nota ringkas satu hala ANNOVA indeoendent 09

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nota ringkas satu hala ANNOVA indeoendent 09

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One

Quick Reminder

One--Way ANOVA.

One--Way

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

9 z test is applicable for testing hypothesis of any normally

distributed data generated from a large n and involved with one

independent

variable

p

9 t tests are applicable for testing hypothesis of data generated

from:

one independent variable involving a single group of

sample

one independent variable involving two independent

g

p of sample

p

groups

one twotwo-level independent variable involving two

correlated groups of sample

9 Strictly speaking, one-way ANOVA is an extended version of a t

test; it lets you perform a t test for one independent variable with 3

or more levels at a time

Strong Notes:

If you were to conduct hypothesis testing of a

specific independent variable involving 3 or

more levels

levels.

.

You cannot draw a directly-transitive

conclusion from multiple t tests among the

different groups (as permitted by t tests)!

Instead, you have to employ a one

one--way

O (so

et e ca

ed F test

test) for

o tthiss

ANOVA

(sometime

called

purpose.

As for t tests, the aim of one-way ANOVA is to

determine whether the null hypothesis (Ho)

can be safely rejected

About One

One--Way ANOVA

9 ANOVA is an evaluation of the random differences between scores or

subjects. In any research involving three or more groups, with each

subjects

group containing several subjects, it is possible that any differences

between the groups are due either to experimental manipulation or to

chance differences between the subjects in the different groups

groups.

For example, the means of the three groups shown in Table 13.1 are all

different from one another. The type 1 pedal arrangement has a mean of

2 errors, whereas the type 2 pedal arrangement has a mean of 3.8 errors

and the type 3 pedal arrangement has a mean of 5.4 errors. These

differences may be because increasing the separation between the

pedals causes more errors, or because just by chance the people who

pedal errors were assigned

g

to the type

yp 3 p

pedal

tend to make more p

arrangement.

If the Ho is true and the independent variable has no real effect, then the

differences in the number of errors for the three pedal arrangements are

due solely to chance differences in the drivers' abilities.

to chance, we can conduct an ANOVA.

9 In an ANOVA, we use the data gathered from the samples to make

two separate estimates of the variance (denoted by MSwg and

MSbg) in the population.

We arrive at these estimates using two very different methods, and

then we compare the two estimates to see whether they are

similar.

similar

9 The key of a one-way ANOVA is comparing two separate

estimates that are arrived at using two distinctly different

methods called:

a. variance within each sample (MS

MSwg)

b. difference between the means of samples (MS

MSbg)

9 If both estimates are similar or exactly the same,

same then it

stands to reason that the samples are probably from the

same population and the Ho is true.

true

9 If the estimates are very different,

different then at least one of the

samples probably comes from a population different from

the other samples, so the H1 is true.

true

One--Way ANOVA

One

Setting The Hypotheses

Estimating MSs*

Finding F Value*

Finding Degree of Freedom*

Finding Critical F Value*

Drawing up a Conclusion

Finding p Value (optional)*

Conducting post hoc Test*

*

Executable by SPSS

Drawing up a Conclusion

The Example:

Example

You are to study the factor of unintended

acceleration that cause road accident. It is

hypothesised that the distance between

the brake and the accelerator pedals

plays a contributing factor in driver error

that cause road accident. To test this

hypothesis you design an experiment in

hypothesis,

which subjects use one of three driving

simulators, each with a different pedal

arrangement. In the close-pedal

arrangement, the distance between

pedals is only 1 inch; in the moderatepedal arrangement, it's 2 inches; and in

the far-pedal arrangement, 3 inches.

You assign ten subjects to each condition

and instruct

instr ct them to dri

drive

e their sim

simulators

lators

for 4 hours. During these 4 hours, the

number of errors made by each driver is

recorded.

The Hypotheses

The null hypothesis:

hypothesis

Ho : There is no difference between the sample means of

any of the level

Ho : 1 = 2 = .. = k

where k is the number of levels of the independent variable

hypothesis

H1 : At least one of the sample means comes from a

population different from that of the other sample means.

(Refer to Example)

any of the three level

Ho : 1 = 2 = 3

H1 : At least one of the three sample means comes from a

population different from that of the other sample means.

9 The MS is the mean (the average) of the squared

d i ti scores used

d tto calculate

l l t th

i ti

deviation

the variation.

9 MS is equivalent to variance estimate (est. ) for the t

tests

9 The are two types of MS:

q

p ((MSwg)

mean square

within g

groups

mean square between groups (MSbg)

where

is the mean for kth group

k

where

is the mean for kth group

(Refer to Example)

(Refer to Example)

(Refer to Example)

10

(Refer to Example)

9

fail to reject Ho (for one independent variable with 3

or more levels at a time).

the following formula:

equal to MSwg

If MSbg and MSwg are similar, then F = 1

11

(Refer to Example)

9 In the example,

= 28.930/1.481 = 19.534

(df))

9 There are two types of degree of freedom:

a. degree of freedom for the mean square between group (dfbg)

b degree of freedom for the mean square within groups (dfwg)

b.

dfbg = k 1

dfwg = (n1 1) + (n2 1) + . + (nk 1)

where

k

nm

12

(Refer to Example)

9 In the example,

example

dfbg = 3 1 = 2

dfwg = (10 1) + (10 1) + (10 1) = 27

Drawing Up A Conclusion

The hypothesis testing for ANOVA is concluded in

a similar way as we do for t tests.

In ANOVA, we refer to Table F to identify the

critical value of F (denoted by Fcv)

Table F is arranged so that we look for the computed

degrees of freedom between groups (i.e. dfbg) in the

row at the top of the table (denoted by dfN).

The corresponding degrees of freedom within

groups (i.e. dfwg) is in the most left column of the

table (denoted by dfD)

13

(Refer to Example)

the critical F value is

Fcv = 3.35

Conclusion:

Conclusion

Observe that, with = 0.05, the F = 19.534 lies in the

rejection region (as F > Fcv).

Thus,

we can reject

there iis a

Th

j t H0 and

d acceptt H1 (i.e.

(i th

difference between at least two of the pedal

arrangements and the difference is sigificant)

Note that F is the ratio of two estimates i.e.

with F 1

If the estimates are very different (i.e. the F value is large), then

at least one of the samples probably comes from a population

different from the other samples, so the H1 is true (i.e. we can

safely reject Ho)

14

Recall that, in the example, using the Table F with = 0.05, dfN = 2

and dfD = 27, the critical value of F value is Fcv = 3.35

The computed F = 19.354 is large as compared to Fcv (i.e. much

larger than 3.35 that we get from the Table F at = 0.05!!).

Therefore, it is very probable for H1 to occur (i.e. very unlikely for Ho

to occur!).

p < 0.05 (in fact, p is smaller than 0.01 as the Fcv with = 0.01 is

5.49)

5 49)

This tells us that the probability for Ho to occur is very small (i.e. less

than the prescribed ).Thefore we reject Ho and accept H1

You will find a source table useful for the

purpose of drawing up conclusion and

reporting of ANOVA analysis.

A source table displays the vital information of

the ANOVA performed on the data; sum

squares, degree of freedom, mean squares, F

value and p.

15

Source

SS

df

MS

Between groups

SSbg

dfbg

MSbg

Within group

SSwg

dfwg

MSwg

Total

SStotal

dftotal

b. The exact p value can be found if you have very detailed Table F with

various values of (like the one adopted by SPSS)

Source

SS

df

MS

Between groups

SSbg

dfbg

MSbg

Within group

SSwg

dfwg

MSwg

Total

SStotal

dftotal

b. The exact p value can be found if you have very detailed Table F with

various values of (like the one adopted by SPSS)

16

(Refer to Example)

The F test tells us whether we can safely reject the Ho. In the

case where we reject Ho, it indicates that there is some

difference between at least two and possibly more of the

groups, but it does not reveal where that difference lies.

However, there are several tests that can do so. These are

called post hoc tests. Post hoc is Latin for after the fact.

These tests are only conducted after you have determined

that you have an F ratio that is significant.

significant

The one we discuss next is called the Tukeys HSD,

HSD which

stands for Tukeys honestly significant difference.

difference

17

The honestly significant difference (HSD) is used to compare

sample means when an analysis of variance leads to a significant

F it cannott be

b used

d when

h the

th F ratio

ti is

i nott significantly

i ifi

tl llarge.

F;

It reveals how far apart the sample means must be in order for

them to be significantly different.

We can compute the HSD by using the following formula:

where

MSwg

To find the value of q, you must enter Table Q with the number of

samples in the analysis of variance (k) and the number of degrees

of freedom within (dfwg). This is sometimes a problem because the

table does not list all possible degrees of freedom.

If your number of degrees of freedom is not listed, you must find

the value in the table that is closest to yours without going over it.

In the example, with alpha level of .05, k = 3, dfwg = 27, you will find

no corresponding q value (as there is no listing for 27 degrees of

freedom within groups!).

Therefore, you must find the value for the next lower number of

g

degrees

of freedom,, which is 24. Look across to find

q = 3.53

18

This HSD value tells us that any difference between means of 1.359

pedal errors or greater is significant.

Let's examine the differences between the means of the various

pedal arrangement types. The means for types 1, 2, and 3,

respectively, are 2 errors, 3.8 errors, and 5.4 errors. The difference

between the means for types 1 and 2 is 1.8 errors, which is greater

than the required 1.359. The difference between the means for types

1 and 3 is 3.4

1.6

3 4 errors,

errors and the difference between types 2 and 3 is 1

6

errors, both of which are also greater than the HSD of 1.359.

Thus, in this experiment all three pedal arrangements are

significantly different from one another. Based on these results,

automobile designers should choose pedal arrangement 1 because

drivers who used it made significantly fewer errors.

Performing One

One--Way ANOVA

Tests Using SPSS

19

Group

Type

Group

Type

ONEWAY

Type BY Group

/MISSING ANALYSIS

/POSTHOC = TUKEY ALPHA(.05).

One--Way ANOVA

ANOVA

Type

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

Between

Groups

57.8667

28.9333

19.530

0.000

Within Groups

40.000

27

1.4815

Total

97.8667

29

Sig. = p

20

The Test?

Method 1

p ; Reject H0 if p <

Method 2

Ho if F falls in the rejection

region (refer to Fc.v identified

from the Table F)

Conclusion::

Conclusion

difference between the means)

21

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: Type

Tukey HSD

(I) Group

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

(J) Group

Group 2

Group 3

Group 1

Group 3

Group 1

Group 2

Mean

Difference

(I-J)

-1.800*

-3.400*

1.800*

-1.600*

3.400*

1.600*

Std. Error

.544

.544

.544

.544

.544

.544

Sig.

.007

.000

.007

.018

.000

.018

Lower Bound Upper Bound

-3.15

-.45

-4.75

-2.05

.45

3.15

-2.95

-.25

2.05

4.75

.25

2.95

Conclusion:

Observe that p < for:

Group 1 vs Group 2 (with p = 0.007)

Group 1 vs Group 3 (with p = 0.000)

Group 2 vs Group 3 (with p = 0.018)

The F Distribution

22

23

24

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