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Process Engineering Procedure

In
Oil, Gas & Petrochemical Projects

By A.R.Maddah

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Contents
1-Scope
2-Engineering Company
3-Process Department
4-Standards
5-Process Activities
6-Interconnection of Process Dep. With Other Eng. Departments
7-General Calculation
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1:\Scope
The objective of this course is to introduce Process Department Activities in oil, gas
and petrochemical industries. At first it presents managements procedures in above
companies and generally terminology in projects. Then Engineering Department
shall be introduced .It is also intended to reflect the Process Departments Activities
and sequence of preparation of documents (From the beginning of a project to the
end). Finally it shall review of General Calculation & Interconnection of Process
Dep. With Other Eng. Departments.

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2:\Engineering Company
TERMINOLOGY
Company or Employer/Owner:
Refers to one of the related and/or affiliated companies of the Iranian ministry
of petroleum such as National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), National Iranian
Gas Company (NIGC), National Petrochemical Company (NPC), etc.

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2:\Engineering Company
Contractor:
Refers to the persons, firm or company whose tender has been accepted by the
Employer, and includes the Contractors personnel representative, successors
and permitted assigns.
Licensor:
Refers to a company duly organized and existing under the laws of the said
companys country and as referred to in the preamble to the contract.

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2:\Engineering Company
Project:
Refers to the equipment, machinery and materials to be procured by the
"Contractor" and the works and/or all activities to be performed and rendered
by the "Contractor" in accordance with the terms and conditions of the
contract documents. and as referred to in the preamble to the contract.

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2:\Engineering Company
Accounting
Budget-&-Control
Construction Supervision
Engineering
Estimating
HR-Communication
Information Technology
Management
Procurement
Projects
Proposals
Support-Services
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2:\Engineering Company

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2:\Engineering Company
Engineering
Process
Mechanic
HSE
Civil-Structure-Architecture
Piping
Electrical
Instrument
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3:\Process Department
Process
Process Dept.Manager
Process Senior Engineer
Process Engineer
Process Senior Draftsman
Process Draftsman
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3:\Process Department
Process Departments Activities in the following engineering stages:
1. Proposal Preparation (PP)
2. Feasibility Study

(FS)

3. Basic Engineering

(BE)

4. Detail Engineering

(DE)

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3:\Process Department
Process Departments Activities

AA-Documented
DocumentedActivities
Activities

BB-Non
NonDocumented
DocumentedActivities
Activities

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3:\Process Department
A- Documented Activities (BE & DE)
Design Basis & Criteria

BFD,PFD, UFD

Chemical & Utility Summary Table

P&ID

Electrical Load Summary Table

Trip & Alarm Set Point

Basic Design Package


Flare Load Summary Table
Preliminary Operating Manual
Equipment List
Equipment Process D/S
CV, BDV, PSV Process D/S

Control Philosophy

Stream Process Condition List

ESD Concept / Block Diagram

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3:\Process Department
A- Documented Activities Continued (DE only)
Preparation of
Interconnecting Diagrams

Preparation of
Insulation Schedule

Preparation of
Relief & Drainage Diagram

Preparation of
As Built P&IDs

Technical Bid Evaluation

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3:\Process Department
B- Non Documented Activities (BE & DE)
Hazop Study

Project Information Gathering, site visit


Attending Project Meeting with Client
Foreign Partner & Licensor

Process Simulation
Cooperation in Preparing
of Plot Plan

Line Sizing &


Hydraulic Calculation

Completion of LDT
Tie-in List
Information

Equipment Sizing & Rating

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3:\Process Department
B- Non Documented Activities Continued (DE only)
Basic Package Endorsement

Heat Tracing Calculation

Vendors Bid Evaluation


Checking & Incorporating

Completion of Equipment
and Instrument D/S

Cooperation with Inst. Dep.


For DCS / PLC Design

Cooperation with Piping Dep.


For Tie-in List, Special Items,

Model Review
Equipment Sizing & Rating

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3:\Process Department

Project
Engineering
Procurement
Construction
Commissioning

EPCC
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4:\Standards
1.Whatre standards?
2.Why do we apply standards?
-Improvement in qualification of design and
-Increase of safety
-Decrease of design and selection of material
-Selection of proper way for procurement
-Work Uniformity

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operating condition

4:\Standard\International Standards
ANSI
American National Standard Institute
API
American Petroleum Institute
ASME
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM
The American Society for Testing and Material
ISA
The Instrumentation System and Automation Society
NACE
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
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4:\Standard\International Standards
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
DIN
Deutshes Institute fur Normung
BSI
British Standards Institution
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
TEMA
Tubular Exchanger Manufactures
AWWA
American Water Works Association
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4:\Standard\International Standards\Iranian Standards

IPS
Iranian Petroleum Standard
NPCS
National Petrochemical Company Standard

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4:\Standard\International Standards\API
API-RP-520: Sizing, Selection, and Installation Of Pressure-Relieving Devices
in Refinery
API-RP-521: Guide For Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring System
API-STD-2000: Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
API-RP-14E: Recommend Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore
Production Platform Piping System
API-STD-530: Calculation of Heat-Tube Thickness in Petroleum
API-TP-555: Process Analyzer

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4:\Standard\International Standards\IPS
IPS-E-PR-750: Engineering Standard For Process Design of Compressor
IPS-E-PR-330: Engineering Standard For Process Design of Compressor Air
System
IPS-E-PR-440: Engineering Standard For Process Design of Piping System
IPS-E-PR-308: Engineering Standard For Process Design for Numbering
System
IPS-E-PR-700: Engineering Standard For Process Design for Process Design
of Crude Oil Electrostatic Desalter

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4:\Standard\International Standards\NFPA
NFPA 11: Foam Extinguishing System
NFPA 12: Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing System
NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler System
NFPA 15: Standard for Water Spray Fixed System for Fire Protection
NFPA 72E: Automatic Fire Detector
NFPA 20: Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pump

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4:\Standard\Iranian Standard Codes For Process


Drawing
IPS
IPS-E-PR-170 PFD Symbol Document Numbering
IPS-E-PR-230 P&ID Symbol
NPCS
NPCS-ES-PR-01 PFD/P&ID SYMBOLS

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5:\Process Activities
BFD
Simulation
PFD
UFD
Process Description
Heat & Material Balance
P&ID
Process Design Criteria
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5:\Process Activities
Line List
Stream Process Condition
Utility Consumption
Chemical Consumptions Data Summary
Technical bid Evaluation
Instrument Data Sheet
Equipment Data Sheet
Process Data For Piping Special Item
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5:\Process Activities\Terminology
Process Units: Units which have direct roles in main process of plant.
Utility Units: Units which dont have direct roles in main process of plant
and are the producers of utility services which are utilized in Process
Units.

Operating Condition: It Specifies the Normal Condition (Of Pressure,


Temp., Flow, Level,) in Which Equipments, piping and units work.

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5:\Process Activities\BFD
(Block Flow Diagram)
Definition:
These diagrams (BFD) are schematic documents representing whole process
of the project generally in different units which are introduced in blocks
containing the title of each unit.

Objective:
The objective of these diagrams is to basically show the sequence of the
process in a simple way.

Process
Engineer

Process Lead
Engineer
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5:\Process Activities\BFD
(Block Flow Diagram)

Block Flow Diagram of LPG Plant

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5:\Process Activities\BFD
(Block Flow Diagram)

BFD
Preliminary Eng. Study
Contract

Technical Proposal

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5:\Process Activities\BFD
(Block Flow Diagram)
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD

5:\Process Activities\PFD
(Process Flow Diagram)

Definition:
Process Flow Diagram (PFD) mainly defines:
a)

A schematic representation of the sequence of all relevant operations


occurring during a process and includes information considered
desirable for analysis.

b)

The process presenting events which occur to the material(s) to convert


the feedstock(s) to the specified products.
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5:\Process Activities\PFD
Objective:
The purpose of PFD is generally as follows :
a) Plant design basis: PFD shows the plant design basis indicating feedstock,
product and main streams flow rates and operating conditions.
b) Scope of process: PFD serves to identify the scope of the process.
c) Equipment configuration: PFD shows graphically the arrangement of major
equipment, process lines and main control loops.
d) Required utilities: PFD shows utilities which are used continuously in the
process.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD
Contents of PFD:
Including:
PFD shall comprise but not limited to the following items:
1.

All process lines, utilities and operating conditions including item number
essential for material balance and heat and material balance.

2.

Type and utility flow lines which are used continuously within the battery
limits.

3.

Equipment diagrams to be arranged according to process flow, designation,


and equipment number.

4.

Simplified control instrumentation pertaining to control valves and the likes


to be involved in process flows
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5:\Process Activities\PFD
5.

Major process analyzers

6.

Operating conditions around major equipment.

7.

Heat duty for all heat transfer equipment.

8.

Changing process conditions along individual process flow lines, such as


flow rates, operating pressure & temperature, etc.

9.

Material balance table.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD
Excluding:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The following items are generally not be shown on PFD, except in special
cases:
Minor process lines which are not usually used in normal operation and
minor equipment, such as block valves, safety/relief valves, etc.
Elevation of equipment.
All spare equipment.
Heat transfer equipment, pumps, compressor, etc., to be operated in parallel
shall be shown as one unit.
Piping information such as size, orifice plates, strainers, and classification
into hot or cold insulated of jacket piping.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD
6.

Pressure condition which must be determined by hydraulic calculation,


such as discharge pressure of pump and compressor.

7.

Instrumentation not related to automatic control.

8.

Drivers of rotating machinery except where they are important for control
line of process condition.

9.

Any dimensional information on equipment, such as internal diameter,


height, length, and volume. Internals of equipment shall be shown only if
required for a clear understanding of the working of the equipment.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
GENERAL DRAFTING INSTRUCTIONS
1.

Scale
PFDs should not be drafted to scale. However, their size should be
compatible with that of equipment drawings.

2.

Flow Direction
As a rule, PFDs should be drawn from the left to the right in accordance
with process flows.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
3.

Process and Utility Lines in General


-The main process flow shall be accentuated by heavy lines.
-Process utility lines shall be shown only where they enter or
leave the main equipment.
-Pipe lines shall not be identified by numbers.
-Valves, vents, drains, by-passes, sample connections,
automatic or manual control systems, instrumentation,
electrical systems, etc. shall be omitted from the schemes.
-The direction of the flow shall be indicated for each line.
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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
4. Kind Of Lines
As a rule, Process lines, utility lines, and loop lines for instrument should be
drawn according to IPS-E-PR-230 as follows:
a) Main process lines
Thickness = 0.8 mm

b) Secondary process lines and utility line


Thickness = 0.5 mm

c) All electrical, computer and instrument


signals
Thickness = 0.3 m

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
5.

Line Crossover
Where two lines cross each other, the horizontal line should be drawn as a
continuous line in all cases. This shall not apply to loop lines for instruments.

a) Where two main process lines cross

b) Where one main line crosses one


secondary process and utility lines

c) Where one main line crosses one loop line


for an instrument

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
6.

Denotation of Lines at Battery Limit Tie-In Points


a) Process lines
From Item No. and/
or Dwg. No.

b) Utility lines

To Item No. and/


or Dwg. No.

COOLING WATER

Names of fluids should be given in parentheses above the utility lines.


Name of these fluids should be as abbreviation according to IPS-E-PR-308
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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
7.

Direction of Flow
The direction of flow should be indicated by arrows. In principle all flow
lines should be denoted by arrows located at the inlet of equipment, and at
the corners of the lines. Where a process line is long, however, the process
flow may be denoted by arrows located at intermediate points.
The number of arrows used to denote one process flow line is not
restricted. However, care should be taken not to clutter the drawing with
excessive arrows.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
8.

Division of PFD
Where a PFD must be divided into two or more sheets, it should be
divided at portions where division is easiest from the process standpoint
and each divided section should be drawn on a separate sheet.

9.

Other Trains
Where there are two or more identical trains of process flows, one
representative train may be given in the PFD and the others omitted.
However, notations pointing out such omissions must be clearly indicated
in the titles of all relevant PFDs to avoid confusion.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
10. Title

The title should be given in the title block at the lower right-hand corner of
the PFD.
11. Legend

The legend may be given in separate schematic drawing to which reference


shall be made if necessary.
12. Size

The size of PFD should normally be A1 (594 mm 841 mm).

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
Minimum Information Requirements For Equipments
1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Designated streams
Stream numbers should be serially denoted by Decimal numbers.
Fluid name.
Total flow rate.
Density and/or molecular mass (weight) if required.
Operating pressure and temperature if required.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
2. Heat exchangers
a) Identification number and service name.
b) Operating heat duty.
c) Inlet and outlet temperatures on both shell and tube sides.
3. Furnaces
a) Identification number and service name.
b) Operating absorbed heat duty.
c) Inlet and outlet operating temperatures on tube side.
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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
4. Reactors
a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Inlet and outlet operation temperature.

c)

Inlet and/or outlet pressure.

5. Columns
a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Tray numbers, operating temperature and pressure for top and bottom trays
and also for special trays such as feed and draw-off, etc.

c)

Trays shall be numbered from bottom to top.


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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
6.

Drums

a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Operating temperature.

c)

Operating pressure.

7.

Pumps

a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Normal operating capacity and differential pressure.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
8. Compressors and blowers
a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Normal operating capacity and differential pressure.

9. Tanks
a)

Identification number and service name.

b)

Operating temperature.

c)

Operating pressure.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD Modification


1.Modification
Modification and revision is defined separately for every sheet of
FI , IFA , IFD , AFD , IFC , AFC , ASB

a PFD

2.Revision
A new revision indicates the change of a document. The revision is defined by
number & alphabets, which by subsequent revision shall be consecutively raised
from a starting point.
Numbers Rev.1,2,
Alphabets Rev.A,B,

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5:\Process Activities\PFD Modification


PFD Modification
1. First Issue (FI):
Release for proposal (Conclusion of estimate, study)
-Main equipment (Tagged)
-Main Process Lines
-Battery Limit
-Main control concept (control & switch)
-Package unit Limits

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5:\Process Activities\PFD Modification


2. Issued For Approval (IFA):
Release for Basic Engineering (Conclusion of fixed price bid)
In addition to contents 1.
-Important valve ( isolation, manual control)
-Essential process shutdown circuits
-Important start up lines
-Definition of heat exchanger type

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5:\Process Activities\PFD Modification


3. Issued For Design (IFD):
Release for Basic Engineering Development (Conclusion of verification
Phase and Basic Eng.)
-Content as 1. & 2. however adjusted to the contract conditions
4. Approved For Design (AFD):
Release for Detail Engineering (End of Basic Eng.)
-Crosscheck with P&ID, release detail engineering

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5:\Process Activities\PFD Modification


5. Issued For Construction (IFC):
Release for Detail Engineering Development
-Crosscheck with P&ID, release for purchase of bulk material
6. Approved For Construction (AFC):
Release for Construction phase (End of Detail Eng)
-Final issue of PFD in Detail phase
7. As Built (ASB):
End of construction
-Includes all of the changes in commissioning and construction phase
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5:\Process Activities\PFD
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\H&M Balance


Heat and Material Balance Table:
The basis for preparation of this Table is process description accompanied by
the specified contract requirements such as separation percent or outlet
required pressure or any other specification of Feed and Products. This table is
generally prepared by process simulation soft wares like HYSYS, PROII and
etc.

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\H&M Balance


Contents :
Stream information: Stream No., name of stream, flow rate, composition.
Operating conditions: Operating temperature and pressure.
Basic physical properties: Molecular mass (weight), API gravity, Relative
Mass Density (Specific Gravity) or (Sp.Gr.), etc.
Data concerning hydraulic calculation: Density, viscosity, etc. if required

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5:\Process Activities\PFD\H&M Balance

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5:\Process Activities\H&M Balance


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

H&M BALANCE

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5:\Process Activities\UFD
(Utility Flow Diagram)

Definition:
These diagrams (UFD) are generally similar to Process Flow Diagrams but they
are related to the Utility parts (streams) of the process which give services to the
main process lines for different purposes.
These diagrams are normally not simulated by softwares to reach the abovementioned specifications of streams (To prepare Heat and Material Balance).
The Symbol Diagram of UFDs are the same as PFDs.

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5:\Process Activities\UFD
(Utility Flow Diagram)
Material Balance
Stream No.
1

Flow Rate M3/Hr

Mass Rate Kg/Hr

SP.GR (60/60 F)

Temperature C

Pressure Barg

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5:\Process Activities\UFD Modification


1.Modification
Modification and revision is defined separately for every sheet of
FI , IFA , IFD , AFD , IFC , AFC , ABS

a UFD

2.Revision
A new revision indicates the change of a document. The revision is defined by
number & alphabets, which by subsequent revision shall be consecutively raised
from a starting point.
Numbers Rev.1,2,
Alphabets Rev.A,B,

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5:\Process Activities\UFD
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

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5:\Process Activities\PFD & UFD

Output of
Simulation by
Process
Engineer

It is drawn
by Draftsman

Checked by
Process
Senior
Engineer

Process Lead Engineer

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Approved by
Process Dep.
Manager

5:\Process Activities\PFD\Drafting
PFD, UFD, H&M Balance
Contract (Symbol & Legend)
Final Doc. Of Equipment Vendor

Licensor Comments
Codes/ Std./ Eng. Practice

Technical Proposal

Preliminary Eng. Study

Basic Design

Simulation Results
Design Basis & Criteria

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5:\Process Activities\Simulation (ND)


Purposes:
Decreasing of calculation time
Heat & Material Balance Table
Prediction of optimum arrangement of equipment for PFD
production
Pinch study
Designing of equipment

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5:\Process Activities\Simulation (ND)


Applications Cases:
Proposal Preparation (PP)
Feasibility Study
(FS)
Basic Engineering (BE)
Detail Engineering (DE)

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5:\Process Activities\Simulation (ND)


Terminology:
Simulation
Design
Rating

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5:\Process Activities\Simulation (ND)


Simulations Software:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

PRO / II
HYSYS
HEXTRAN
HX-NET
HTRI
Visual Flow
INPLANT
PIPE-PHASE
Pipe Sys
PROMAX
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5:\Process Activities\Simulation
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

SIMULATION

UFD
H&M BALANCE

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5:\Process Activities\Process Description


Objective:
Process Description , describes technical information, that determines
operating conditions and explains major principles of plant process
Process Description is prepared at two stages :
1.Proposal Preparation (PP)
2.Basic Engineering (BE)

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5:\Process Activities\Process Description


1.Proposal Preparation (PP)
-After the study of bid documents from client, a short process description
will prepared.
-This process description should be based on BFD
-In this stage , process description covers the minimum requirement to
explain major principles, operating condition and purpose of each defined
block in BFD

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5:\Process Activities\Process Description


2.Basic Engineering (BE)
-Preliminary process description (from client) will be completed during this
stage
-In order to prepare detailed process description , PFD,UFD and H&M
Balance should be used to extract necessary data such as temperature,
pressure, operating condition and main process loop control.
-In addition , process description includes duty of each equipment, major
principles of plant or sub unit , feed and product condition to/from each unit.

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5:\Process Activities\Process Description


Process Description
Licensor Basic Design

Contract

Technical Proposal

BFD , PFD ,UFD

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5:\Process Activities\Process Description


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

SIMULATION

UFD
H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis)
This document shows the basic parameters that process engineers apply in
designing of plant.

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
1.

Feed and Product Specification


- General Specification
- Plant Capacity
- Feed
- Product

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
2.

Utility Specification
- HP,MP,LP Steam
- Plant & Instrument Air
- Nitrogen
- Water (Potable,Plant,DEMIN,)
- Fuel (Oil,Gas)

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
3.

Additional Specification
- Chemicals
- Catalysts
- Adsorbents
- Solvents

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
4.

Emissions and Waste


- List of Expected Gaseous Emissions
- List of Expected Liquid Effluents
- List of Expected Solid Wastes

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
5.

Battery Limit List


- P&IDs Number
- Line Number
- Coordination of Points
- Composition
- Flowrate

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Basic Design (Design Basis) Consists of below items,
6.

Environmental Data
- Site Data
Location, Elevation above Sea Level, Earthquake Spec.
and
- Climatic Data
Air Temperature, Air Humidity, Barometric Pressre,
Wind, Rain and Snow Fall

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Design


Process Design Basic
Contract

Licensor Basic Design

Technical Proposal

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5:\Process Activities\Design Basis


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

SIMULATION

UFD
H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS

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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID


(Piping & Instrument Diagram)

Definition:
The Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID), based on the Process Flow
Diagram (PFD), represents the technical realization of a process by means of
graphical symbols for equipment and piping together with graphical symbols
for process measurement and control functions.

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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Terminology:
Design Conditions: Design Pressure and Temperature are used to determine the
minimum permissible thickness or Physical characteristics of each Equipment
or Piping item.
Low Level: A condition (Press,Temp, Flow, Liq. Level) in a process component
less than the minimum operating condition.
High Level: A condition (Press,Temp, Flow, Liq. Level) in a process
component in excess of the maximum operating condition.

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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Control Valve: These are automatic valves used for controlling parameters like
Press., Temp., Flow rate, Their power medium is normally Instrument Air
(pneumatic actuators)
Failure: Improper performance of a device or equipment item that prevents
completion of its design function.
Fail Open / Closed (Control Valve): The safe position of a valve which will shift
to upon loss of the power medium.
Normal Position (Valve): The position of a valve in Normal Condition of the
process (N.O. , N.C.)
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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Plant Shutdown: The shutting in of all process stations of a Plant Production
process and all support equipment for the process.
Process Shutdown: The isolation of a given process station from the process
by closing appropriate SDVs to shut-in flow to the process station or divert
flow to another process station.
Shutdown Valve (SDV): An automatically operated Normally Closed valve
used for isolating a process station.
Emergency Shutdown System (ESD): A system of stations which when
activated initiate plant shutdown.
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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Flare: A means of safety disposing of waste gases through the use of
combustion. With a flare the combustion is carried out at the top of a pipe or
stack where a the burner and igniter are located.
Relief System: A system containing mechanical overpressure protection
devices (press. safety valves) on the equipment, relieving in to a collection /
disposal system.

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5:\ Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Pressure Safety Valve (PSV): A pressure relief device designed to open and
relieve excess pressure and to reclose and prevent the further flow of fluid
after normal conditions have been restored.
Depressurization: When metal exposed to fire on one side with vapor on the
other side, the metal temp. may reach a level at which metal rupture due to
stress may occur, even though the press. does not exceed the allowable
overpressure. An emergency depressurization (blow down) system is provided
to avoid such an occurrence.

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5:\Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Blow down Valve :
An automatically operated normally
open valve used to vent the pressure
from a process station on shutdown.

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5:\Process Activities \P&ID\Terminology


Drain System:
This is the configuration which drains liquids
from vessels or piping systems after
depressurization (via valves) in to a system
of vessel and piping.

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Vent: A pipe or hatch on a vessel that opens to the atmosphere.
Battery Limit: Generally is used for showing the exact margin of a specific unit.
(Process or Utility Units)

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Contents:
Piping System
Equipments
Control Items
Automatic and Manual Valves
All Item Numbers
All Item Required Information
Vent and Drain Systems
Notes
Packages
Tie-In Points
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P&ID Symbols:
P&ID Equipment Symbols
P&ID General Symbols
P&ID Instrument Symbols (Typical Hook-Up)
P&ID Instrument Symbols (Valve Symbol)

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SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION
Gate valve (basic symbol)
Globe valve
Check valve (general)
Gate valve behind off
Angle valve
Ball valve
Four way valve
Gate valve with body bleed
Butterfly valve
Hydraulic control
Metering cock
Needle valve
Plug valve
S=solenoid valve
R= Manual reset when indicated
Diaphragm valve

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Symbol

Description
Main process line (arrow indicates Direction of flow )
Heat traced pipe line
Underground pipeline
Existing line
Future line
Vendor package
Jackated or double containment pipeline
Line crossing (connected )

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Drafting
1.

General rules
Drafting shall be in accordance with the requirements outlined in this Standard.
The drafting must be of sufficiently high quality to maintain legibility when
the drawing is reduced to an A3 size sheet.

2.

Drawings sheet sizes


Diagrams shall be shown on A0 size (841 mm 1189 mm) tracing paper. A1
size (591 mm 841 mm) may be used for simple P&IDs as per Companys
approval.

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3.

Drawing title block


The following requirements shall be shown on the title block of each drawing (Next
Page):
- revision table;
- main Companys name (e.g., National Iranian Oil Company);
- name of Company Relevant Organization, (if any), (e.g., Refineries Engineering and
Construction);
- name of refinery or plant (in English and Persian words);
- Contractors name;
- drawing title;
- Companys project No.;
- Contractors job No. (optional);
- Contractors drawing No. (optional);
- Companys drawing No.
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Title block sizes and drawing dimensions shall be as follows

DRAWING DIMENSIONS
(mm mm)

TITLE BLOCK SIZE (INCLUDING REVISION


TABLE)
WIDTH (mm) LENGTH (mm)

A0 = 841 1189
A1 = 594 841
A2 = 420 594
A3 = 297 420

180 190
130 175
100 155
75 120

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4.

Line widths
To obtain a clear representation, different line widths shall be used. Main flow
lines or main piping shall be highlighted.
The following line widths shall be applied:
0.8 mm for main process lines;
0.5 mm for other process lines; utility lines, and underground lines;
0.5 mm for graphical symbols for equipment and machinery, except valves
and fittings and piping accessories;
0.5 mm for rectangular boxes for illustrating Unit operations, process
equipment, etc.;
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0.5 mm for subsidiary flow lines or subsidiary product lines and
for energy carrier lines and auxiliary system lines;
0.4 mm for class changes designation;
0.3 mm for graphical symbols for valves and fittings and piping
accessories and for symbols for process measurement and
control functions, control and data transmission lines;
0.3 mm for all electrical, computer and instrument signals;
0.3 mm for reference lines;
Line widths of less than 0.3 mm shall not be used.
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5.

Line spacing
The space between parallel lines shall not be less than twice the width of the
heaviest of these lines. A spacing of 10 mm and more is desirable between
flow lines.

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6.

Direction of flow
In general, the main direction of flow proceeds from left to right and from
top to bottom. Inlet and outlet arrows are used for indicating the inlet and
outlet of flows into or out of the diagram.
Arrows are incorporated in the line for indicating the direction of the flows.
If necessary for proper understanding, arrows may be used at the inlets to
equipment and machinery (except for pumps) and upstream of pipe
branches. If a diagram consists of several sheets, the incoming and outgoing
flow lines or piping on a sheet may be drawn in such a manner that the lines
continue at the same level when the individual sheets are horizontally
aligned.

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7.

Connections
Connections between flow lines or pipelines shall be drawn as shown in
Figs. 1 and 2 below:
Figs. 3 and 4 show two flow lines or pipelines, which are not connected:

Fig2

Fig1

Fig3

Fig4
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8. Equipment Location Index

Piping & Instrument Diagrams shall be divided into


equivalent intervals (each in 50 mm) either in length or width.
The intervals shall be designated with numbers from 1 to 23 in
length and alphabets from "A" to "P" in width. Equipment
location on each diagram shall be addressed by the relevant
coordinates where required. In upper right-hand area of the
flow diagram under title of "Item Index" all main equipment
shall be listed by equipment number, alphabetically and
numerically and equipment location coordinates. In a separate
sheet apart from P&IDs, an "Item Index" shall be prepared to
summarize all equipment of the Unit/Plant with reference
P&IDs and equipment location.
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9.

MINIMUM INFORMATION TO BE SHOWN ON P&ID DIAGRAMS


General
Each P&ID shall present all information as required herein below during
implementation of a project in detailed design phase. Extent of information
shown on each P&ID in the basic design stage shall be agreed by Company in
advance.
Vendor supplied packages with an outline of the main components shall be
shown in a dashed/dotted box. Letter "PK" referring to package shall be
indicated adjacent to each equipment and instrument of the package.

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Equipment, instruments or piping which are traced or jacketed, shall be shown.


The identification number and service presentation shall be shown for each
piece of equipment. This information shall be indicated in or adjacent to
towers, drums, heaters, tanks and heat exchangers, etc.

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10. Minimum Identification
A .Fixed Equipments
-Vessel
-Tank
-Tower
-Exchanger
-

B. Rotary Machineries
-Pump
-Compressor
-Mixer
-Air Cooler
-
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A .Fixed Equipments, Tanks
The following requirements shall be shown:
Drawing
a) all nozzles, manways, instrument connections, drains, vents, vortex breakers, and
safety/relief valve connections;
b) all internals such as steam coils, air spargers, tank heaters and etc.
Equipment description
a) equipment item number (this number also appears adjacent to the tank);
b) service;
c) inside diameter and height;
d) nominal capacity, in (m);
e) design pressure and temperature;
f) indication of insulation.

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A .Fixed Equipments Vessels, Towers, Drums
The following requirements shall be shown:
Drawing
a) changes of shell diameter (if any);
b) top and bottom trays, and those trays which are necessary to locate feed, reflux and
product lines;
c) all draw-off trays with tray number;
d) all nozzles, manholes, instrument connections, drains, vents, pump-out and steamout, vortex breakers, and safety/relief valve connections,sample connection
e) skirt or legs, top and bottom tangent lines;
f) elevations above base line to bottom tangent line of column or to bottom of horizontal
drum;

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Drawing (For Vessels, Towers, Drums) :
g) the position of high high liquid level (HHLL), high liquid level (HLL), normal liquid
level (NLL), low liquid level (LLL) and low low liquid level (LLLL);
h) all flanged connections; [all connections whose purpose is not readily evident shall
indicate the purpose (e.g., spare inlet, catalyst draw-off, etc.).];
i) catalyst beds, packings, demisters, chimney trays, distributors, grids, rotating discs,
mixers, cyclones, tangential inlet and all other internals;
j) water drop-out boots;
k) maintenance blinds for the vessel nozzles.

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Important Notes (For Vessels, Towers, Drums) :
a) All nozzles and connections indicated on the equipment data sheet shall be shown
in their correct positions.
b) All indications shall be such that the consistency in the dimensions is considered,
although not necessarily to scale.
c) Numbering of the trays shall be from bottom to top.
d) Height of the vessel bottom tangent line shall be indicated.
Self standing :
Skirt height
Elevated vessel:
Minimum required height shall be shown as "min. ....".
e) A valved drain for all columns and vessels shall be indicated.

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Important Notes (For Vessels, Towers, Drums) :
f) The valved vent with blind flange for all columns and vessels provided on the top of
the vessel should be indicated.
g) Relief valves generally located on the top outlet line downstream of the vessel
blinding location or directly connected to the vessel should be indicated.
h) Utility connections on all vessel/columns shall be shown.
i) One local PI shall be indicated on top of vessel/column.
j) One local TI shall be indicated on the top outlet line of vessel/column.

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Equipment Description (For Vessels, Towers, Drums) :
The following requirements shall be described under equipment description:
a) vessel item number (this number will also appear adjacent to the vessel);
b) service;
c) size [inside diameter(s) and tangent to tangent length];
d) design pressure (internal/external) and design temperature;
e) indication of insulation;
f) line number of vessel trim (this applies to LG & LC connections, vents, sample
connections, etc.);

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A .Fixed Equipments Fired Heaters, Boilers, Incinerators
The following requirements shall be shown:
Drawing
a) all nozzles, instrument connections, drains, vents and damper(s);
b) ducting arrangement including damper actuators where required;
c) waste heat recovery system (if present), such as economizer, air preheater,
forced draft fan, induced draft fan,etc.;
d) decoking connections;
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Drawing
e) detail of one complete set of burners for each cell and total burner number required
for each type of burner;
f) tube coils schematically in correct relative positions and all skinpoint thermocouples;
h) logic diagram of shut down system (heat off sequence);
i) number of passes and control arrangement;
j) blow-down and steam-out connections;
k) testing facilities;
l) convection section (where applicable).

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A .Fixed Equipments, Heat Exchangers, Coolers, Reboilers
The following requirements shall be shown:
a) all nozzles, instrument connections, drains and vents, chemical cleaning
connections and safety/relief valves as indicated on the equipment data sheet;
b) spectacle blinds for the isolation;
c) elevations required for process reason (e.g., reboilers, condensers, etc.);
d) the position of high liquid level (HLL), normal liquid level (NLL) and low
liquid level (LLL) for kettle type reboilers;
f) direction of flow in each side of exchanger.
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Important notes (For Heat Exchangers, Coolers, Reboilers)
Due considerations should be made for proper indication in the following requirements:
a) Generally, direction of flow shall be downflow for cooled media and upflow for
heated media.
b) Isolation valves shall be provided on inlet and outlet lines where maintenance can
be performed on the exchanger with the Unit operating. Provision of by-passing is
required for this case.
c) Shell and channel piping shall be provided with a valved vent connection and a drain
connection unless venting and draining can be done via other equipment.

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Important notes (For Heat Exchangers, Coolers, Reboilers)
e) An inlet and outlet, temperature indicator shall be provided on each exchanger (on
either shell or tube side) so that to facilitate checking of heat balance around
exchanger.
Type of temperature indicator shall be as follows:
- A board mounted temperature indicator (TI) shall be provided at the inlet and outlet
of all shell and tube process/process exchanger.
- For water coolers, the water side outlet shall be provided with a local TI only. The
shell side in and out shall be provided with board mounted TIs.
- Thermowells (TWs) shall be provided between each shell side and tube side of the
same services when the exchangers are in series.

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Equipment description (For Heat Exchangers, Coolers, Reboilers)
a) equipment item number (this number also appears adjacent to the equipment);
b) service;
c) duty (kJ/s);
d) shell side design pressure and temperature;
e) tube side design pressure and temperature;
f) indication of insulation.

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B. Rotary Machineries Pumps
The following requirements shall be shown:
Drawing
a) all nozzles including instrument connections;
b) pump suction valve and strainer, and discharge valve and check valve. Provision of
wafer type check valve should be avoided unless otherwise specified;
c) pump drains and vents piping.
d) the type of pump;
e) pump auxiliary system connections such as, cooling water, seal oil and lube oil, steam,
etc.;
h) pressure gage located on the discharge of each pump; the gage shall be installed
between the pump discharge nozzle and the check valve;

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Equipment description (For pumps)
a) pump item number (this number also appears below the pump);
b) service;
c) capacity, (m/h, dm/h for injection pumps);
d) differential pressure, (kPa);
e) relative density (specific gravity) of pumped fluid at pumping temperature;
f) indication of insulation and tracing;
g) miscellaneous auxiliary piping (CW, seal oil, etc.).

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B. Rotary Machineries, Air Fin Coolers
The following requirements shall be shown:
Drawing
a) all nozzles and instrument connections;
b) blinds for the isolation;
c) any automatic control (fan pitch control or louver control) and any alarm (vibration
alarm, etc.);
d) configuration of inlet and outlet headers and the branches. Only one bundle and
fan shall be shown; total number of fans and bundles shall be indicated. When
multiple bundles are required, headers arrangement as separate detailed sketch
shall be indicated;

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e) steam coil and condensate recovery system (if required);
f) isolation valves (if required); isolation valves shall be provided in corrosive and
fouling services where individual bundles can be repaired and maintained with the
Unit operating;.
g) valved vent and valved drain connection for each header, vent header should be
connected to closed system for volatile services;
h) a board mounted TI at inlet and outlet, (the TI will monitor the process side of each
air fin service). If multiple bundles to be used for fouled services, provide TWs on the
outlet of each bundle.

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Equipment description (For Air Fin Cooler)
a) equipment item number (this number will also appear adjacent to the equipment);
b) service;
c) duty (kJ/s);
d) tube side design pressure (internal and external) and design temperature.

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B. Rotary Machineries Compressors and Blowers
Drawing
a) type of compressor or blower;
b) start-up facilities (i.e., inert gas purge system);
c) safety/relief valves;
d) suction and discharge valves;
e) suction strainer (filter) and discharge check valve;
f) suction and discharge pulsation dampener where required;
g) valved vents and casing drains;

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Drawing (For Compressor and Blowers)
h) winterization (steam or electrical tracing on suction piping) where required;
i) lube and seal oil / sealing system and cooling water systems detail arrangement;
j) interstage coolers where required;
k) surge protection (where required);
l) inlet and outlet nozzles;
m)all instrument connections.

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Description for Compressors and Blowers
a) equipment item number and stage (this number also appears below the
compressor);
b) service:
c) capacity, (Nm/h);
d) suction pressure, and temperature, [kPa (g)], (C);
e) discharge pressure, and temperature, [kPa (g)], (C);
f) miscellaneous auxiliary piping (CW, lube, oil, seal oil / sealing system, etc.);
g) gas horse power, (kW).

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B. Rotary Machineries Steam and Gas Turbine Drivers
Drawing
a) all nozzles and connections;
b) detail of all auxiliary systems for steam turbine drivers such as steam supply,
condensate return, surface condenser and etc.;
c) detail of lube oil, cooling water, etc.;
d) all instrumentations such as PI, TI, etc.;
e) safety/relief valves; relief valves shall be located between the discharge nozzle and
the outlet isolation valve;
h) vent line to atmosphere at turbine exhaust; the vent is required for the start-up/test
operation of the turbine.

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1.Modification
Modification and revision is defined separately for every sheet of
FI, IFD , AFD , IFC , AFC , ABS

a P&ID

2.Revision
A new revision indicates the change of a document. The revision is defined by
number & alphabets, which by subsequent revision shall be consecutively raised
from a starting point.
Numbers Rev.1,2,
Alphabets Rev.A,B,

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General
As the P&I Diagram contains a large amount of plant design information, its revision
will have a great effect on the subsequent engineering works.
Accordingly for the purpose of minimizing the revisions and avoiding unnecessary
works, the steps for preparing the P&I Diagrams shall be established. The following
steps should be realized in preparing the P&I Diagrams. Upon the information which
can be prepared as engineering work proceeds, steps 2, 3 and 4 may be combined
or extended to more steps as required.

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PFD Modification
1.First Issue (FI):

Through step 1, the basic design philosophy concerning those basic items for the
preparation of P&IDs such as mode of indication, applicable standards, numbering
system, valve arrangement and those other basic items on which agreements
shall be made by the Company prior to the preparation of the P&ID should be
clarified.

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The basic items which should be taken into consideration in step 1 are listed herein
below but should not be limited to the following items:
a) Vellum and drafting
- size and vellum of drawing;
- title;
- drafting;
- arrangement;
- equipment description;
- interconnection.
b) Numbering System
- drawing No.;
- equipment No.;
- instrument tag No.;
- line No.

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c) Symbol
- equipment;
- piping components;
- instrument symbol;
- process stream symbol;
- utility symbol.
d) Valve arrangement around equipment
- valve arrangement for drain, vent and purge;
- valve arrangement for steam-out;
- sizes of the nozzles for installing the instruments;
- valve arrangement around the heater and exchanger;
- valve arrangement around the pump and compressor;
- valve arrangement around the steam turbine.

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e) Piping
- piping classification standards;
- valve arrangement at the battery limit;
- valve arrangement for drain, vent, purge and steam-out on piping;
- valve arrangement around the steam trap;
- valve arrangement around the sample point/sample connections;
- blow-down;
- valve type selection criteria/standards;
- strainer type selection standards;
- pipe line sizing

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f) Instrumentation
- valve arrangement around the control valve;
- valve arrangement around the safety/relief valve;
- valve arrangement around other instruments;
- instrument type selection standards;
- software linkage and DCS presentation.
g) Miscellaneous
- winterizing and heat conservation;
- recovery of steam condensate;
- disposal of drains and waste water effluent

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The items which should be covered to complete the design and operation philosophy and
shown on P&ID (as required) shall include but not be limited to the following
requirements (where applicable):
1) Precommissioning and start-up operations:
2) Normal operation:
3) Shut-down operation
4) Safety operation

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Results of hazard analysis and operability (HAZOP) study (if any) note :contractor shall
perform the HAZOP study (if required by the owner) using PFD, P&ID and plot plan
together with equipment data sheets and related safety equipment checklist.
Contractor shall provide information about the reported accidents in similar process
units in the world during HAZOP meetings.
The Contractor should prepare both the draft of the basic items for preparation of the P&I
Diagrams and all necessary operation and safety features as mentioned above to
Companys review and approval before issuance of official revision of P&I Diagram for
engineering start.

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2. Issued For Design (IFD):
Release for Basic Engineering
Step 2,
The following information as minimum requirement shall be reviewed and completed at this
stage:
1) Equipment
- number of equipment;
- type of equipment;
- equipment No. and name

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2) Piping
- size of main piping;
- winterizing/heat conservation requirement;
- valve type;
- provision of drain and vent;
- provision of purge, steam-out, chemical injection and water injection connections and
valving;
- line No.;
- utility services connected to each equipment, piping and packaged Unites.
3) Instrumentation
- type of instrument and location of the primary element;
- location and discharge destination of the safety/relief valve;
- location, type and valve functioning (failure action) of the control valve;
- measurement and control method;
- instrument tag No.

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The draft of the P&I Diagram for engineering start shall be sent to the Companys review.
After the joint meeting between the Company and Contractor, the P&I Diagram for
engineering start can be officially issued based on the established Companys
comments as per the agreed items mentioned in the relevant minutes of meeting.

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3. Approved For Design (AFD):
Release for End of Basic Engineering
Step 3,
The purpose of issuing the P&I Diagrams , is the Companys approval on the basis of
detailed design for piping layout.
The minimum information which should be added on the P&ID at this stage shall be as
follows:
1) Equipment
- elevation of equipment;
- size of equipment;
- internal of equipment.

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2) Piping
- line class;
- miscellaneous piping size (except around the safety/relief valve and control valve);
- thermal and cold insulation;
- correct orientation of piping around equipment.
3) Instrumentation
- size of main control valves;
- additions and revisions on the basis of detailed design.
4) Vendors packaged units
- The details of some available information concerning the Vendors shall be indicated.

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4. Issued for Construction (IFC):


Release for Detail Engineering
Step 4,
The following information shall be added on the P&IDs at this stage:
1) Piping
- piping around the safety/relief valve and control valve;
- size of all valves;
- additional review of the pipe size and branch by the checking of the piping layout;
- hydraulic of system (checking and implementation of the necessary notes).

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2) Instrumentation
- sizes of the safety/relief valves;
- sizes of the control valves;
- details concerning level transmitters and level gages;
- logic diagram for heaters, incinerators, compressors, and all other main equipment
(where applicable).
- Consequences of details of cause and effect tables.
3) Vendors information
- The necessary information concerning the Vendors, equipment shall be indicated.

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5. Approved For Construction (AFC):
End of Detail Engineering
Step 5,
The P&I Diagram shall be issued for construction after completion of the following
activities:
- piping material table;
- piping class and all relevant job specifications;
- all job specifications and standard drawings in relation to the preparation of P&I
Diagrams;
- logic diagram of the main equipment;
- hydraulic of system;
- size of all piping, valves and instrumentation components;
- vendors information.

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6. As Built (ASB):
End of construction
Step 6,
- The P&I Diagram as-built shall be prepared in accordance with the results of line
checking and the final edition of the field sketches.
- The specified piping and instrument take-off and branch points shall be observed
as strictly as possible and shall be implemented on the P&I Diagram.

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Instrument.De
p.
Safety.
Dep.
Process.D
ep.

Senior
Engineer

P&ID is
drawn by
Draft man

Checked by
Senior
Process
Engineer

Mechanic.D
ep.
Piping.D
ep.
Process Lead Engineer

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Approved by
1.Process
2.Instrument3.
Piping
Deps. Manager

5:\Process Activities\P&ID
Piping & Inst. Diagram (P&ID)
Licensor Comments

Contract
Plot Plan

Codes/ Std./ Eng. Practice

Technical Proposal

Licensor Basic Design

Piping Material Specification


Process Calculation
Inst./Equipment

PFD
Design Basis & Criteria
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PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

SIMULATION

UFD
H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS
P&ID

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5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


SCOPE
PURPOSE
MECHANICAL DESIGN CONDITIONS
EQUIPMENT DESIGN CRITERIA
PIPING

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1.0 SCOPE
These design criteria cover the general requirements for the process design of oil, gas
and petrochemical plants.
Cases or applications not specifically covered by these criteria shall be handled on an
individual basis. All applicable codes and standards shall apply to these cases.

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2.0 PURPOSE
Basic Engineering
The purpose of this document in BASIC Engineering is to:
Standardize and group preferred options and alternatives.
Establish and correlate a source of basic information of typically multidiscipline interests
for easy access and common reference.
Serve as minimum basic sizing criteria.
Detailed Engineering
The purpose of this document in DETAILED Engineering is to:
Clarify the options selected for equipment design during BASIC Engineering
Define the minimum requirements for completion of DETAILED
Engineering

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5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.0 MECHANICAL DESIGN
CONDITIONS
Design Pressure
Design Temperatures

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3.1

Design Pressure

3.1.1 Pressure Vessel


The design pressure for pressure vessel (equipment fabricated according to ASME
VIII) shall generally be as follows:
Maximum Operating
Pressure MOP(barg)

Minimum Design Pressure (barg)

Under Vacuum

Full Vacuum + 3.5 barg (if external pressure is


Atmosphere)

0 to 1.7

3.5 barg

1.7 to 18

MOP + 1.8 bar

18 to 69

MOP + 10%

>69

MOP + 7%

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5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.2 Compressors
Suction Side Design Pressure
The design pressure of the equipment and piping at the compressor suction should be
calculated based on table presented for pressure vessel. The MOP is the higher
pressure of the following:
MOP = (Suction pressure + Discharge pressure)/2

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Discharge Side Design Pressure
Centrifugal Compressor
At the discharge of a centrifugal compressor:
MOP + 1 bar, for MOP 10 barg,
MOP + 10%, for MOP > 10 barg.
Reciprocating compressor
At the discharge of a reciprocating compressor:
MOP + 2 bar, for MOP 20 barg
MOP + 10%, for MOP> 20 barg
*PSVs are required.

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.3 Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
Generally the pump circuit is designed for the shut-off pressure of the pump and where
no PSVs are provided for protection of the circuit. The shut-off pressure, or design
pressure, is the highest of the following:
Shutoff pressure = Normal suction pressure (NSP) + 1.25 of differential pressure at
maximum specified fluid density.
Or
Shutoff pressure = Maximum suction pressure (MSP) + differential pressure at
maximum specified fluid density.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Normal and Maximum suction pressure (MSP) is calculated as follows:
NSP = upstream equipment Operating pressure + NLL of upstream equipment
MSP = upstream equipment PSV set pressure (design pressure) + HHLL of upstream
equipment
Notes:
In the case of two pumps in series, the design pressure shall be determined using the
design pressure of the first pump as the maximum suction pressure of the second
pump.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


b)

Positive Displacement Pumps

At discharge of positive displacement pumps:


MOP + 1 bar for MOP
10 barg
MOP + 10% for MOP > 10 barg
PSVs are required.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.4 Heat Exchangers
The same method used for pressure vessel should be applied for heat exchangers.
If a control valve or block valve is installed downstream of a heat exchanger:
The design pressure of the exchanger = the upstream equipment design pressure.
If a control valve or block valve is installed upstream of an exchanger (No valve on
downstream of exchanger):
The design pressure of the exchanger = design pressure of the downstream
equipment at the entry point + 1.25 times the maximum pressure drop in the system
between the inlet of the exchanger and the inlet of the downstream equipment + static
head (if any).

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


An exchanger on the discharge side of a gas driven compressor shall have a design
pressure equal to or greater than the setting of the PSV for the system.
Exchanger operating under a vacuum shall be designed for full vacuum.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.5 Storage Tanks
Atmospheric and near atmospheric tanks
- If the specific gravity of stored liquid is lower than 1.0, the design pressure of
atmospheric storage tanks with open vent or without gas blanketing shall be designed
full of water + 50 mm water column.
- If the specific gravity of stored liquid is higher than 1.0, the design pressure of
Atmospheric storage tanks (open vent or without gas blanketing) shall be designed full
of product + 50 mm product column.
For atmospheric storage tanks with gas blanketing, the design pressure of atmospheric
storage tanks shall be designed full of water + 150 mm water column and -50 mm
water column for vacuum condition.
API STD 2000 also describes the pressure and vacuum design requirement of
atmospheric tanks put in this category.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Other storage tanks (Spheroid, etc.)

Depending on the type of tank, higher design pressures could be specified. This shall
be treated on a case-by-case basis depending on tank type but if storage tank has a
design pressure higher the 1.0 barg, it categorized as pressure vessel (pressurized
storage tank).

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.6 Pipelines
For pipelines, the design pressure is a function of the MOP and a design factor which
depends on the location. Process Engineer determines the MOP only; normally it is the
design pressure of the last equipment upstream of the pipeline plus the hydrostatic
pressure due to the pipeline profile.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


3.1.7 Process Piping
The design pressure of the piping system shall be the highest of the following:
- Maximum continuous operating pressure but not less than 1 barg.
- The vapor pressure of the fluid in the pipe at maximum expected temperature, except
when protected by pressure relief valve.
- The set pressure of relief valve protecting a complete system, such as column
overhead.
- For the pipe located at discharge side of rotating machinery, the shut off pressure of
the rotating machinery, except where protected by pressure relief valve.
-For short period of overpressure ANSI B31 series shall be consulted.

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3.2

Design Temperatures

- The design temperatures shall be generally specified as follows, for determination of


design temperature using the following table it is necessary to specify the lower and
upper limit of operating temperature of the equipment

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Operating Temp. (C)

Design Temperature (C)

Lower Limit:
Less than -100C

Min. Op. Temp.

Between -100 C and -40 C

-100 C

Between -39 C and -30 C

- 45 C

Between -29 C and 0 C

Min. Op. Temp. 5 C

Higher Limit:
Between 0 C and 60 C

85 C (min)
or
Exceptional operating temp.

Between 60 C and 343 C

Max. Op. Temp. + 25 C


or
Exceptional operating temp.

Above 343 C

To be specified according to selected material and process


requirements.

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Notes:
- Exceptional operating temperature is to be considered for operations duration
exceeding a total of 100 hours per year.
- 85 C is the minimum design temperature due to solar radiation.
- The design temperature of equipment located downstream of air cooler or trim cooler
shall be specified as larger of:
Operating temperature +25 C
Or
Inlet operating temperature of upstream cooler

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4.0 EQUIPMENT DESIGN
CRITERIA
Pump
Compressor
Heater
Vessel
Heat exchanger and Cooler

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


4.1

Pumps

All pumps, where their failure would cause a plant shutdown or unsafe conditions, shall
have a spare installed. One spare unit of a pump should be considered unless stated
otherwise.

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- The minimum margin between the normal and rated flow for a pump shall be as
follows:
Type of pump

Rated Flow

Reflux, pump around and reboiler pumps

+25% of normal flow

Other Process

+10% of normal flow

Utility

+10% of normal flow

Export (continuous operation)

+10% of normal flow

Loading / Transfer

+10% of normal flow

Chemical Injection

+20% of normal flow

Metering

+30% of normal flow

Reciprocating and rotary

+15% of normal flow

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The static head used in calculating the suction pressure is measured from either:
The lowest operating liquid level in the suction vessel if this will initiate a shutdown of
the pump when that level is reached (e.g. LSLL),
or,
The bottom tangent line for vertical vessels or the bottom invert line for horizontal
vessels if no level-initiated pump shutdown is in place,
to one of the following lower elevations:

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The centerline of a horizontal centrifugal or rotary pump as per following table:

Pump Rated Capacity (m/h)

Elevation, (m)

Up to 45

0.76

45 to 227

0.91

227 to 2270

1.07

2270 to 4540

1.37

Or
The suction impeller of a vertical pump.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The equivalent length and frictional line losses may be calculated using the
appropriate Line-sizing program. otherwise, the suction line equivalent length may be
estimated from the pipe diameter d (inches) as follows:
Pumping temperature

< 150 C,

Pumping temperature

150 C,

Le= 8d + 30 m
Le= 12d + 30 m

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Suction line sizing for reciprocating pumps shall take into account acceleration head
by:
Ha = L V N C / 9.8 K
L
suction pipe length, m
V
suction velocity, m/s
N,C constant from GPSA
K
Cp/Cv
Ha acceleration loss, m
Reciprocating pumps shall have pulsation dampers on the suction and discharge side
where liquid pulsation should be minimized from process and operation view points.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


4.2

Compressors

- All compressors, where their failure would cause a plant shut-down or unsafe
conditions, shall have a spare installed. One spare unit of a compressor should be
considered unless stated otherwise.
- Normally a 10% margin on maximum capacity will be used for sizing of compressors.
- The variation of gas compositions, molecular weight, Cp/CV, etc., and the operating
conditions (mainly suction and discharge temperature, pressure, and flowrate) shall be
taken into account to determine the sizing case.
- Corrosive compounds in the gas (such as sulfur oxides, hydrogen sulfides, acidic
compounds, chlorides, etc.), are to be specified by the Process Engineer as these may
determine the selection of materials by the vendor.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The following table gives an approximate value of the polytropic efficiency of
centrifugal compressors:
Nominal Capacity
(m3/hr)

Average Polytropic Efficiency

170-850

0.63

850-12700

0.74

12700-340000

0.77

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


4.3 Heaters
- The design margin on Fired Heaters and Furnaces is 10% on heat duty.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


4.4 Vessels
- The basis of sizing is the critical or terminal velocity VT (m/s), calculated from:
VT = K [( l - g)/ g]
where
l , g = liquid density, vapor density (kg/m3)
For vertical vessel vapor velocity shall be less than terminal velocity. The factor 0.85 is
recommended to calculated vapor velocity from terminal velocity.
For horizontal vessel higher vapor velocity may be used to meet acceptable L/D, but
liquid droplet separation shall be checked. The upper limit of vapor velocity for
horizontal vessels is re-entrainment velocity.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- K value is a function of service, operating pressure and fluid physical properties, the
following table is referred for K value calculation.
- If internals are installed, the common vapor internal shall be a wire mesh but for
some services vane packs may be used. The use of other vapor internals such as
cyclones, etc. requires CLIENT approval.

K value with Mist Eliminator:


K = 0.1347 0.0275 P 0.154
(m/s)
P : operating pressure in bara
For glycol and amine solutions, multiply K by 0.6 to 0.8
For compressor suction scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply K by 0.7 to 0.8
For vacuum operation K=0.061
For wet steam K=0.076
For spherical separator type K is in the range of 0.061 to 0.107 m/sec.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


K value without Mist Eliminator:
K = 3.6

DP
CD

m/s

CD = Exp (8.411 2.243 X + 0.273 X2 1.865


Where
0 .13 10 8 V D P3 ( L
)
X = Ln (
)V
2
V

Dp is assumed as follows:
General services:
200 micron
Flare K.O. drum:
600 micron
Note: Dp, m

, kg/m3

, cp

10-2 X3 + 5.201 10-4 X4)

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The following hold up should be considered for vessel sizing:
Levels

Vertical Vessels

Horizontal Vessels

HLL to HHLL

at least 2 minutes
with 200 mm minimum

at least 2 minutes
with 200 mm minimum

determined by the following table


with a 350 mm minimum

determined by the following table


with a 350 mm
minimum

LLLL to LLL

at least 2 minutes
with 200 mm minimum

at least 2 minutes
with 200 mm minimum

Vessel Tangent
Line to LLLL

200 mm minimum, but


must allow for time
required to close ESD or
XV or stop pump

200 mm minimum, but


must allow for time
required to close ESD or
XV or stop pump

LLL to HLL

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The minimum liquid hold-up times between LLL and HLL are as follows:
Service

Time (minutes)

Feed Surge Drum:


a) to a Heater
b) to other Equipment:
Reflux Drum

10
10 (with or without a pump)
5

Fractionation Tower Bottoms:


a) Product to next Process

b) Product to other Column

c) Product to Exchanger or Storage Tank


Atmospheric De-Gassing Drum
Other Drums:

5 (with or without a pump)


10
3 (without a pump)
5 (with a pump)

Water Boot:

Greater volume of 5 (below normal interface level) or 10


(between water HLL-LLL)

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The following design criteria shall be used for nozzle sizing:
Inlet Nozzle:
Horizontal No demister pad
mVm2 1000
Vertical No demister pad
mVm2 1500
Horizontal / Vertical Demister pad
mVm2 6000
Horizontal / Vertical Demister pad
gVg2 3750
Gas outlet nozzle:
gVg2

3750

Liquid outlet nozzle:


V

1 m/sec

Liquid outlet nozzle


The minimum nozzle diameter shall be 50 mm (2 in.).
Where:
is fluid density in kg/m3
V is fluid velocity in m/sec

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Man way sizes shall be specified based on the following criteria:
a) For vessel diameter < 1000 mm:
- If equipment contains internals, a flanged vessel shall be considered, otherwise
- One 18" NPS man way is required for inspection maintenance requirements.
b) For vessel diameter 1000 mm:
- Manway size is 24" NPS.
- 20" NPS is acceptable for non-toxic service.
c) Manways shall be equipped with davits.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Number of Manways shall be determined according to the followings:
Vessels
A single manway shall be provided for vessel length or height less than 6 m.
For other vessels (length or height > 6 m), a minimum of two manways shall be
provided; one manway each 6 m for longer or taller vessel.
If vessel is equipped with internals (baffle, etc.), one manway shall be provided for
each compartment.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Number of Manways shall be determined according to the followings:
Trayed Columns
Manways shall be provided at the top, below the bottom tray, at the feed tray and
At any other tray at which removable internals are located.
Manways shall also be provided at intermediate points so that the maximum spacing of
manways does not exceed 15 trays. This shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Tray spacing with manway between internal shall be at least 900 mm.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Vortex breaker shall be installed in a vessel for the following services:
Pump suction
Thermosyphon or kettle inlet
Let-down to a lower pressure system
Vortex breaker on fouling service shall be installed 150 mm above from the vessel
wall.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- The drain specification shall be determined on the following basis:
a)

Drain Location

The drain of the vessel shall be connected:


To the outlet line at low point for vertical vessel
Directly on the vessel for horizontal vessel
Directly on the vessel for vertical vessels, where the outlet line extends inside the
vessel

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


b)
Drain Sizes
Vent and drain diameter shall be determined as follows:

Volume or Diameter of Vessel


(m or mm)

Vent Diameter
(NPS)

Drain Diameter
(NPS)

V 15 or D 2500

15<V 75 or 2500<D 4500

220 < V 420 or D > 6000

V>420

75 < V

220 or 4500 < D

6000

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


c)

Number of Drains

For horizontal drums having a length greater than 6 m tangent line to tangent line,
additional drain connections are required, with a maximum distance of 6 m between
each drain connection. Additional drains are also required on each compartment of the
vessel.
Open drain connection (washing out) shall be provided with valve and blind flange (not
hard-piped outside). Size of open drain shall be the same diameter as drain
connection.
d)

Overflow Connections

For vessels or tanks equipped with overflow connections, the overflow nozzle and line
size shall be one size larger than the inlet/outlet nozzle (whichever is greater).

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


- Utility Connections (steam-out, purging) will be the same as follows:
a)

Vertical Vessels

The steam-out connection shall be 2" NPS .


For large vessels, two 2" NPS connections shall be provided for diameters greater or
equal to 4.5 m.
If the vessel is equipped with an internal baffle, one steam-out connection shall be
provided for each compartment.
b)

Horizontal Vessels (Non - Toxic Service)

If possible, the drain connection shall be used to steam out the vessel. A dedicated
steam-out connection is not required.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


c)

Horizontal Vessels (Toxic Service)

The steam-out connection shall be 2" NPS.


For large vessels, two 2" NPS connections shall be provided for length greater or equal
to 6 m.
If vessel is equipped with internals baffle, one steam-out connection shall be provided
on each compartment.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.4

Heat Exchangers and Air Coolers

The following table indicates the recommended value for over-sizing of heat
exchanger and aircooler:
Type Exchanger

Rated Duty and Flow rate

Shell-and-Tube

10% on maximum duty and flow rate

Reboilers

10% on maximum duty and flow rate

Air Coolers and Condensers

17% on heat transfer area

Cold Boxes:

5 to 10% on flow rate for single phase


10% on flow rate for two-phase

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


The following are fouling factor recommended for process and utility fluids. These
should be reviewed on a case by case basis.
Process Fluids

Fouling factors
(m.C/W)

Acid gas

0.00030

Sour natural gas from Slug Catcher

0.00035

Sour natural gas downstream from Slug Catcher

0.00017

Sweet gas

0.00017

Liquid LPG

0.00020

Raw Feed Condensate from Slug Catcher

0.00052

Stabilized Condensate

0.00020

Process water

0.00035

Stripped water

0.00030

Glycol

0.00040

Refrigerant (propane)

0.00017

Licensed units fluids

by Licensor

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Utilities

Fouling factors
(m.C/W)

Sea water

0.00050

Chilled water

0.00020

Potable water

0.00020

Nitrogen

0.00017

Instrument air

0.00017

Fuel gas

0.00017

Diesel light:

0.00030

Diesel heavy:

0.00035

Fouling factor on the air side of exchangers shall be 0.35m2.K/kW (0.002h.ft2.


F/Btu)

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Air cooler shall be :
Induced type when installed on the pipe rack.
Forced draft type shall be considered:
If the air cooler is installed at grade
If the inlet process temperature is above 175 C or air outlet over 93 C. For multiplepurpose exchangers, several sections stacked.
Air coolers shall be specified for summer conditions as follows:
Inlet air temp = 50 C
Minimum process outlet temp = 58 C

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Typical allowable pressure drops of different heat exchangers are given for below items:
- Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
- Condenser
- Reboiler
* All pressure drops referred to in this section are at normal flow rates.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


a) Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Liquid Service
Viscosity (Cp) at Average
Temperature

Total Pressure Drop (bar) for Shells series:


One

Two

Three

0.35 to 0.7

0.35 to 0.7

0.7 to 1.0

1.0 to 5.0

0.7

1.0

1.0 to 1.4

5 to 10

1.0

1.0 to 1.4

1.4

Above 10

1.4

1.4 to 2.0

2.0

Less than 1.0

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


a) Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Gas Service
The typical allowable pressure drop for gases through shell and tube heat
exchanger is given hereunder:
Operating Pressure (barg)

Pressure Drop (bar)

0 to 0.7

0.035 to 0.07

Above 0.7

0.14 to 0.35

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


b) Condensers
Types

Pressure Drop (bar)

Partial

0.14 to 0.35

Total

Negligible

b) Reboiler
Types

Pressure Drop (bar)

Kettle

Negligible (shell side)

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Suggested pressure drop for air cooler in various services are given below. However,
care should be taken to ensure that the selected pressure drop results in the most
economic overall installation.
Service
Liquid Cooling

Allowable Pressure Drop (bar)


0.7 (1)

Gas Cooling:
Operating Pressure 1.0 to 3.5 barg
Operating Pressure 3.5 to 17.5 barg
Condensing

0.2
0.35 to 0.7
(2)

Total Condenser

0.035 min (3)

Partial Condenser

0.14 to 0.35 (3)

Notes:
(1) Not valid for viscous fluids.
(2) For vacuum service the selection of an allowable pressure drop should be from the results of an economic study. Pressure
drops are usually in the range of 3 to 5 mm Hg.
(3) For multi-pass air coolers, a high pressure drop assures proper flow distribution. The higher pressure drop shall also
assure proper distribution at lower than design throughput.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Shell nozzles are sized based on the limitation of linear velocity and density such that
V2 2232, where:
= density of single or two phase flows, kg/m3
V = velocity, m/s

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.0 PIPING
o Line Sizing
o Control Valve Manifold
o Sample Connections
o Selection of Valves
o Insulation and Heat Tracing

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.1 Line Sizing
For line sizing criteria two factors should be considered:
- Pressure Drop
- Velocity
Note: The other velocity limitations to avoid vibration, noise and erosion are special items.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


The nominal pipe size (NPS) shall be designated DN (Diameter Nominal), although in
calculations the diameter is normally expressed in millimeters (mm). The following
Table shows DN and NPS equivalents.
DN (mm)

NPS (in)

DN (mm)

NPS (in)

15

1/2

350

14

20

3/4

400

16

25

450

18

40

1 1/2

500

20

50

600

24

80

650

26

100

700

28

150

750

30

200

800

32

250

10

900

36

300

12

1000

40

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Liquid Velocity
Velocity (ft/sec)
Service
D

2"

3" to 10"

12" to 20"

Water:
Pump Suction

12

24

36

Pump Discharge (long)

23

35

47

Pump Discharge (short)

49

5 12

8 14

Boiler Feed Water

49

5 12

8 14

Drain Line

34

35

----

----

35

47

Sloped Sewer
Steam Condensate

12

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Velocity (ft/sec)

Service
D

2"

3" to 10"

12" to 20"

Liquid Hydrocarbon (Normal Viscosities):


Pump Suction

1.5 2.5

24

36

Pump Discharge (long)

2.5 3.5

35

47

Pump Discharge (short)

49

5 12

8 15

Drain Line

34

35

----

Liquid to Reboiler

27

Velocity (ft/sec)
Service
D

2"

3" to 10"

12" to 20"

Liquid Hydrocarbon (Viscous Oil):


Pump Suc. (Medium Viscosity)

----

1.5 3

2.5 5

Pump Suc. (Tar & Fuel Oils)

----

0.4 0.75

0.5 1

Pump Discharge

----

35

46

Drain Line

1.0

1.5 3

----

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Velocity (ft/sec)

Service
D

2"

3" to 10"

12" to 20"

Chemicals:
Liquid Refrigerant

3.5

Lubricating Oil

6.0

Liquid Chlorine

5.0

Lean Amine Solution (CS pipe)

9.0

Lean Amine Solution (SS pipe)

30.0

Rich Amine Solution (CS pipe)

3.0

NaoH (0-30%)

6.0

NaoH (30-50%)

5.0

NaoH (50-73%)

4.0

Sulphuric Acid (SS pipe & Case iron)

4.0

HCl

5.0

Nacl sol. (No Solids) - (CS)

5.0

Nacl sol. (With Solids) - (Monel or Nickel)

7.5

Liquid Ammonia

6.0

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Liquid Pressure Drop
Service

Bar/100 m

Psi/100 ft

Pump Suction (boiling liquid)

0.05 0.1

0.2 0.5

Pump Suction (Nonboiling liquid)

0.25 0.4

1.0 1.5

Pump Discharge (Pd <700 psi)

0.2 0.5

1.0 2.5

Pump Discharge (Pd >700 psi)

0.6 1.0

3.0 5.0

Gravity Flow

0.05 0.1

0.2 0.5

Cooling Water Header

0.06 1.2

0.25 5.5

Cooling Water Branch

0.3 0.5

1.5 2.5

Water Line (Short)

0.25 0.35

1.0 1.5

Water Line (Long)

0.05 0.1

0.25 0.5

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Gas Velocity

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Gas Velocity
Velocity (ft/sec)
Service
3" D

4"to 6"

8" to 10"

12" to 14"

16" to 18"

Chemicals:
Ammonia Vapor

100

Chlorine

35-85

Hydrogen

65

HCL

65

Oxygen (Amb. Temp.)

30

Oxygen (Low. Temp.)

65

Refrigerant Vapor (HP)

15 - 50

Refrigerant Vapor (LP)

35 - 85

20"

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Gas Pressure Drop
Service

Bar/100 m

Psi/100 ft

0.01

0.06

0.04

0.2

0.05 0.1

0.25 0.5

Saturated Steam:
P

1 psia (28 vacuum)

1<P
0

7 psia (15 vacuum)

P < 50 psig

50

P < 150 psig

0.1 0.3

0.5 1.5

150

P < 500 psig

0.3 0.6

1.5 3.0

1.7% of Pop in bara

0.6% of Pop in psia

P < 250 psig

0.1 0.5

0.5 2.5

P > 250 psig

3.0% of Pop in bara

1.0% of Pop in psia

P < 14.7 psig

0.01 0.06

0.05 0.25

14.7

P < 103 psig

0.02 0.1

1.0 0.5

103

P < 1015 psig

0.1 0.5

0.5 2.5

0.7% of Pop in bara

0.25% of Pop in psia

Compressor Suction

0.02 0.07

0.1 0.3

Compressor Discharge

0.04 0.1

0.2 0.5

500 psig

Superheated Steam:

Gas and Vapor:

P > 1015 psig

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.2 Control Valves Manifold
Non-continuous control valves do not require by-passes. Control valves in
continuous service and less than or equal to 6" size shall have block and by-pass
valves.
Above 6", the control valve shall be provided with a hand-wheel and no by-pass. This
should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Three way control valves shall be avoided.
All block and by-pass valves shall be full manifold size.
By-pass valves shall be full manifold size globe valves up through 4", and full
manifold gate valves in larger sizes.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


One 3/4" bleed valve shall be installed between the upstream block valve and control
valve but for systems of 900# ANSI rating and higher, double bleed valves and double
by-pass valves shall be installed.
Block valves on both side of control valve and the bypass valve shall have the same
specification as line that the higher rating.
The size of block valve and bypass valve of control valve can be selected from the
next table:

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Control Valve Size (in)

Line Size (in)

Block Valve Size (in)

Bypass Valve Size (in)

2,3,4

2,3,4

2,3,4

3,4,6

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Control Valve Size (in)

Line Size (in)

Block Valve Size (in)

Bypass Valve Size (in)

4,6,8

6,8,10

6,8,10,12

8,10,12

10,12

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

12,14

12

12

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.3 Sample Connections
All sample connections shall be 1" needle valve in accordance with standard drawings.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.4 Selection of Valves
The following guideline shall be used to select the type of valves for specific
applications:
Gate Valve:
Equipment Isolation Valve
Instrument Isolation Valve
Isolation valve smaller than 10 in water service
vent and drain valves of piping

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Butterfly Valve:
Isolation valve of 10 and larger for water service
The valve which need to regulate flow rate with low pressure drop
The valve which is not expected to isolate the system tightly, such as blower isolation
valve
Globe Valve:
A bypass of control valve
The valve which need to regulate flow rate
A bypass valve for main gate valve, such as steam warm up valve

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


Ball Valve:
The tight shut off valves
The valve which is expected to be quick operation, such as burner isolation valves
Needle Valve:
For the purpose to adjust a small flow quantity
May be used for sampling

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


5.5 Insulation and Heat Tracing
1.

Thermal insulation for hot or cold services may be required for

- Heat or cold conservation of equipment and piping;


- Personnel protection of equipment for operating temperatures above 70 C.
Pumps shall not normally be insulated unless it is desired for process or safety
reasons.

5:\Process Activities\Design Criteria


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD

SIMULATION

UFD
H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS
P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Equipment List


This document consists of all equipment index
Also for each equipment , it shows main characteristics

5:\Process Activities\Equipment List


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST

H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS
P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA

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5:\Process Activities\Equipment Data Sheet


Fixed Equipment Data Sheet
Vessel, Tank, Tower,

Rotary Equipment Data Sheet


Pump, Compressor,

Miscellaneous Data Sheet


Package, Mixer, Filter,

5:\Process Activities\Equipment Data Sheet


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS
P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA

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5:\Process Activities\Instrument Data Sheet


Instrument data sheets are provided by Instrument Department
Process data should be completed by Process Department in basic and detail
engineering
Main instruments data sheet that should be completed by Process Department are:
- Control Valve D.Sh.
- Process Safety Valve D.Sh.
- Transmitter D.Sh.
- Gauge Measurements D.Sh.
- Indicators D.Sh.
- Switch D.Sh.

5:\Process Activities\Instrument Data Sheet


Instruments data sheet that are completed in two sections:
# General Information
Tag No, P&ID No, Line No,
# Process Information
Max/Nor/Min Flowrate
Pressure Drop

5:\Process Activities\Instrument Data Sheet


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET
INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS
P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA

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5:\Process Activities\Process Data For Piping


Special Item
Process data for piping special item should be completed by Process Department in
basic and detail engineering
>> Steam Trap Data Sheet
>> Strainer Data Sheet
>> Others

5:\Process Activities\Process Data For Piping


Special Item
Piping special item data sheet that are completed in two sections:
# General Information
Tag No, P&ID No, Line No,
# Process Information
Media (Service)
Max/Nor/Min Flowrate
Pressure Drop

5:\Process Activities\Process Data For Piping


Special Item
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA

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5:\Process Activities\Line List


Scope:
The completion of process parts of line list should be done by Process Department
during Basic and Detail Engineering.
Definition:
Line list shows the identification for each pipe of plant, that is shown in the P&ID in
format of a table including :
Line Size
Service
P&ID No
Pipe Class
Operating Pressure & Temperature
Design Pressure & Temperature
Type of Insulation

5:\Process Activities\Line List


Description:
- In Basic Engineering Stage after receiving the line list from Piping Department,
specified columns in the table that are related to Process Eng such as Design Temp &
Press, Operating Temp & Press should be competed.
- Operating information should be extract from the PFD and H&M Balance.
- Design information should be specified with regard to operating condition and
according to Design Basis and Design Criteria.
- In Detail Engineering Stage, in case of changing process data of lines, adding new
lines deleting lines or any similar changes in the plant, Line List should be revised and
issued.

5:\Process Activities\Line List


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID
DESGINE CRITERIA
LINE LIST

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Utility Consumption


Summary
Description:
- The list of all utilities will be defined during proposal stage of project. The approximate
consumption rate will be defined in Basic Engineering and it will be finalized during Detail
Engineering according to Vendor information.

5:\Process Activities\Utility Consumption


Summary
Utilities To Be Considered:
- Steam
- Fuel oil and Gas
- Boiler Feed Water
- Cooling / Sea Water
- Desalinated Water
- Plant / Process Water
- Demineralized Water
- Potable Water
- Fire Water
- Inert Gas
- Plant Air
- Instrument Air
- Refrigerant

5:\Process Activities\Utility Consumption


Summary
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA
LINE LIST

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Chemical Consumption


Summary
Description:
- The list of all chemicals, catalysts and adsorbents will be defined during Proposal
Stage.
- In Basic Engineering, specification, properties and estimated consumption rates of
catalyst, chemical and adsorbent will be specified due to process requirements, vendor
documents, PFD/UFD and H&M Balance.
- During Detail Engineering , the contractor shall prepare and furnish to owner the list of
chemicals, catalyst and adsorbents for efficient operations. At this stage , preliminary list
which was prepared during Basic Engineering will be finalized according to information
from vendor.
- The total consumption of each item will be determined annually.

5:\Process Activities\Chemical Consumption


Summary
Three groups of chemicals:
- Catalyst
- Chemical
- Adsorbent

5:\Process Activities\Chemical Consumption


Summary
PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA

CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

LINE LIST

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Electrical Load List


Scope:
The completion of process parts of Electrical Load List should be done by Process
Department during Basic and Detail Engineering.
Definition:
Electrical Load List shows the electrical consumption for each electrical user of plant,
that is shown in the P&ID such as:
Electrical Pumps
Electrical Compressors
Fans
Air Cooler
and

5:\Process Activities\Electrical Load List


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA

CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

LINE LIST

ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\ESD Diagram


Scope:
Emergency Shut Down
ESD Block Diagram shows all of cases and effects as a Block Diagram according to
P&ID.
LEVELS:
Level 0:
Total Shut Down
Level 1:
Plant Shut Down
Level 2:
Unit Shut Down
Level 3:
Equipment Shut Down

5:\Process Activities\ESD Diagram


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA

CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

LINE LIST

ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY

ESD DIGRAM

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Technical Bid Evaluation


Scope:
This work is applied in detail engineering of all projects during vendor bid
evaluation.

5:\Process Activities\Technical Bid Evaluation


PROCESS ACTIVITIES
BFD
PFD
UFD
H&M BALANCE

SIMULATION
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT DATA SHEET

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

INSTRUMENT DATA SHEET

DESIGN BASIS

PIPING SPECIAL ITEM DATA SHEET

P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA

CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

LINE LIST

ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY

ESD DIGRAM

THECHNICAL BID EVALUATION

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Operating Manual


Scope:
- Operating Manual is the last document that provided by process department at end of
detail engineering.
- It is provided by below persons:
Process Senior Engineer
Instrument Senior Engineer
HSE Senior Engineer
Electrical Senior Engineer
- Process Senior Engineer is Lead of above team

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5:\Process Activities\Operating Manual


Operating Manual Contents:
1) Introduction
- General information about operating manual, abbreviations, basic concept of plant and
measuring units.
2) Basic of Design
- A brief description of feed, product, capacity, climate condition, geometric condition
3) Process Description
- Process description of all units, BFD, PFD, UFD and Equipment List

faragostaran

5:\Process Activities\Operating Manual


4) Description of Plant Control System
- Control philosophy, description of control methods in units, instruments location in
control room, main control parameters, main operating condition , loop control,
instrument index , alarm list and setting set points.
5) Specifications, Conditions and Consumption of Utilities
- Properties, condition and consumption of water, fuel, air, nitrogen, electricity and
6) Specifications, Conditions and Consumption of Chemical & Catalyst
- Properties, condition and consumption of Chemical and Catalyst

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5:\Process Activities\Operating Manual


7) Precommissioning/ Preliminary Operating for Initial Start Up
- Inspection, cleaning, special recommendations and procedures
8) Start up Procedure
- Start up methods
9) Normal Operation
- Operation methods, comments, offers of safety ,operating condition
maintenance of units and training of personal
10) Normal Shut Down

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variation ,

5:\Process Activities\Operating Manual


11) Emergency Shut Down

12) Safety Manual

13) Laboratory Manual

14) Attachments

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5:\Process Activities\Basic Package


Basic Package
BFD
PFD
UFD

EQUIPMENT LIST

H&M BALANCE
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
DESIGN BASIS
P&ID

UTILITY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY

DESGINE CRITERIA

CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY


ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY

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6:\Interconnection of Process Dept. with Other


Eng. Departments
Process

Safety

Mech.

Piping

Electr.

Instr.

Civil

HVAC

Process Design Basis and Criteria

RA

PFD / UFD (H&M Balance)

P&ID

RA

Control Philosophy

RA

Equipment List

RA

RA

Utility Consumption

RA

Chemical Consumption

ESD Block Diagram

RA

RA

Electrical Load List

RA

RA

RA

Basic Package

RA

RA

RA

RA

RA

Operating Manual

RA

RA

RA

RA

RA

Safety Consept

RA

RA

RA

RA

Fire Water P&ID

RA

RA

Flare System P&ID

RA

Mechanical Data Sheet

RA

RA

Instrument Data Sheet

RA

RA

Piping Special Item Data Sheet

RA

RA

Line List

RA

RA

O:Originator

X
X

RA

X
X

RA
RA

RA

RA

RA

RA
RA

RA

RA

O
O

RA: Review/Action

X:Only For Information