantitative measure, the ratio between the amount of money spent on achieving the change
(known as cost of change) and the financial value of the improvement (the return). The return needs to take into account both the
positive value of any improvements (known as benefits) and the negative value of any disadvantageous results of the change
(known as dis-benefits). Using this method requires organizations to attempt to put a financial value on benefits which may not be
financial, such as improved staff morale, customer satisfaction or increase reputation, hence the move in many organizations
towards a portfolio of financial and non-financial measures which give a rich picture of the value of the change.

Speech-maker sponsor
A leader with the undesirable trait of assuming that merely making a presentation on the need to change constitutes sufficient
personal involvement in the change effort.

Sponsor
A senior leader inside an organization who supports the change management leadership team.

Stakeholder
A person or group which has an interest in the process or result of a change initiative. They do not necessarily have to be directly or
indirectly affected by a change initiative to be a stakeholder; some stakeholders are unaffected but can wield direct or indirect
influence, such as damaging an organizations reputation or encouraging public support. Examples of stakeholder groups include:
customers, groups of employees, people with specific roles within the organization, the media, government, society, competitors,
trades unions, campaign groups, etc.

Stakeholder analysis
Stakeholder analysis is about identifying who has an interest in or influence over a change initiative and what their characteristics
are.
Stakeholder analysis involves thinking about:

Who the stakeholder or stakeholder group is


What might be their needs and expectations from the potential change
What that stakeholder or stakeholder groups level of influence (or power) within the organization is
What their likely attitude towards the potential change
What barriers or potential sources of resistance could prevent the individual or group moving towards the change?
If the stakeholder is a group, what differences would the change make to the roles, processes and structures in that group?

Stakeholder mapping
Stakeholder mapping involves representing stakeholders on a grid that displays their level of power (or influence) on one axis from
low to high, and their likely attitude toward the change on the other from positive to negative .

SWOT analysis
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis is used to analyse what is not ideal about the current state, what about it
should be capitalised upon or exploited and what risks or threats there are as a result of the current state which could be reduced. It
is then repeated on the suggested future state both to analyse how well it has capitalised on the strengths, dealt with the
weaknesses, exploited the opportunities and minimised the threats and whats the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
are of the new state.

To-be state
this is the desired future situation in the organization, i.e. the pre-change people, processes, technology, structure, strategy, culture,
etc.

Training needs analysis


Training needs analysis is the process of identifying the knowledge and skills gaps of individuals, teams, functional units or
organizations in order to develop a learning program to address those gaps. Training needs analyses often form the basis of longterm, business as usual learning programs, ensuring that the training remains relevant and aligned with organizational need. For this
reason, the impact of the change initiatives TNA on the organizations ongoing learning program needs to be considered.

Transformational change
Change which is not merely an extension of, improvement or modification of the current state of an organization, but one which
involves a complete and fundamental change to the organization, involving changes to processes and systems, people, structure
and/or culture.

Unblocker sponsor
A senior leader with sufficient authority whose intervention may be sought in removing difficult organizational obstacles which
hamper progress during the change.

VIRO Framework analysis

The VIRO framework is a scalable set of four questions which can be used to focus down onto an individual resource or capability or
up to an entire organisational market. It is based on four questions asked about: Value, rarity, imitability and organisation. Value
concerns the value of the item in question to the organisation does it enable the organisation to achieve something new or
reduce/avoid a threat or risk? Rarity relates to both availability and the right to exploit a resource such as with intellectual property.
Imitability relates to how difficult it is for other competitors to enter the market. The more difficult it is for somebody else to imitate
what the organisation is doing the higher the barriers to entry into the market. The final question, organisation, asks whether the
organisation is ready, has the capacity, willingness, etc. to make use of the resource or capability. It may be that one would use one
of the other frameworks to ensure that all aspects of the organisation question are covered. This framework differs from some of the
others as much of the focus is on external factors and actors.

Vision statement
The change vision statement is a pitchy, inspiring description changed organization will look like. It should be short, punchy, easily
understood, appeal to all communication styles and be memorable. If leaders cannot easily, quickly and convincingly encapsulated
a change, it is unlikely they will persuade others to buy into it. The vision should be what the organization returns to when confusion
develops about the change and what it uses to enthuse stakeholders to support the change.

Visionary sponsor
A sponsor who inspires others within the organization with his or her vision of a desirable common future.