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Jos Rizal


Jos Protasio Rizal Mercado y

Alonso Realonda
June 19, 1861[1]
Calamba, Laguna[1]


December 30, 1896 (aged 35)[2]

Bagumbayan, Manila[2]

Cause of

execution by firing squad


Rizal Park, Manila

Calamba, Laguna

Other names Pepe[3][4]

Alma mater

Ateneo Municipal de
Manila,University of Santo
Tomas,Universidad Central de

Organization La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina


Roman Catholic


Josephine Bracken (1896)[5]


Francsco Rizal y Bracken (who

died after birth)


Francisco Rizal Mercado

Teodora Alonso (mother)


Jos Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 December 30, 1896), was a
Filipino nationalist, writer and revolutionary. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of
the Philippines. He was the author of Noli Me Tngere, El Filibusterismo and a number of poems and
essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896.


Rizal was






Lam-co traditional

Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin:KYnn;

h-e-j: KhoG-lm, a Chinese
immigrant entrepreneur who sailed to the Philippines from Jinjiang, Quanzhou in the mid-17th
century.[10] Lam-co married Inez de la Rosa, a Sangley of Luzon.
Jos Rizal also had Spanish and Japanese ancestors. His maternal grandfather was a half Spaniard
engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo.[12] His maternal great-great-grandfather was Eugenio
Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers.
In 1848, then Governor-General of the Philippines NarcisoClavera, issued a decree by which native
Filipino and immigrant families were to adopt Spanish surnames from a list of Spanish family names.
Although the Chino Mestizos were allowed to hold on to their Chinese surnames, Lam -co changed
his surname to the Spanish "Mercado" (market), possibly to indicate their Chinese merchant roots.
Jos's father Francisco[13] adopted the surname Rizal (originally Ricial,[14] "the green of young growth"
or "green fields"), which was suggested to him by a provincial governor, or as Jos had described
him, "a friend of the family." However, the name change caused confusion in the business affai rs of
Francisco, most of which were begun under the old name. After a few years, he settled on the name
Rizal Mercado as a compromise, but usually just used the original surname "Mercado."
Jose Rizal was born to a wealthy family in Calamba,Laguna and was the seventh of 11 children. He
was born on June 19, 1861 to Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro (18181897)[1][13] and
Teodora Morales Alonso y Quintos (1827-1911); whose family later changed their surname to
Realonda[13] His parents were prosperous farmers who were granted lease of a hacienda and an
accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. His siblings were Saturnina (Neneng) (1850
1913), Paciano (18511930), Narcisa (Sisa) (18521939), Olympia (18551887), Lucia (18571919),
Mara (Biang) (18591945), Concepcin (Concha) (18621865), Josefa (Panggoy) (18651945),
Trinidad (Trining) (18681951) and Soledad (Choleng) (18701929).
Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, Jos dropped the last three names that make up
his full name, on the advice of his brother, Paciano Rizal, and the Rizal Mercado family, thus
rendering his name as "Jos Protasio Rizal". Of this, Rizal writes: "My family never paid much
attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an
illegitimate child!" [15] This was to enable him to travel freely and disassociate him from his brother,
who had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Gomburza. From early childhood, Jos
and Paciano were already advancing unheard-of political ideas of freedom and individual rights which
infuriated the authorities.[note 1][note 2] Despite the name change, Jos, as "Rizal" soon distinguished
himself in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his facility with Castilian and other
foreign languages, and later, in writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts of
the pre-colonial Philippine societies. Indeed, by 1891, the year he finished his El filibusterismo, this
second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now

carry the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal means persecution! Good! I too
want to join them and be worthy of this family name...".[15]

Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Bian, Laguna before he was sent to Manila. As to
his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran and studied
there for almost three months. He then enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as
one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding. He continued his
education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at
the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in
law.[17] Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical
school of Santo Tomas specializing later in ophthalmology.
Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he
traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de
Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. Also, he also attended medical lectures
at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin he was inducted as a member of
the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the
famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April
1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language.
He left Heidelberg a poem, "A lasflores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation and a prayer for
the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West.
At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned
professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann
von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I
spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a
week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends." He lived in a
Karlstrae boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and
stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of Noli Me Tngere.
Rizal was a polymath; besides medicine, he was also an artist who dabbled in painting, sketchi ng,
sculpting and woodcarving. He was a prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works
were his two novels, Noli Me Tngere and its sequel, El filibusterismo.[note 3][18] These social
commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the country formed the nucleus of literature that
inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries alike. Rizal was also a polyglot, conversant in
twenty-two languages.[note 4][note 5][19][20]
Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf Meyer, as "stupendous." [note
Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and
subjects.[19][21][21][22] He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor, painter, educator, farmer, historian,
playwright and journalist. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of
expertise, in architecture, cartography, economics, ethnology, anthropology, sociology, dramatics,
martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining Acacia Lodge No. 9
during his time in Spain and becoming a Master Mason in 1884.


Jos Rizal's life is one of the most documented of 19th century Filipinos due to the vast and extensive
records written by and about him.[23] Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere, being
himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the material having survived. His
biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of
switching from one language to another.

They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a
young Asian encountering the West for the first time. They included
his later trips, home and back again to Europe through Japan and
the United States, and, finally, through his self-imposed exile in
Hong Kong.
Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de
Manila (now Ateneo de Manila University), Rizal (who was then 16
years old) and a friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to visit Rizal's
maternal grandmother in Tondo, Manila. Mariano brought along his
sister, Segunda Katigbak, a 14-year old Batanguea from Lipa, Batangas. It was the first time they
met and Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that
were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others, rosy
cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed
very beautiful teeth, and the air of a s ylph; her entire self diffused a
mysterious charm." His grandmother's guests were mostly college
students and they knew that Rizal had skills in painting. They
suggested that Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda. He complied
reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for him,
Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz.[24]
From December 1891 to June 1892, Rizal lived with his family in
Number 2 of Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island. Rizal
used 5 D'Aguilar Street, Central district, Hong Kong Island as
his ophthalmologist clinic from 2 pm to 6 pm. This period of his life
included his recorded affections of which nine were identified. They
were Gertrude Beckett of Chalcot Crescent (London), wealthy and
high-minded Nelly Boustead of the English and Iberian merchant
Rednaxela Terrace is where Dr. Jos
family, last descendant of a noble Japanese family Seiko Rizal lived during his self-imposed exile
Usui (affectionately calledO-Sei-san),
earlier friendship in Hong Kong (photo taken in 2011)
with SegundaKatigbak, Leonor
romantic relationship with a distant cousin, Leonor Rivera (popularly thought to be the inspiration for
the character of Mara Clara in Noli Me Tngere).
Business Card shows Dr. Jos Rizal is an
Ophthalmologist in Hong Kong


Leonor Rivera is thought to be the inspiration for the character of Maria Clara in Noli Me
Tngereand El Filibusterismo.[25] Rivera and Rizal first met in Manila when Rivera was only 14 years
old. When Rizal left for Europe on May 3, 1882, Rivera was 16 years of age. Their correspondence
began when Rizal left a poem for Ri vera saying farewell.[26]
The correspondence between Rivera and Rizal kept Rizal focused on his studies in Europe. They
employed codes in their letters because Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. A letter from Mariano
Katigbak dated June 27, 1884 referred to Rivera as Rizal's "betrothed". Katigbak described Rivera as
having been greatly affected by Rizal's departure, frequently sick because ofinsomnia.
When Rizal returned to the Philippines on August 5, 1887, Rivera and her family had moved back
toDagupan, Pangasinan. Rizal was forbidden by his father Francisco Mercado to see Rivera in order
to avoid putting the Rivera family in danger because at the time Rizal was already labeled by the
Spaniards as a filibustero or subversive[26] because his novelNoli Me Tngere. Rizal wanted to marry
Rivera while he was still in the Philippines because of Rivera's uncomplaining fidelity. Rizal asked
permission from his father one more time before his second departure from the Philippines. The
meeting never happened. In 1888, Rizal stopped receiving letters from Rivera for a year, although
Rizal kept sending letters to Rivera. The reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance
between Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway engineer who fell in

love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's mother.[26][27] The news of Leonor Rivera's marriage to
Kipping devastated Rizal.
His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including doodlings on pieces of paper. In
the home of a Spanish liberal, Pedro Ortiga y Prez, he left an impression that was to be
remembered by his daughter, Consuelo. In her diary, she wrote of a day Rizal spent there and
regaled them with his wit, social graces, and sleight-of-hand tricks. In London, during his research
on Morga's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Dr. Reinhold Rost of the British
Museum who referred to him as "a gem of a man." [23][note 7] The family of Karl Ullmer, pastor
of Wilhelmsfeld, and the Blumentritts saved even buttonholes and napkins with sketches and notes.
They were ultimately bequeathed to the Rizal family to form a treasure trove of memorabilia.
In February 1895, Rizal, 33, became acquainted with an Irish woman
from Hong Kong namedJosephine Bracken when she accompanied
her blind adoptive father, George Taufer, to have his eye checked by
Rizal.[28] After frequent visits, Rizal and Bracken soon fell in love with
each other and later applied for marriage, but because of his bad
reputation from his own writings and political stance, the local priest
Father Obach, only agreed to the hold the ceremony if Rizal could get
a permission from the Bishop of Cebu. He was unable to obtain an
ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to Catholicism.[5]
After accompanying her father to Manila on her return to Hong Kong
and before heading back to Dapitan to live with Rizal, she introduced
herself to members of his family in Manila. His mother suggested a civil
marriage who believed it as a lesser sacrament, and would be less
sinful to Rizal's conscience than making any sort of political retraction
in order to gain permission from the Bishop.[29] He, nonetheless,
considered Josephine to be his wife and the couple lived together in
Talisay in Dapitan. Reportedly, the couple had a child, Francsco Rizal
y Bracken, who was stillborn and only lived for a few hours.

Josephine Bracken was Rizal's commonlaw wife whom he reportedly married

shortly before his execution.


In 1890, Rizal, 29, left Paris for Brussels as he was preparing for the publication of his annotations
of Antonio de Morga's "Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas." There, he lived in the boarding house of the
two Jacoby sisters, Catherina and Suzanna who had a niece also named Suzanna ("Thil"), 16.
Historian Gregorio F. Zaide states that Rizal had "his romance with Suzanne Jacoby, 45, the petite
niece of his landladies." Belgian Pros Slachmuylders, however, believed that Rizal had a romance
with the niece, Suzanna Thil, in 1890.[31]
Rizal's Brussels stay was short-lived, as he moved to Madrid, leaving the young Suzanna a box of
chocolates. Suzanna replied in French: "After your departure, I did not take the chocolate. The box is
still intact as on the day of your parting. Dont delay too long writing us because I wear out the soles
of my for running to the mailbox to see if there is a letter from you. There will never be any home in
which you are so loved as in that in Brussels, so, you little bad boy, hurry up and come back" (Oct.
1, 1890 letter).Slachmuylders group in 2007 unveiled a historical marker commemorating Rizal's stay
in Brussels in 1890.[31]
The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most famous novels, Noli Me
Tngere, published in Berlin in 1887, and ElFilibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891 with funds
borrowed largely from Rizal's friends. These writings angered both the Spanish colonial elite and
many educated Filipinos due to their insulting symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the
power of the Church. Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austria-Hungary born professor and

historian wrote that the novel's characters were drawn from real life and that every episode can be
repeated on any day in the Philippines.[32]
Blumentritt was the grandson of the Imperial Treasurer at Vienna in the former Austro-Hungarian
Empire and a staunch defender of the Catholic faith. This did not dissuade him however from writing
the preface of El filibusterismo after he had translated Noli Me Tngereinto German. As Blumentritt
had warned, these led to Rizal's prosecution as the inciter of revolution and eventually, to a military
trial and execution. The intended consequence of teaching the natives where they stood brought
about an adverse reaction, as thePhilippine Revolution of 1896 took off virulently thereafter.
As leader of the reform movement of Filipino students in Spain, he contributed essays,allegories,
poems, and editorials to the Spanish newspaper La Solidaridad in Barcelona (in this case Rizal used
a pen name, Dimasalang). The core of his writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of
individual rights and freedom; specifically, rights for the Filipino people. He shared the same
sentiments with members of the movement: that the Philippines is battling, in Rizal's own words, "a
double-faced Goliath"corrupt friars and bad government. His commentaries reiterate the following
agenda:[note 8]
That the Philippines be a province of Spain (Philippines was a sub-colony of New Spain - now
Mexico, administered from Mexico city)
Representation in the Cortes
Filipino priests instead of Spanish friars--Augustinians, Dominicans, andFranciscansin parishes
and remote sitios
Freedom of assembly and speech
Equal rights before the law (for both Filipino and Spanish plaintiffs)
The colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms even if they were more openly
endorsed by Spanish intellectuals like Morayta, Unamuno, Pi y Margall, and others.
WenceslaoRetana, a political commentator in Spain, had slighted Rizal by writing an insulting article
in "La Epoca", a newspaper in Madrid, in which he insinuated that the family and friends of Rizal were
ejected from their lands in Calamba for not having paid their due rents. The incident (when Rizal was
ten) stemmed from an accusation that Rizal's mother, Teodora, tried to poison the wife of a cousin
when she claimed she only intervened to help. With the approval of the Church prelates, and without
a hearing, she was ordered to prison in Santa Cruz in 1871. She was made to walk the ten miles
(16 km) from Calamba. She was released after two-and-a-half years of appeals to the highest
court.[22] In 1887, Rizal wrote a petition on behalf of the tenants of Calamba, and later that year led
them to speak out against the friars' attempts to raise rent. They initiated a litigation which resulted in
General ValerianoWeyler had the buildings on the farm torn down.
Upon reading the article, Rizal sent immediately a representative to challenge Retana to a duel. The
painful memories of his mother's treatment at the hands of the civil authorities explain his reaction.
Retana published a public apology and later became one of Rizal's biggest admirers, writing Rizal's
most important biography - Vida y Escritosdel Jos Rizal.[33][note 9]


Upon his return to Manila in 1892, he formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina. The league
advocated these moderate social reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the governor.
At that time, he had already been declared an enemy of the state by the Spanish authorities because
of the publication of his novel.
Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in July 1892, was deported
to Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga, a peninsula of Mindanao.[34] There he built a school, a
hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture. [citation


Abaca, then the vital raw material for cordage and which Rizal and his students planted in the
thousands, was a memorial.[citation needed]
The boys' school, which taught in Spanish, and included English as a foreign language (considered a
prescient if unusual option then) was conceived by Rizal and antedated Gordonstoun with its aims of
inculcating resourcefulness and self-sufficiency in young men.[citation needed] They would later enjoy
successful lives as farmers and honest government officials. [citation needed] One, a Muslim, became
a datu, and another, Jos Aseniero, who was with Rizal throughout the life of the school, became
Governor of Zamboanga.[citation needed]
In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to the fold led by Fray Snchez, his
former professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Fray Pastells, a prominent
member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells , Rizal sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.[35]
"We are entirely in accord in admitting the existence of God. How can I doubt his when I am
convinced of mine. Who so recognizes the effect recognizes the cause. To doubt God is to doubt
one's own conscience, and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is life for?
Now then, my faith in God, if the result of a ratiocination may be called faith, is blind, blind in the
sense of knowing nothing. I neither believe nor disbelieve the qualities which many attribute to him;
before theologians' and philosophers' definitions and lucubrations of this ineffable and inscrutable
being I find myself smiling. Faced with the conviction of seeing myself confronting the supreme
Problem, which confused voices seek to explain to me, I cannot but reply: 'It could be; but the God
that I foreknow is far more grand, far more good: Plus Supra!...I believe in (revelation); but not in
revelation or revelations which each religion or religions claim to possess. Examining them
impartially, comparing them and scrutinizing them, one cannot avoid discerning the human 'fi ngernail'
and the stamp of the time in which they were written... No, let us not make God in our image, poor
inhabitants that we are of a distant planet lost in infinite space. However, brilliant and sublime our
intelligence may be, it is scarcely more than a small spark which shines and in an instant is
extinguished, and it alone can give us no idea of that blaze, that conflagration, that ocean of light. I
believe in revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every side, in that voice,
mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear, distinct, universal as is the being from whom it
proceeds, in that revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are born until
we die. What books can better reveal to us the goodness of God, his love, his providence, his
eternity, his glory, his wisdom? 'The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his
handiwork'." [36]
His best friend, professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, kept him in touch with European friends and fellowscientists who wrote a stream of letters which arrived in Dutch, Frenc h, German and English and
which baffled the censors, delaying their transmittal. Those four years of his exile coincided with the
development of the Philippine Revolution from inception and to its final breakout, which, from the
viewpoint of the court which was to try him, suggested his complicity in it. [23] He condemned the
uprising, although all the members of the Katipunan had made him their honorary president and had
used his name as a cry for war, unity, and liberty.
By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a full-blown
revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising.[citation needed] Rizal had earlier volunteered his services
as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General Ramn Blanco to serve in Cuba to
minister to victims of yellow fever. Rizal and Josephine left Dapitan on August 1, 1896 with letter of
recommendation from Blanco.
Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October 6, 1896.
He was sent back the same day to Manila to stand trial as he was implicated in the revolution through
his association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no
Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so.

While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the current revolution in its
present state and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity
were prerequisites to freedom.
Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted on all
three charges, and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of
office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda, had 'intercalated' Camilo de
Polavieja in his stead, as the new Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines after pressuring
Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate.
Moments before his execution on December 30,
1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the
Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish
Army troops stood ready to shoot the
orders.[38] The Spanish Army Surgeon General
requested to take his pulse: it was normal. Aware
of this the Sergeant commanding the backup
force hushed his men to silence when they began A photographic record of Rizal's execution in what was then
raising "vivas" with the highly partisan crowd of Bagumbayan.
Peninsular and Mestizo Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatumest",--it
is finished.
He was secretly buried in Pac Cemetery in Manila with no
identification on his grave. His sister Narcisa toured all possible
gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with
guards posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely
spot, there never having any
ground burials, she made a
gift to the caretaker to mark
the site "RPJ", Rizal's initials
in reverse.
His undated poem, Mi ltimo
adis believed to be written a
Historical marker of Jos Rizal's execution
execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove, which was later
handed to his family with his few remaining possessions,
including the final letters and his last bequests. During their
visit, Rizal reminded his sisters in English, "There is something
inside it", referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de
Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby
emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was
followed by another, "Look in my shoes", in which another item
was secreted. Exhumation of his remains in August 1898,
under American rule, revealed he had been uncoffined, his
burial not on sanctified ground granted the 'confessed' faithful,
and whatever was in his shoes had disintegrated.[22]
In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as Jos Rizal's original grave at Paco Park in Manila.
you would wish to be treated...Love them greatly in memory of Slightly renovated and date repainted in English.
me...December 30, 1896." [23] He gave his family instructions

for his burial: "Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name, the date of my
birth and of my death.Nothing more. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do
it. No anniversaries."[40]
In his final letter, to Blumentritt Tomorrow at 7, I shall be shot; but I am innocent of the crime of
rebellion. I am going to die with a tranquil conscience. [23] Rizal is believed to be the first Filipino
revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work as a writer; and through dissent and civil
disobedience enabled him to successfully destroy Spain's moral primacy to rule. He also bequeathed
a book personally bound by him in Dapitan to his 'best and dearest friend.' When Blumentritt received
it in his hometownLitomice (Leitmeritz) he broke down and wept.


Jose Rizal wrote mostly in Spanish, the then lingua franca of scholars, though some of his letters (for
example Sa MgaKababaihangTagaMalolos) were written in Tagalog. His works have since been
translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and English.
Noli Me Tngere, novel, 1887 (literally Latin for 'touch me not', from John 20:17)[41]
El Filibusterismo, (novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tngere
MiltimoAdis, poem, 1896 (literally "My Last Farewell" )
AlinMangLahi (Whateer the Race), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. Jos Rizal [42]
The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished)
Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante Ingles, Madrid
The Diaries of Jos Rizal
Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members, Blumentritt, Fr.
Pablo Pastells and other reformers
"Come se gobiernanlas Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands)
Filipinas dentro de cienaos essay, 1889-90 (The Philippines a Century Hence)
La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos) [43]
Makamisa unfinished novel
Sa MgaKababaihangTagaMalolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos
Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889, Events in the
Philippine Islands)
A La Juventud Filipina
Canto Del Viajero
Canto de Mara Clara
Dalit saPaggawa
Kundiman (Tagalog)
Me Piden Versos
Mi Ultimo Adis
Por La Educacin (RecibeLustre La Patria)
Sa Sanggolnasi Jesus
To My Muse (A Mi Musa)
Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo

El Consejo de los Dioses (The council of Gods)
Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig)
San Euistaquio, Mrtyr (Saint Eustache, the martyr)[44]


Several historians report that Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic ideas through a document which
stated: "I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct have been
contrary to my character as a son of the Catholic Church."[note 11]However, there are doubts of its
authenticity given that there is no certificate of Rizal's Catholic marriage to Josephine
Bracken.[45] Also there is an allegation that the retraction document was a forgery. [46]
After analyzing six major documents of Rizal, Ricardo Pascual concluded that the retraction
document, said to have been discovered in 1935, was not in Rizal's handwriting. Senator Rafael
Palma, a former President of the University of the Philippines and a prominentMason, argued that a
retraction is not in keeping with Rizal's character and mature beliefs.[47] He called the retraction story
a "pious fraud." [48] Others who deny the retraction are Frank Laubach,[19] a Protestant minister; Austin
Coates,[27] a British writer; and Ricardo Manapat, director of the National Archives.[49]
Those who affirm the authenticity of Rizal's retraction are prominent Philippine historians such as Nick
Joaquin,[note 12] Nicolas Zafra ofUP[50] Len Mara Guerrero III, [note 13] Gregorio Zaide,[52] Guillermo
Rivera, AmbethOcampo,[49] John
Schumacher,[53] Antonio
Molina,[54] Paul
Dumol[55] and Austin Craig.[22] They take the retraction document as authentic, having been judged as
such by a foremost expert on the writings of Rizal, TeodoroKalaw (a 33rd degree Mason) and
"handwriting experts...known and recognized in our courts of justice", H. Otley Beyer and Dr. Jos I.
Del Rosario, both of UP.[50]
Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when Rizal wrote his retraction, signed a Catholi c prayer
book, and recited Catholic prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his
execution. A great grand nephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites that Rizal's
4 confessions were certified by 5 eyewitnesses, 10 qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers, and 12
historians and writers including Aglipayan bishops, Masons and anti-clericals.[56] One witness was the
head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed
by Rizal for his integrity.[57]
Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in the light of the historical
method, in contrast with merelycircumstantial evidence, UP professor emeritus of history Nicolas
Zafra called the retraction "a plain unadorned fact of history." [50]Guzmn attributes the denial of
retraction to "the blatant disbelief and stubbornness" of some Masons. [56]
Supporters see in the retraction Rizal's "moral recognize his mistakes," [52][note
his reversion to the "true faith", and thus his "unfading glory," [57] and a return to the "ideals of his
fathers" which "did not diminish his stature as a great patriot; on the contrary, it inc reased that stature
to greatness." [60] On the other hand, senator Jose Diokno stated, "Surely whether Rizal died as a
Catholic or an apostate adds or detracts nothing from his greatness as a Filipino... Catholic or Mason,
Rizal is still Rizal - the hero who courted death 'to prove to those who deny our patriotism that we
know how to die for our duty and our beliefs'."[61]
The poem is more aptly titled, "Adis, Patria Adorada" (literally "Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by
virtue of logic and literary tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. It first
appeared in print not in Manila but in Hong Kong in 1897, when a copy of the poem and an
accompanying photograph came to J. P. Braga who decided to publish it in a monthly journal he

edited. There was a delay when Braga, who greatly admired Rizal, wanted a good job of the
photograph and sent it to be engraved in London, a process taking well over two months. It finally
appeared under 'Miltimopensamiento,' a title he supplied and by which it was known for a few years.
Thus, when the Jesuit Balaguer's anonymous account of the retraction and the marriage to Josephine
was appearing in Barcelona, no word of the poem's existence reached him i n time to revise what he
had written. His account was too elaborate that Rizal would have had no time to write "Adis."
Six years after his death, when the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 was being debated in the United
States Congress, Representative Henry Cooper of Wisconsin rendered an English translation of
Rizal's valedictory poem capped by the peroration, "Under what clime or what skies has tyranny
claimed a nobler victim?" [62] Subsequently, the US Congress passed the bill into law which is now
known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902.[63]
This was a major breakthrough for a US Congress that had yet to grant equal rights to African
Americans guaranteed to them in the US Constitution and the Chinese Exclusion Act was still in
effect. It created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates to the US Congress,
extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and laid the foundation for an autonomous government.
The colony was on its way to independence.[63] The Americans, however, would not sign the bill into
law until 1916 and did not recognize Philippine Independence until the Treaty of Manila in 1946fifty
years after Rizal's death.This same poem which has inspired liberty-loving peoples across the region
its Bahasa
Indonesia translation by Rosihan
by Indonesian soldiers of independence before going into battle.
Josephine Bracken, whom Rizal addressed as his wife on his last day, [65] promptly joined
the revolutionary forces in Caviteprovince,making her way through thicket and mud across enemy
lines, and helped reloading spent cartridges at the arsenal in Imusunder the revolutionary General
PantalenGarca. Imus came under threat of recapture that the operation was moved, with Bracken,
toMaragondon, the mountain redoubt in Cavite.[66]
She witnessed the Tejeros Convention prior to returning to Manila and was summoned by
the Governor-General, but owing to her stepfather's American citizenship she could not be forcibly
deported. She left voluntarily returning to Hong Kong. She later married another Filipino, Vicente
Abad, a mestizo acting as agent for the Tabacalera firm in the Philippines. She died of tubercolosis in
Hong Kong in March 15, 1902 and was buried at the Happy Valley Cemetery. [66] She was
immortalized by Rizal in the last stanza of Mi Ultimo Adios: "Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my
Polavieja faced condemnation by his countrymen after his return to Spain. While visiting Girona,
in Catalonia, circulars were distributed among the crowd bearing Rizal's last verses, his portrait, and
the charge that Polavieja was responsible for the loss of the Philippines to Spain.[67] Ramon Blanco
later presented his sash and sword to the Rizal family as an apology.


Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war between free thinker and Catholic,
have kept his legacy controversial.
The confusion over Rizal's real stance on the Philippine Revolution leads to the sometimes bitter
question of his ranking as the nation's premier hero.[68][69]

Some suggest that Jose Rizal was made a legislated national hero by the American forces occupying
Philippines. In 1901, the American Governor General William Howard Taft suggested that the U.S.
sponsored Philippine Commission name Rizal a national hero for Filipinos. Jose Rizal was an ideal
candidate, favourable to the American occupiers since he was dead, and non-violent - both
favourable qualities which, if emulated by Filipinos, would not threaten the American rule or change
the status quo of the occuppiers of Philippine islands. Rizal did not advocate freedom for Philippines
either.[70] Subsequently, the US-sponsored commission passed Act No. 346 which set the anniversary
of Rizals death as a day of observance.[71]
Renato Constantino writes Rizal is a "United States-sponsored hero" who was promoted as the
greatest Filipino hero during the American colonial period of the Philippines after Aguinaldo lost the
PhilippineAmerican War. The United States promoted Rizal, who represented peaceful political
advocacy (in fact, repudiation of violent means in general) instead of more radical figures whose
ideas could inspire resistance against American rule. Rizal was selected over Bonifacio who was
viewed "too radical" and ApolinarioMabini who was considered "unregenerate." [72]
On the other hand, numerous sources [73] quote that it was General Aguinaldo, and not the second
Philippine Commission, who first recognized December 30 as "national day of mourning in memory of
Rizal and other victims of Spanish tyranny. As per them, the first celebration of Rizal Day was held in
Manila on December 30, 1898, under the sponsorship of the Club Filipino. [74]
The veracity of both claims seems to be justified and hence difficult to ascertain. However, most
historians agree [75] that a majority of Filipinos were unaware of Rizal during his lifetime, as he was a
member of the richer elite classes (he was born in an affluent family, had lived abroad for nearly as
long as he had lived in the Philippines) and wrote primarily in an elite language (at that
time, Tagalog andCebuano were the languages of the masses) about ideals as lofty as freedom (the
masses were more concerned about day to day issues like earning money and making a living,
something which has not changed much today either)[76]
TeodoroAgoncillo opines that the Philippine national hero, unlike those of other countries, is not "the
leader of its liberation forces". He gives the opinion that Andrs Bonifacio not replace Rizal as
national hero, like some have suggested, but that be honored alongside him. [77]
Constantino's analysis has been criticised for its polemicism and inaccuracies.[78] The historian Rafael
Palma, contends that the revolution of Bonifacio is a consequence wrought by the writings of Rizal
and that although the Bonifacio's revolver produced an immediate outcome, the pen of Rizal
generated a more lasting achievement.[79]
Despite the lack of any official declaration explicitly proclaiming them as national heroes, Rizal, along
with Bonifacio, remains admired and revered for their role in Philippine history. Heroes, according to
historians, should not be legislated. Their appreciation should be better left to academics.
Acclamation for heroes, they felt, would be recognition enough.[80]
In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a 'lady of the camellias.' The
writer, Maximo Viola, a friend of Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas's 1848 novel, La dame aux camelias,
about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on record, there was no account in
Viola's letter whether it was more than one-night and if it was more a business transaction than an
amorous affair.[81][82][note 15]
Others present him as a man of contradictions. Miguel de Unamuno in "Rizal: the Tagalog Hamlet",
said of him, "a soul that dreads the revolution although deep down desires it. He pivots between fear
and hope, between faith and despair." [83] His critics assert this character flaw is translated into his two
novels where he opposes violence in Noli and appears to advocate it in Fili, contrasting Ibarra's
idealism to Simoun's cynicism. His defenders insist this ambivalence is trounced when Simoun is

Tallest Jos Rizal statue in the

world. Located at Calamba,
Laguna, Rizal's hometown. It was
synchronous on the 150th Birth
Celebration of the hero.

struck down in the sequel's final chapters, reaffirming the author's resolute
stance, Pure and spotless must the victim be if the sacrifice is to be
Many thinkers tend to find the characters of Maria Clara and Ibarra (Noli me
Tangere) poor role models, Maria Clara being too frail, and young Ibarra
being too accepting of circumstances, rather than being courageous and
In El Filibusterismo, Rizal had Father Florentino say: "...our liberty will (not)
be secured at the s word's point...we must secure it by making ourselves
worthy of it. And when a people reaches that height God will provide a
weapon, the idols will be shattered, tyranny will crumble like a house of
cards and liberty will shine out like the first dawn."[84] Rizal's attitude to
the Philippine Revolution is also debated, not only based on his own
writings, but also due to the varying eyewitness accounts of Po Valenzuela, a
doctor who in 1895 had consulted Rizal in Dapitan on behalf of Bonifacio and
the Katipunan.


Upon the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896, Valenzuela surrendered to the Spanish
authorities and testified in military court that Rizal had strongly condemned an armed struggle for
independence when Valenzuela asked for his support. Rizal had even refused him entry to his house.
Bonifacio, in turn, had openly denounced him as a coward for his refusal. [note 16]
But years later, Valenzuela testified that Rizal had been favorable to an uprising as long as the
Filipinos were well-prepared, and well-supplied with arms. Rizal had suggested that the Katipunan get
wealthy and influential Filipino members of society on their side, or at least ensure they would stay
neutral. Rizal had even suggested his friend Antonio Luna to lead the revolutionary forces since he
had studied military science.[note 17] In the event that the Katipunan was discovered prematurely, they
fight rather than allow themselves
killed. Valenzuela
historian TeodoroAgoncillo that he had lied to the Spanish military authorities about Rizal's true
stance toward a revolution in an attempt to exculpate him.[86]
Before his execution, Rizal wrote a proclamation denouncing the revolution. But as noted by historian
FloroQuibuyen, his final poem Mi ultimo adios contains a stanza which equates his coming execution
and the rebels then dying in battle as fundamentally the same, as both are dying for their country.

Rizal was a contemporary of Gandhi, Tagore and Sun YatSen who also advocated liberty through
peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. Coinciding with the appearance of those other
leaders, Rizal from an early age had been enunciating in poems, tracts and plays, ideas all his own of
modern nationhood as a practical possibility in Asia. In the Noli he stated that if European civilization
had nothing better to offer, colonialism in Asia was doomed.[note 18]
Though popularly mentioned, especially on blogs, there is no evidence to suggest that Gandhi or
Nehru may have corresponded with Rizal, neither have they mentioned him in any of their memmoirs
or letters.But it was documented by Rizal's biographer, Austin Coates who interviewed Jawaharlal
Nehru and Gandhi that Rizal was mentioned, specifically in Nehru's prison letters to his daughter
As a political figure, Jos Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that
subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrs Bonifacio,[note 19], a secret society which
would start the Philippine Revolution against Spain that eventually laid the foundation of the First
Philippine Republic under Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine selfgovernment peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent revolution, and would

only support "violent means" as a last resort.[90]Rizal believed that the only justification for national
liberation and self-government was the restoration of the dignity of the people, [note 20]saying "Why
independence, if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow?" [91]
Rizal, through his reading of Morga and other western historians, knew of the genial image of Spain's
early relations with his people.[92] In his writings, he showed the disparity between the early colonialists
and those of his day, with the latter's injustices giving rise toGomburza and the Philippine Revolution
of 1896. The English biographer, Austin Coates, and writer, Benedict Anderson, believe that Rizal
gave the Philippine revolution a genuinely national character; and that Rizal's patriotism and his
standing as one of Asia's first intellectuals have inspired others of the importance of a national identity
to nation-building.[27][note 21]
Several titles were bestowed on him: "the First Filipino", "Greatest Man of the Brown Race", among
others. The Order of the Knights of Rizal, a civic and patriotic organization, boasts of dozens of
chapters all over the globe [3] [4]. There are some remote-area religious sects who claim him as a
sublimation of Christ.[94] In September 1903, he was canonised as a saint in the Iglesia Filipina
Independiente, however it was revoked in the 1950s.[95]
During his exile, he became a noted biologist, having discovered rare animal species, notably
the Philippine Gliding Lizard. He sent specimens secretly to Europe and even proposed a binomial
name for the creature (which is still used today).

Although his field of action lay in politics, Rizal's real interests lay in the arts and sciences, in
literature and in his profession as an ophthalmologist. Shortly after his death, the Anthropological
Society of Berlin met to honor him with a reading of a German translation of his farewell poem and
Dr. Rudolf Virchow delivering the eulogy.[96]
The Rizal Monument now stands near the place where he fell at the Luneta in Bagumbayan,
which is now called Rizal Park, anational park in Manila. The monument, which also contains his
remains, was designed by the Swiss Richard Kissling of theWilliam Tel sculpture in Altdorf, Uri.[note
The monument carries the inscription "I want to show to those who deprive people the right to
love of country, that when we know how to sacrifice ourselves for our duties and convictions,
death does not matter if one dies for those one loves for his country and for others dear to
The Taft Commission in June 1901 approved Act 137 renaming the District of Morong into the
Province of Rizal. Today, the wide acceptance of Rizal is evidenced by the countless towns,
streets, and numerous parks in the Philippines named in his honor.
Republic Act 1425 was passed in 1956 by the Philippine legislature requiring all high school and
college curricula a course in the study of his life, works and writings.
Monuments erected in his honor can be found in Madrid;[98] Tokyo; Wilhelmsfeld,
Germany; Jinjiang,
China;[99] Chicago;[100]Cherry
Jersey; Honolulu;
San Diego;
Mexico City, Mexico;
Lima, Peru;
Litomerice, Czech
Republic[citation needed]; Toronto[citation needed];and Montreal, Quebec, Canada [citation needed].
A two-sided marker bearing a painting of Rizal by Fabin de la Rosa on one side and a bronze
bust relief of him by Philippine artistGuillermoTolentino stands at the Asian Civilisations
Museum Green marking his visits to Singapore in 1882, 1887, 1891 and 1896.[105]
A Rizal bronze bust was erected at La Molina district, Lima, Peru, designed by Czech sculptor
Hanstroff, mounted atop a pedestal base with four inaugural plaque markers with the following
inscription on one: "Dr. Jos P. Rizal, HroeNacional de Filipinas, Nacionalista, Reformador
Political, Escritor, Lingistica y Poeta, 18611896."
A plaque marks the Heidelberg building where he trained with Professor Becker while in
Wilhemsfeld. There is a small Rizal Park in that city where a bronze statue of Rizal stands. The

street where he lived was also renamed after him. A sandstone fountain in Pastor Ullmer's house
garden where Rizal lived in Wilhelmsfeld, was given to the Philippine government and is now
located at Rizal Park in Manila.[109]


The Triumph of Science over

Death, by Rizal.

Rizal also tried his hand at painting and sculpture. His most famous sculptural
work was "The Triumph of Science over Death", a clay sculpture of a naked
young woman with overflowing hair, standing on a skull while bearing a torch
held high. The woman symbolized the ignorance of humankind during the
Dark Ages, while the torch she bore symbolized the enlightenment science
brings over the whole world. He sent the sculpture as a gift to his dear friend
Ferdinand Blumentritt, together with another one named "The Triumph of
Death over Life".
The woman is shown trampling the skull, a symbol of death, to signify the
victory the humankind achieved by conquering the bane of death through their
scientific advancements. The original sculpture is now displayed at the Rizal
Shrine Museum at Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Manila. A large replica, made
of concrete, stands in front of Fernando Caldern Hall, the building which
houses the College of Medicine of the University of the Philippines Manila
along Pedro Gil Street in Ermita, Manila.


The cinematic depiction of Rizal's literary works won two film industry awards more than a century
after his birth. In the 10th FAMAS Awards, he was honored in the Best Story category for Gerardo de
Len's adaptation of his book Noli Me Tngere. The recognition was repeated the following year with
his movie version of El Filibusterismo, making him the only person to win back-to-back FAMAS
Awards posthumously.[citation needed]
Both novels were translated into opera by the composer-librettist Felipe Padilla de Len: Noli me
tangere in 1957 and El filibusterismoin 1970; and his 1939 overture, MariangMakiling, was inspired by
Rizal's tale of the same name.[110]
Several films were produced narrating Riza l's life. The most successful was Jos Rizal, (Directed by
Marilou Diaz Abaya, produced by GMA Films and released in 1998). Cesar Montano played the title
role.[111] A year before it was shown another movie was made portraying his life while in exile in the
island of Dapitan. Titled Rizal saDapitan produced by Viva Films it stars Albert Martnez as Rizal and
Amanda Page as Josephine Bracken. The film was the top grosser of the 1997 Manila Film Festival
and won the best actor and actress trophies..[citation needed] Another film that tackled particularly on the
heroism of Rizal was the 2000 film Bayaning 3rd World, directed by Mike de Leon and starring Joel
Torre as Jos Rizal.
Nearly every town and city in Philippines contains a street named after Rizal (Rizal street
and Rizal avenue)
At least ten towns / cities in Philippines are named "Rizal" (for example : Rizal - Cagayan)
A road in the Chanakyapuri area of New Delhi (India) is named Dr. Jose P Rizal Marg
The USS Rizal (DD-174) was a Wickes-class destroyer named after Rizal by the United States
Navy and launched on September 21, 1918.

The Jos Rizal Bridge and Rizal Park in the city of Seattle are dedicated to Rizal.[112]
Rizal also appeared in the 1999 video game Medal of Honor as a secret character in multiplayer,
alongside other historical figures such as William Shakespeare and Winston Churchill. He can be
unlocked by completing the single-player mode, or through cheat codes.


1. Jump up^ When Jos was baptized, the record showed his parents as Francisco Rizal
Mercado and TeodoraRealonda."Jos Rizals Lineage"
2. Jump up^ At age 8 (in 1869) he was reputed to have written the poem Sa
akingmgaKabata and had for its theme the love of one's native language.[16]
3. Jump up^ His novel Noli was one of the first novels in Asia written outside Japan and China
and was one of the first novels of anti-colonial rebellion. Read Benedict Anderson's
commentary: [1].
4. Jump up^ He was conversant in Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, German, Portuguese, Italian,
English, Dutch, and Japanese. Rizal also made translations from Arabic, Swedish, Russian,
Chinese, Greek, Hebrew and Sanskrit. He translated the poetry of Schiller into his
nativeTagalog. In addition he had at least some knowledge
of Malay, Chavacano, Cebuano, Ilocano, and Subanun.
5. Jump up^ In his essay, "Reflections of a Filipino", (La Solidaridad, c.1888), he wrote: "Man is
multiplied by the number of languages he possesses and speaks."
6. Jump up^ Adolf Bernard Meyer (18401911) was a German ornithologist and anthropologist,
and author of the book Philippinen-typen (Dresden, 1888)
7. Jump up^ Dr. Reinhold Rost was the head of the India Office at the British Museum and a
renowned 19th century philologist.
8. Jump up^ In his letter "Manifesto to Certain Filipinos" (Manila, 1896), he states: Reforms, if
they are to bear fruit, must come from above; for reforms that come from below are upheavals
both violent and transitory.(EpistolarioRizalino, op cit)
9. Jump up^ According to Laubach it was Retana more than any other who 'saved Rizal for
posterity'. (Laubach, op.cit., p. 383)
10. Jump up^ Rizal's trial was regarded a travesty even by prominent Spaniards of his day. Soon
after his execution, the philosopher Miguel de Unamuno in an impassioned utterance
recognized Rizal as a "Spaniard", "...profoundly and intimately Spanish, far more Spanish than
those wretched menforgive them, Lord, for they knew not what they didthose wretched
men, who over his still warm body hurled like an insult heavenward that blasphemous cry,
'Viva Espana!'"Miguel de Unamuno, epilogue to WenceslaoRetana's Vida y Escritos del Dr.
Jos Rizal.(Retana, op. cit.)
11. Jump up^ Me retracto de todocorazon de cuanto en mispalabras, escritos, impresos y
conducta ha habidocontrario mi cualidad de hijo de la IglesiaCatlica: Jesus
Cavanna, Rizal's Unfading Glory: A Documentary History of the Conversion of Dr. Jos
Rizal (Manila: 1983)
12. Jump up^ Joaquin, Nick, Rizal in Saga, Philippine National Centennial Commission, 1996:""It
seems clear now that he did retract, that he went to confession, heard mass, received
communion, and was married to Josephine, on the eve of his death".
13. Jump up^ "That is a matter for handwriting experts, and the weight of expert opinion is in
favor of authenticity. It is nonsense to say that the retraction does not prove Rizal's
conversion; the language of the document is unmistakable." [51]
14. Jump up^ The retraction, Javier de Pedro contends, is the end of a process which started
with a personal crisis as Rizal finished the Fili.[58][59]
15. Jump up^ Rizal's third novel Makamisa was rescued from oblivion by Ocampo.

16. Jump up^ Bonifacio later mobilized his men to attempt to liberate Rizal while in Fort Santiago.
(Laubach, op.cit., chap. 15)
17. Jump up^ Antonio Luna denounced the Katipunan, but became a general under Emilio
Aguinaldo's First Republic and fought in the PhilippineAmerican War.
18. Jump up^ Also stated in Rizal's essay, "The Philippines: A Century Hence", The batteries are
gradually becoming charged and if the prudence of the government does not provide an outlet
for the currents that are accumulating, someday the sparks will be generated. (read
etextatProject Gutenberg)
19. Jump up^ Bonifacio was a member of La Liga Filipina. After Rizal's arrest and exile, it was
disbanded and the group splintered into two factions; the more radical group formed into the
Katipunan, the militant arm of the insurrection.[89]
20. Jump up^ Rizal's annotations of Morga's Sucesos de lasislas Filipinas (1609), which he
copied word for word from the British Museum and had published, called attention to an
antiquated book, a testimony to the well-advanced civilization in the Philippines during pre Spanish era. In his essay "The Indolence of the Filipino" Rizal stated that three centuries of
Spanish rule did not do much for the advancement of his countryman; in fact there was a
'retrogression', and the Spanish colonialists have transformed him into a 'half-way brute.' The
absence of moral stimulus, the lack of material inducement, the demoralization-'the indio should not be separated from his carabao', the endless wars, the lack of a national
sentiment, the Chinese piracyall these factors, according to Rizal, helped the colonial rulers
succeed in placing the indio 'on a level with the beast'. (Read English translation by Charles
Derbyshire at Project Gutenberg.)
21. Jump up^ According to Anderson, Rizal is one of the best exemplars of nationalist
thinking.[93] (See also (subscription required))
22. Jump up^ Rizal himself translated Schiller's William Tell into Tagalog in 1886.[97]
1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Valdez, Valdez & Et Al 2007, p. 59.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Valdez, Valdez & Et Al 2007, p. 7.
3. Jump up^ Nery, John (2011). "Revolutionary Spirit: Jose Rizal in Southeast Asia", pg. 240.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. ISBN 978-981-4345-06-4.
4. Jump up^ Fadul 2008, pg. 31.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b Fadul 2008, p.21.
6. Jump up^ "Rizal y Alonso, Jos Protasio, 1861-1896". Virtual International Authority File
(VIAF). Retrieved 18 May 2013.
7. Jump up^ Jos Rizal; Jos Rizal National Centennial Commission (1961). El filibusterismo (in
Spanish). Linkgua digital. pp. 9.ISBN 978-84-9953-093-2.
8. Jump up^ Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National
Hero. Quezon City: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. 1999. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
9. Jump up^ "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring Filipino
Historical Figures". Reference and Research Bureau Legislative Research Service, House of
Congress. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
10. Jump up^ Rizal's rags-to-riches ancestor from South China. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
11. Jump up^ Craig 1914, pg. 31.
12. Jump up^ F. Zaide, Gregorio (1957). Jos Rizal: life, works, and writings. Villanueva. p. 5.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c National Historical Institute "...Francisco Engracio Mercado added Rizal to
the family surname..."(registration required)
14. Jump up^ Diccionario de la lenguaespaola Vigsimasegundaedicin
15. ^ Jump up to:a b Vicente L. Rafael On Rizal's El Filibusterismo, University of Washington,
Dept. of History
16. Jump up^ Montemayor, Teofilo H. (2004). "Jose Rizal: A Biographical Sketch". Jos Rizal
University. Retrieved 2007-01-10.

17. Jump up^ Parco de Castro, M.E.G. "Jose Rizal: A birthday wish list".TheVarsitarian.
Retrieved June 27, 2011.
18. Jump up^ Noli Me Tngere, translated by Soledad Locsin (Manila: Ateneo de Manila,
1996) ISBN 971-569-188-9.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Frank Laubach, Rizal: Man and Martyr (Manila: Community Publishers,
20. Jump up^ Witmer, Christoper (2001-06-02). "Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not)" . Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b The Many-Sided Personality. Jos Rizal University. Retrieved January 10,
22. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Austin Craig, Lineage, Life and Labors of Rizal. Google Books. Retrieved
on 2007-01-10.
23. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Kalaw, Teodoro."EpistolarioRizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to and
from Rizal". Bureau of Printing, Manila.
24. Jump up^ Zaide, Gregorio (1957). Rizal's Life, Works and Writings. Manila, Philippines:
Villanueva Book Store. pp. 4344.
25. Jump up^ Martinez-Clemente, Jo (200-06-20) Keeping up with legacy of Rizals true
love Inquirer Central Luzon at Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
26. ^ Jump up to:a b c Leonor Rivera, Jos Rizal University,
27. ^ Jump up to:a b c Coates, Austin. "Leonor Rivera", Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr,
Oxford University Press (Hong Kong), pages 5254, 60, 84, 124, 134136, 143, 169, 185
188, and 258.
28. Jump up^ Fadul 2008, p. 17.
29. Jump up^ Craig 1914, p.215
30. Jump up^ Fadul 2008, p. 38.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b Cuizon, Ahmed (2008-06-21). "Rizals affair with 'la petite Suzanne'". Retrieved on 2012-09-20.
32. Jump up^ Harry Sichrovsky (1987). Ferdinand Blumentritt: an Austrian life for the
Philippines : the story of Jos Rizal's closest friend and companion. p. 39. ISBN 978-971-136024-5.
33. Jump up^ Retana, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritosdel Jos Rizal. Libreria General de Victoriano
Suarez, Madrid 1907.
34. Jump up^ "Appendix II: Decree Banishing Rizal. Governor-General EulogioDespujol, Manila,
July 7, 1892." In Miscellaneous Correspondence of Dr. Jos Rizal / translated by
EncarnacionAlzona. (Manila: National Historical Institute.)
35. Jump up^ Raul J. Bonoan, S.J., The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence(Manila: Ateneo de
Manila University Press, 1996)
36. Jump up^ EpistolarioRizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to and from Rizal, edited by
TeodoroKalaw (Manila: Bureau of Printing,193038)
37. Jump up^
38. Jump up^ Russell, Charles Edward; Rodriguez, EulogioBalan (1923).The hero of the
Filipinos: the story of Jos Rizal, poet, patriot and martyr. The Century co. p. 308.
39. Jump up^ Austin Coates, Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr(London: Oxford University
Press, 1968) ISBN 0-19-581519-X
40. Jump up^ "Letters Between Rizal and his Family, #223". The Life and Writings of Jos Rizal.
Retrieved on 2012-09-29
41. Jump up^ "The life and works of Jose Rizal". Website Retrieved 3
September 2013.
42. Jump up^ "The Life and writings of Dr. Jose Rzal". National Historical Commission of The
Philippines. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
43. Jump up^ "The life and works of Jose Rizal". Retrieved 3 September 2013.
44. Jump up^ Yoder, Dr. Robert L. "The Life and of Dr. Jos Rizal". Retrieved 3 September 2013.

45. Jump up^ Ricardo RoquePascual, Jos Rizal Beyond the Grave(Manila: P. Ayuda& Co.,
46. Jump up^ Ildefonso T. Runes and Mameto R. Buenafe, The Forgery of the Rizal "Retraction"
and Josephine's "Autobiography" (Manila: BR Book Col, 1962)
47. Jump up^ "Rizal's Retraction: A Note on the Debate, Silliman Journal (Vol. 12, No. 2, April,
May, June 1965), pages 168183". Life and Writings of Jos Rizal. Retrieved September 9,
48. Jump up^ Rafael Palma, Pride of the Malay Race (New York: Prentice Hall, 1949)
49. ^ Jump up to:a b AmbethOcampo (2008). Rizal Without the Overcoat. Anvil Publishing.
50. ^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolas Zafra (1961). Historicity of Rizal's Retraction. Bookmark.
51. Jump up^ Guerrero, Len Maria III (1963). "The First Filipino: A Biography of Jos Rizal".
National Historical Institute of The Philippines, Manila.
52. ^ Jump up to:a b Gregorio Zaide (2003). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius,
Writer, Scientist and National Hero. National Bookstore.
53. Jump up^ Schumacher, John. "The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century
54. Jump up^ Molina, Antonio M. (1998). "Yo, Jos Rizal". Ediciones de CulturaHispnica,
55. Jump up^ "Uncovering Controversial Facts about Jos Rizal"(
56. ^ Jump up to:a b Marciano Guzman (1988). The Hard Facts About Rizal's Conversion.
Sinagtala Publishers.
57. ^ Jump up to:a b Jesus Cavanna (1983). Rizal's Unfading Glory: A Documentary History of the
Conversion of Dr. Jose Rizal.
58. Jump up^ Javier de Pedro (2005) Rizal Through a Glass Darkly, University of Asia and the
59. Jump up^ "Evolution of Rizal's Religious Thought".
60. Jump up^ (1950-01-06). "Joint Statement of the Catholic Hierarchy of the Philippines on the
Book 'The Pride of the Malay Race'". CBCP (Catholic Bishop's Conference of the Philippines)
Documents. Retrieved on 2012-09-30.
61. Jump up^ Garcia, Ricardo P. (1964). "The Great Debate: The Rizal Retraction - Preface".
R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., Quezon City.
62. Jump up^ Esteban de Ocampo, "Why is Rizal the Greatest Filipino Hero?" National Historical
Institute. ISBN 971-538-053-0
63. ^ Jump up to:a b Pacis, Vicente Albano. "RIZAL IN THE AMERICAN CONGRESS". The
Philippines Free Press Online. Retrieved December 27, 1952.
64. Jump up^ "Mi Ultimo Adios by Jose Rizal". Philippine American Literary House.
65. Jump up^ Craig 1914, pg. 241
66. ^ Jump up to:a b Fadul 2008, pg. 18.
67. Jump up^ Craig 1914, pp. 259-260
68. Jump up^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1990). Rizal without the overcoat. Manila: Anvil
Publishing. ISBN 9712709205.
69. Jump up^ Almario, Manuel (31 December 2011). "Commentary, Rizal: Amboy or homemade hero?". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
70. Jump up^ Forbes, Cameron (1945). The Philippine Islands. Cambridge: Harvard University
71. Jump up^ Constantino, Renato (30 December 1969). "Rizal Day Lecture". Philippine Inquirer.
Retrieved 3 September 2013.
72. Jump up^ Constantino, Renato (1980) [1970], "Veneration without Understanding, Dissent
and Counter-consciousness", pp. 125145. Malaya Books, Quezon City .
73. Jump up^ "Aguinaldo's Rizal Day Decree, 1898". Philippine Freemasons. Retrieved 3
September 2013.

74. Jump up^ "General Emilio Aguinaldo decrees December 30, 1898 as a national day of
mourning". El HeraldodelaRevolucion. 25 December 1898. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
75. Jump up^ Ocampo, Ambeth. "Was Jose Rizal an American-sponsored Hero?". Reflections of
Jose Rizal. NHCP - National Historical Commission of The Philippines. Retrieved 3 September
76. Jump up^ Zaide, Gregorio and Sonia (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a
Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All Nations publishign Co.
Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
77. Jump up^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960], "History of the Filipino People (8th ed.)".
Garotech Publishing Inc., Quezon City. ISBN 971-8711-06-6
78. Jump up^ Couttie, Bob (2007). "The End of Veneration". Retrieved on 2012-0929.
79. Jump up^ Rafael Palma (1949). "Pride of the Malay Race", pg. 367. Prentice Hall, New York.
80. Jump up^ "Selection and Proclamation of National heroes and Law Honoring Filipino
Historical Figures". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
81. Jump up^ AmbethOcampo (1990). "Rizal without the Overcoat". Anvil Publishing Co.,
Manila. ISBN 971-27-0043-7.
82. Jump up^ Ocampo, Ambeth. "Demythologizing Rizal". Retrieved 2007-01-10.
83. Jump up^ Miguel de Unamuno, "The Tagalog Hamlet" in Rizal: Contrary Essays, edited by D.
Feria and P. Daroy (Manila: National Book Store, 1968).
84. ^ Jump up to:a b Jos Rizal, El Filibusterismo (Ghent: 1891) chap.39, translated by Andrea
Tablan and Salud Enriquez (Manila: Marian Publishing House, 2001) ISBN 971-686-154-0.
(online text at Project Gutenberg)
85. Jump up^ Lua, Shirley (22 August 2011). "Love, Loss and the Noli".The Philippine Inquirer.
Retrieved 3 September 2013.
86. Jump up^ Agoncillo, Teodoro. The Revolt of the Masses.
87. Jump up^ Quibuyen, A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, And Philippine
88. Jump up^ Look, Wing, Kam (1997). Jose Rizal and Mahatma Gandhi: nationalism and nonviolence. Hongkong: The University Of Hongkong.
89. Jump up^ [2]. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
90. Jump up^ Trillana III, Dr. Pablo S. "2 historical events led to birth of modern RP". Philippine
Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
91. Jump up^ Jos Rizal (2007). The Reign of Greed. Echo Library. pp. 231. ISBN 978-1-40683936-4.
92. Jump up^ Jos Rizal, "Indolence of the Filipino". Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
93. Jump up^ Anderson Benedict (2005). "Under Three Flags: anarchism and the anti colonial
imagination". Verso Publication, London.ISBN 1-84467-037-6.
94. Jump up^ (2011-08-23). "Spot the Difference: Rizalista as Religious Cult vsRizalistas in a
Socio-Civic Org'n". Ladies for Rizal Bonn Chapter. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.
95. Jump up^ Dennis Villegas (Thursday, 30 June 2011 at 07:00). "'Saint' Jose Rizal". Philippine
Online Chronicles.
96. Jump up^ Dr. Virchow's obituary on Rizal, 1897
97. Jump up^ "Rizal in Berlin, Germany". Jos Rizal University. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
98. Jump up^ Monumento a Jos Rizal (Madrid) Retrieved January 10, 2007
99. Jump up^ Article Index (May 4, 2008). Retrieved on
February 19, 2011.
Jump up^ Sir Choy Arnaldo, KGOR. Paris in Springtime Knights and Damas
blossom!, Rizal Bulletin, March 29, 2010
Jump up^ Isle Filipinos honor Philippines hero Hawaii News Honolulu StarAdvertiser
Jump up^ Dr. Rizal's story is a lesson to us all

Jump up^ "El Monumento de Jose Rizal, Ciudad De Mexico".
Jump up^ "Philippine president to open park in Lima during APEC Summit". Retrieved December 30, 2009.
Jump up^ "Feature: Rizal returns to Singapore" (Press release). Philippine Information
Agency (PIA). June 20, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
Jump up^ " " (in (Japanese)).
Retrieved December 30, 2009.
Jump up^ En route to APEC meet, First Gentleman rushed to hospital
Jump up^ Peru erects monument for Jose Rizal, Michael Lim Ubac, Philippine Daily
Inquirer, 11/22/2008
Jump up^ Castillo, Rafael MD. (2008-06-20). "Dr. Jose Rizal in Heidelberg". Philippine
Daily Inquirer.
Jump up^ Mari Arquiza (1992-12-02). ":: Felipe De Leon ::".
Retrieved December 30, 2009.
Jump up^ IMDb - Internet movie database - Reviews and Ratings for Jose Rizal (the
Jump up^ Dr. Jose Rizal Park, Seattle Parks and Recreation Information
Jump up^ Medal of Honor 2 cheats for PS1
Jump up^ Medal of Honor cheats for PS1

Hessel, Dr. Eugene A. (1965) Rizal's Retraction: A Note on the Debate. Silliman University
Mapa, Christian Angelo A.(1993) The Poem Of the Famous Young Elder Jos Rizal
Catchillar, Chryzelle P. (1994) The Twilight in the Philippines
Venzon, JahleelAreli A. (1994) The Doorway to hell, Rizal's Biography
Tomas, Jindich (1998) Jos Rizal, Ferdinand Blumentritt and the Philippines in the New Age.The
City of Litomerice: Czech Republic. Publishing House Oswald Praha (Prague).
The Dapitan Correspondence of Dr.Jos Rizal and Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt. Compiled by
Romeo G. Jalosjos. The City Government Dapitan City: Philippines, 2007. ISBN 978-971-935530-4.
Fadul, Jose (2002/2008). A Workbook for a Course in Rizal. Manila: De La Salle University
Press. ISBN 971-555-426-1 /C&E Publishing. ISBN 978-971-584-648-6
Guerrero, Leon Ma. (2007) The First Filipino. Manila: National Historical Institute of The
Philippines (1962); Guerrero Publishing. ISBN 971-93418-2-3
Joaquin, Nick (1977). A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on ten key figures of Philippine
History. Manila: Ayala Museum.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2008).Rizal Without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil Publishing.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2001).Meaning and history: The Rizal Lectures. Pasig: Anvil Publishing.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1993). Calendar of Rizaliana in the vault of the National Library.Pasig: Anvil
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1992).Makamisa: The Search for Rizal's Third Novel. Pasig: Anvil
Quirino, Carlos (1997). The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books. ISBN 971-630-085-9
Medina, Elizabeth (1998). Rizal According to Retana: Portrait of a Hero and a Revolution.
Santiago, Chile: Virtual Multimedia. ISBN 956-7483-09-4
Rizal, Jose. (1889)."Sa mgaKababayangDalagangMalolos" in Escritos Politicos y Historicos de
Jos Rizal (1961). Manila: National Centennial Commission.
Runes, Ildefonso (1962). The Forgery of the Rizal Retraction'. Manila: Community Publishing Co.

Thomas, Megan C. Orientalists, Propagandists, and "Ilustrados": Filipino Scholarship and the End
of Spanish Colonialism (University of Minnesota Press; 2012) 277 pages; Explores Orientalist and
racialist discourse in the writings of Jos Rizal and five other ilustrados.
Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) Jos Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and
National Hero. Manila: National Bookstore. ISBN 971-08-0520-7

Interesting Facts About Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Complete Jose Rizal at
Talambuhayni Jose Rizal
The Life and Writings of Jose Rizal
"Jos Mercado Rizal". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
Works by Jos Rizal at Project Gutenberg
Jose Rizal Website
Rizal's Little Odyssey
Review of Dimasalang: The Masonic Life Of Dr. Jose P. Rizal

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