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CH-2 IS MATTER AROUND US PURE

1. Define: Unsaturated solution, Saturated solution, Centrifugation, Chromatography, Crystallization.


a. Unsaturated solution: An unsaturated solution is a solution, which contains less amount of solute
than is required to saturate it at that temperature.

b. Saturated solution: A solution that can hold no more of the solute at a particular temperature is said
to be a saturated solution at that temperature.

c. Centrifugation: The process of separating substances of different densities by the use of a centrifuge.
d. Chromatography: Chromatography is a group of laboratory techniques to separate the components of a
mixture by passing the mixture through a stationary phase.
e. Crystallization: Crystallization is a process in which hot saturated solution of a substance is cooled to get
the crystals of the pure substance.
2. Distinguish between:
a) Physical and Chemical changes.
Physical change

Chemical change

It is of temporary nature

It is of permanent nature

It is a reversible change

It is non-reversible change

Only the physical properties of the substance changes

Both physical and chemical properties change

No new substance is formed in a physical change

New substances are always formed in c chemical change

Properties of the constituent substances do not change

Properties of the constituent substances change

The energy change is very little

The energy change involved in chemical change is


comparatively large

b) Elements and Compounds


Elements

Compounds

Elements are pure substances which contain only one


kind of atoms.

Compounds are the pure substances which contain


more than one kind of atoms.

They cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

They can be broken down into simpler substances.

3. What is the solute and solvent in brass, tincture iodine and air?
1. Brass
a. Solvent copper (70%)
b. Solute zinc (30%)
2. Tincture iodine
c. Solute iodine
d. Solvent alcohol
3. Air
e. Solvent nitrogen
f. Solute oxygen
4. What will be the residue left on the watch glass on heating blue ink?
a. Blue dye will be the residue left on the watch glass.

5. How is pure sugar obtained from sugar solution?


a. By crystallization.
6. What are metalloids?
a. The elements which have intermediate properties of metals and non-metals are called metalloids.
7. Name one non-metal which is liquid.
a. Bromine
8. Name a metal which is liquid.
a. Mercury
9. Name two metals which exist as liquids above 30 C.
a. Mercury and Gallium
10. Name a solvent in which sulphur is soluble.
a. Carbon disulphide
11. What is the difference between the smell of H2S gas and H2 gas?
a. H2S is a foul smelling gas having the smell of rotten eggs and H2 is colourless and odourless gas.
12. A solution contains 5 g of glucose in 45 g of water. Calculate the concentration of solution in mass percentage.

a.
13. 10 ml of sulphuric acid is dissolved in 90 ml of water. Calculate mass by mass percentage of solution.

a.
14. What is the concentration of a solution which contains 16gm of urea in 120gm solution?

a.
15. If 25mL. of acetone is present in 150mL of its aqueous solution, calculate the concentration of solution.

a.
16. Define solubility of a substance. How does it vary with temperature?
a. Solubility: The maximum amount of a solute which can be dissolved in 100 grams of a solvent at a
specific temperature is known as the solubility of that solute in that solvent at that temperature.
b. It varies with temperature as follows:
i. The solubility of solids in liquids usually increases on increasing the temperature and decreases
on decreasing the temperature.
ii. The solubility of solids in liquids remains unaffected by the changes in pressure.
iii. The solubility of gases in liquids usually increases on decreasing the temperature and decreases
on increasing the temperature.
iv. The solubility of gases in liquids increases on increasing the pressure and decreases on
decreasing the pressure.
17. What will happen when a saturated solution is a) heated b) cooled?
a. If a saturated solution at a particular temperature is heated to a higher temperature, then it becomes
unsaturated because the solubility increases with increase in temperature and a little more solute can be
dissolved in it.
b. If a saturated solution at a particular temperature is cooled to a lower temperature, then some of its
dissolved solute will separate out in the form of solid crystals because the solubility of the solute
decreases on cooling. This is called crystallization.
18. Classify the following changes as physical and chemical changes: (Write only the answers)
a. a glass bottle breaking
- physical change
b. coal burning in air
- chemical change
c. making a cake
- chemical change
d. wool being knitted into a sweater
- physical change
e. cooking of food
- chemical change
f. cutting of trees
- physical change
g. digestion of food
- chemical change
h. boiling of water
- physical change
i. dissolving salt in water
- physical change
j. melting of ice
- physical change
k. burning of a magnesium wire
- chemical change
l. rusting of iron
- chemical change
m. formation of curd from milk
- chemical change
n. sublimation of a solid
- physical change
o. Decomposition of water by passing electric current - chemical change
p. Formation of clouds
- physical change
q. Dissolving carbon dioxide in water
- physical change
r. Burning of candle
- chemical change
s. Melting of candle wax
- physical change
t. Mixing of iron filings and sand
- physical change
u. Burning of wood
- chemical change

19. Explain how will you separate the following mixtures?


a. Sand and Sugar
i. Put the mixture in water, sugar dissolves in water, filter the sand out as residue, then
evaporation / crystallization of sugar from solution.
b. Sugar and Salt
i. Put the mixture in alcohol, sugar dissolves in alcohol, filter the salt out as residue, then
evaporation / crystallization of sugar from solution.
c. Sodium Chloride and Sulphur without using water.
i. Put the mixture in water, sodium chloride dissolves in water, filter the sulphur out as residue,
then evaporation / crystallization of sodium chloride from solution OR
ii. Put the mixture in carbon disulphide, sulphur dissolves in carbon disulphide, filter the sodium
chloride out as residue, then evaporation to separate sulphur from the solution.
d. Sand, Salt and Ammonium chloride
i. Sublimation of ammonium chloride from the mixture, then put the mixture in water, salt
dissolves in water, filter the sand out as residue, then evaporation / crystallization of salt from
solution.
e. Cream from milk
i. Centrifugation
f. Dyes present in black ink
i. Chromatography
g. Water and Alcohol
i. Fractional distillation (boiling point of alcohol is 78 C and water is 100 C)
h. Oil and water
i. Using the separating funnel because these are immiscible liquids.
i. Salt, kerosene and water.
i. In this mixture, salt is soluble in water and kerosene and water anre immiscible liquids. So these
can be separated by using the separating funnel. Then evaporation is done to separate salt from
water.
j. Common salt, Sulphur powder and Sand.
i. Put the mixture in carbon disulphide, the sulphur dissolves. Filtration is done to separate salt and
sand from sulphur.
ii. Evaporation to separate dissolved sulphur from carbon disulphide.
iii. Put the mixture of salt and sand in water, the salt will dissolve in it.
iv. Again filtration to separate sand from solution. Evaporation of salt solution to get salt from
water.
k. Iodine, Iron filings and Salt.
i. Sublimation to separate iodine.
ii. Use of magnet to separate iron fillings from salt.
l. Chalk powder, Iron filings and naphthalene.
i. Sublimation of naphthalene.
ii. Use of magnet to separate iron fillings from chalk powder.
20. Name the process which can be used to recover both salt and water from an aqueous salt solution.
a. Distillation
21. Which technique is used to squeeze out water from wet clothes while drying?
a. Centrifugation
22. Which technique can be used to detect and detect traces of poison present in the stomach?
a. Chromatography

MULTIPLE CHOICS QUESTIONS:


1 Which of the following substances when mixed with sand cannot be separated by sublimation?
(A) NaCl (B) NH4Cl (C) Camphor (D) Iodine
2. Which of the following is a physical change ?
(A) Evaporation of alcohol (B) Melting of ice (C) Rusting of iron (D) Both (A) & (B)
3. What will be the sublimate, when a mixture of sand, sulphur, common salt and iodine is sublimed?
(A) Sand (B) Iodine (C) Sulphur (D) Common salt
4. Mixture of sand and camphor can be purified by (A) distillation (B) filtration (C) sedimentation (D) sublimation
5. A mixture of alcohol and water can e separated by
(A) separating funnel (B) fractional distillation
(C) simple distillation (D) sublimation
6. To separate the various coloured pigments present in a substance which method is used?
(A) sublimation (B) Chromatography (C) Centrifugation (D) Evaporation
7. Carbon burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide. The properties of carbon dioxide are (A) similar to carbon
(B) similar to oxygen
(C) totally different from both carbon and oxygen
(D) much similar to both carbon and oxygen
8. A mixture of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride can be separated by
(A) chromatography (B) hand picking (C) by sublimation (D) centrifugation
9. Which of the following is not a chemical change ?
(A) Rusting of iron (B) Cooking of food (C) Freezing of water (D) Digestion of food
10. Which of the following method is used for separation of different components of petroleum?
1. (A) Fractional distillation (B) Sublimation (C) Chromatography (D) Simple distillation
1
A

2
D

3
B

4
D

5
B

6
B

7
C

8
C

9
C

10
A