Anda di halaman 1dari 502

- - _.. _~.~.._.

--------~

~~~~~~~.,E;8:C:.... IO

Ethiopian Building Code Standard

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
OF BUILDINGS

Ministry of Works & Urban Development


Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1996

S661
,,o~a

"'q"qy sWpy
~owdoloAoa tmcpn 19. S)Jl0A\.,J0 A.1lsMW

---~

E;BCS-lO
Electrical 1'onallatloDof lIluitdings

Pr()ject toul1tll Mtmbtrs

'rethnfcal Members

Abashawl Woldemariam (ChaiI1mm)


Aletnayehu tnzilwt
Bekele Mekonnen
Negussie Tebedge

Mohammed A

Seifu 8ir~e

Wouhib Kebede
t I>eceaSedbefote ~mpletionofthe PrOject.

Editors

Electro Data Processing &, Publishing.


Addis Ababa

B~kar (Secretary)

Alemayehut3izawt
Admassu Gizaw
tarekegn Abay
tesfaye Bayou

FOREWORD

The Proclamation to defme the powers and duties of the Central and Regional Executive
Organs of the 'Transitional Government of Ethiopia No. 41/1993 empowers the Ministry of Works
and Urban Development to prepare the Country's Building Code, issue. Standards for design and
construction works, and follow up and supervise the implementation of same.

In exercise of these powers and in discharge of its responsibility, the Ministry is issuing a
.series of Building Code Standards of general application.
The purpose of these standards is to serve as nationally recognized documents, the
application of which is deemed to ensure compliance of buildings with the minimum requirements
for design, construction and quality of materials set down by the National Building Code.
The major benefits to be gained in applying these .standards are the harmonization of
professional practice and the ensuring of appropriate levels of safety, health and economy with due
consideration of the objective conditions and needs of the country.
As these standards are technical documents which, by their very nature, require periodic
updating, revised editions will be issued by the Ministry from time to time as.appropriate.
The Ministry welcomes comments and suggestions on all aspect of the Ethiopian Building
Code Standards. All feedback received will be carefully reviewed by professional experts in the
field of. building construction with a view to possible incorporation of amendments in future
editions.

Haile Assegidie
Minister
Ministry of Works and
Urban Development
1995

-----------.-

-,----_._.

__. _ - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . _ - -

I N T ROD U C TI 0 N

This Code Standard for the Electrical Ins tallation of Buildings is part of the Building Code
of Ethiopia:
.

This Code Standard for the Electrical Installation of Buildings is mainly adopted from
lEE Regulations for Electrical Installations and Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, to suit
the Ethiopian conditions. Other publications quoted are shown in the respective sections
of the Code and the Ethiopian Authority for Standardization maintains registers of a
national and international standards.
number of, foreign
.
The Code embraces several aspects of electrical installation work and sets standards and
provisions for safe utilization of electricity.
The Technical Committee for Code Standards for the Electrical Installation of Buildings
comprises of the following Institutions representing balanced interest of all segments of the
public concerned with the subject matter:
Ministry of Works & Urban Development (MWUD)
Building Design Enterprise -(BDE)
Ethiopian Electric Light & Power Authority (EELPA)
Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Technology (AAU)
Ethiopian Authority for Standardization (BAS).

'ETHIOPJAN BU,LDING CODESTANDAAD

EBCS-10 ELECTRICAL.INSTALLATION OF,

BUILDINGS

TAB:LE OF CONTENTS

Section 1
1.1

1.2
.1.)

Section 2
2.1

2.2

SCope And Definitions


Scope
'. . . . . . . . . .
Nonnative references
'
,.
Definitions..... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . : . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .' .' ..
Gen~ral

Requirements

Acbninistrative.. . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .' . . .. . . ..


2.1.1 Authority for rules . . ......._ . . . . . ..". . . . . . . . . . , . "
2.1.2 Pennit
' .................'
_. . . . . . . ..
2.1.3 Application for inspection ....... " . . . . . . . . ..'. . . . .' . . ..
2.1.4 Posting of permit .... ',_ .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...' .' .- .... . .' .- .-
2.1.5 Notification re-inspection ...........................
2.1.6 Plans and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. -. . . . . . ..
"
2.1.7 Connection authorization .............2.1.8 Re-inspeetion
-.........-.,
-.....-., ..,...
2;L9 Renovation of existing installatiOn
2.1.10 Use of approved equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.1.11 Deviation or postponement ...........................
2.1..12 PO-wers of rejection . . . . . . . . . .. '" . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..
2.1.13 InStallation of electrical equipment . . . ....-. . . . . .' . . . .' ..
2.1.14 Damage and interfer""~e . . . . . . . . . . . . ;, . . . . . . ~ . . ..
Technical
2.2.1 Conventional symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2:.2 Co-ordination

-.........'
2.2.3 Lo-cation and requirement of substation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
2.2.4 Rooms (spaces) required . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.2.5 Location and requirements of distribution boards . . . . . . . . . . . "
2.2.6 Location and requirements ofPBXlPAB-X rooms
"
o"

- '

' .

20'

20

20

20'
20'

20~

21

21

21

21

22

22

22

22

22

2J;

n,

23

23

24

24

I;

2.3

Planning and designing ~....... . .-..........................


2.3:1 General
" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.2 Layout and installation drawing
2.3.3 Design

25

25

25

25

2.4

'. . ,~ . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Marking of equipment
2.4.1 General.......;..................................
2.4.2. Workmanship and materials
'. . . . ..
2.4.3 Material for anchoring' . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..
'
2.4.4 Protection of persons and property . "
2:4.5 Maintainability.....................................
2.4.6 Enclosures........................................

26

26

27

27

27

27

28

, Section 3

II

Dluminstion

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Scope
'
"
Normative references. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Definitions
,
"
Lighting requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
,......
3.4.1 Illuminance
3.4.2 Luminance
'
;
,
'. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.4.3 Glare
'
3.4.4 Light direction and modelling
3.4.5 Colour rendering

29

29

30

35

35

35

36

36

36

3.5

~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Emergency lighting requirements
3.5.1 Escapelighting
3.5.2 Safety lighting for particular hazardous workplaces
3.5.3 Standby lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

37

37

37

38

3.6

Lighting requirements for various types of buildings


.
,...........
3.6.1 General
3.6.2 Industrial.........................................
3.6.3 Offices
'
', . ..
3.6.4 Hotels and restaurants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.6.5 Educational establishments . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,.........
3.6.6 Hospitals
,

, 38

38

39

39

39

40

40

3.7

Outdoor lighting requirements


3.7.1 Illuminance.......................................
3.7.2 Colour rendering group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
,.
3.7.3 Limitation of glare
3.7.4 Lighting of outdoor fixed location work spaces

42

42

42

43

43

Section 4

Conducton

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Scope
"'. ". "
'
Nonnative references. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Defmitions
, . . . . . . ..
Size of conductors
4.4.1 Phase conductors in a.c, Circuits and live conductors in d.c. circuits..
4.4.2 Neutral conductors ............. '
'.

4.5

Ampacity of wires, cables and flexible cords


4.5.1 Conductor operating temperature
4.5.2 ,Cables connected iri parallel
4.5.3 Cables connected to bare conductors or busbars
'4.5.4 Voltage drop
~
~

4.6
4.7
4.8

Flexible cords
'
','
Colour of conductors
Maximum permissible temperature

:.......... 70

; ~ . .. 70

-: . .70

. . . . . .. 70

',' .. ". 70

'.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70

; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71

'.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71

Annex. (preface)
Annex A (Nonnative) - Correction factors
Annex B (Nonnative) - Type of cable and ampacity

Section 5

74

85

90

Service And Service Equipment

5.i

Scope
' .. ;
'
'.'
5.2 Nonnative references
'j'
5.3 Defmitions
.......
5.4 . General requirements ............................... ~
5.4.1 Number of services permitted
5.4.2 Consumer's installation not to be supplied through another building. . ..
5.4.3 Conductors considered outside ofa building
5.4.4 Other conductors in raceway or cable'
5.4.5 Clearance from building openings
,

5.S

66,

66

67

69

69

69

Service equipment
5.5.1 ' General
5.5.2 Control

'

'

141

141

141

142

142

143

143 .

144

144

144

l44 .
'.. 145

III

5.6 . Wiring
methods
.
.
5.6.1 Underground consumer's service conductors
5.6.2 Overhead consumer's service conductors

148

148

148

5.7

149

149

Section 6

Metering equipment
5.7.1 Connection

Circuit Loading and Demand Factor

6.1 Scope
150

6.2 . Nonnative references


,
150

6.3 Defmitions................. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'ISO

6.4 General............................................... 151

6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.5

Services and feeders


6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.7
6.5.8

Section 7

7.17.2
7.3

IV

Current calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '.' . . . .. . 151

151

Voltage drop ........................... :


Maximum circuit loading
151

'.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Use of demand factor


151

Single-family dwellings. .
Apartment and similar multi-family buildings
"'
Schools
Hospitals
;

151

,
152

153

153

Hotels, motels, dormitories, and buildings of similar occupancy


154

Other types of occupancy ............................ )55

Branch circuits
155

Feeder demand factors for lifts


155

Earthing, Bonding, and Lightning Protection


Part I - Earthing. and Bonding
Scope .............................'
Nonnative references
System and circuits earthing
7.3.1 Direct current.systems
7.3.2 Alternating - current systems . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

157

157

158

158

158

7.4

Location of system earthing connections


~
7.4.1 D.C. systems
7.4.2 A.C. systems
7.4.3 Isolated systems
'.'
7.4.4 Single service supply to two or more buildings or structures
704.5 . Conductors to be earthed
7.4.6 Current over earthing conductor
~

159

159

l59

}59
160

; 160

160

7~5

Bonding
161

75.1 Non-current carrying metal parts


161

1.5.2 Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment ....... 161

75.3 Non-metallic wiring systems


i61
161

7.5.4 NOll-electrical services


164

7.5.5 Extraneous fixed metalwork

7.6

Method of earthing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '. 164

7~6.l
7~6.2

7.6.3
7.6,4
7;65
7.6.6
7.7"

Effective earthing ..................."


"
Common earthing conductor ...........................
Common- earthing electrode
:Underground service
;
Short section of raceway
Fixed equipment

Bon-ding methods

73:1

_. . . '.' . . . . . . .. . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 166

Clean surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Bonding at service.equipment.
,
Means of assuring continuity at service equipment
.......
Metal armour or tape ofservice cable
'
Bonding at other than service equipment ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loosely jointed metal raceways ........................

1.7:2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7;7.5
7.7.6
7.7;7 Bonding jumpers
7Jl

164

164

164

165

165

165

Earthing electrodes

7.8.1 General
7.8.2 Service pipe electrode
7.8.3 Artificial earthing electrodes

166.

166

166

167

167

167

167

168

168

168

169

. _ - - - _ . " .. , _ . , . - -

7.9

,.,_ . .

Earthing and bonding conductors


7.9.1
7.9.2
7.9.3
7.9.4
. 7.9.5
7.9.6

General
Installation of system earthing conductors
Installation of equipment bonding conductors
Earthing conductor size for d.c. circuits
Earthing conductor size for .a.c, system
Bonding conductor size
0

_ ..

'.~. 171

7.10 Earthing and bonding conductor connections


7.10.1
7.10.2
7.10.3
7.10.4
7.10.5

Section 7

171

172
173
174

174

174

, 175

Bonding. conductor connection to raceways


Earthing conductor connection to water pipe electrodes,
Earthing conductor connections to other than water pipe electrodes ..
Bonding conductor connection to circuits and equipment .... o'
Earthing conductor connection to electrodes' ...............

175 '
175

175

176

176

Earthing, Bonding and Lightnin~ Protection '


Part Il - pghtning Protection

7.11 Scope ...

178
'. . . . . . . 178

7.12 Nonnative references,


7.13 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
J 79'

7.14 Materials . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . .. " . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


180

7.14.1 General
180
7.14.2 Galvanic compatibility
'," :
180

',' .. 181'
7.14.3 Corrosion protection
,
7.14.4 Mechanical protection ............................... 181

7.14.5 Use of aluminium ............ :


181

7.15 Fonn
7.15.1
7.15.2
7.15:3
7.15.4

' '

and size . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air termination
Conductors
Earth termination
Minimum dimension
0

..

.,

.".

"

.,-"

VI

184

.184

185

185

185

'

7.16 Air termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "


7.16.1 General
"
7.16.2 Support
'
"
7.16.3 Metallic projections
7.16.4 Metallic materials,
~
7.16.5 Structure within zone of protection
7.16.6 Air termination on roof
'
7.16.7 Air termination on reinforced concrete structure . . . . . . .. . . . . .
0

, I

185

185
185

.185
186
' 186

186

. 186

7.17 Down conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. , . . . . . . ,.:J86

7.17.1 General

186

'.' .. '.................. : .'


'187

7.17.2 Routing
7.17.3 Recommended number
187

7.17.4 Mechanical protection


" .:
187

7.17.5 Corrosive soil


;
187

7.17.6 Extemal routes not available


;
187

~
;
"
: 188
7.17.7 Lift shafts
7.17.8 Re-entrant loops
188

'.'
188

7.17.9 Sharp bends


7.17.10 Bonding to prevent side flashing
188

7.17.11 Bonds
;
188

7.17.12 Test points


:
189'
7.18 Earth termination
7.18.1
7.18.2
7.18.3
7.18.4

'

,I'

0::.,

190

Termination ......... '.'


.'
190

~ . . . . . 190

Resistance to earth
Eart.h electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 190

Connection point
;'
190

7.19 Common earthing

192

7.19.1 Common earth potential .;


'.'
7.19.2' Common earth bonding

, .. '
;

192 '

192

7.20 Use of reinforcement for earthing inconcrete Structures .....:....... 193

7.20.1 General
193

7.20.2 Electrical continuity


. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

7.20.3 Prestressed concrete members


193

7.20.4 Precast concrete members


193

7.21 Structural steel framing for lightning protection


'. . . . . . . . . . . ',' . .
7.21.1 General ... . . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.21.2 Air termination
7.21.3 Connection .................'.......;...............
.. " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.21.4 Earthing
7.21.5 Interconnection
'

194

194

194

194

194

194

Annex (Informative)

Annex A - System design . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 219

Annex B - Consultation
.. . . . . 220

VII

Section 8

Wiring Methods

-8.1
Scope..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 223

8.2 .Normative reference


; .................. 223

8.3, General requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

8.3.1 Methods of installations


223

8.3.2 Wiring in ducts and plenum chambers


~ . ,
224

8.3.3 Underground installations,

224
8.3.4 Conductors in hoistways

225
8;4

Conductors

8.4.1 Types of conductors

8.4.2 Radii of bends in conductors

8.4.3 Conductor joints and splices

8.4.4 Supporting of conductors

8.5

Open wiring . ','

226
226
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
227
228
"

8.5.1' Open and clipped direct

8.5.2 Spacing of conductors

8.5.3 .Conductor supports

8.5.4 Spacing of supports

'

228

','

228
228
229
229

8.6

Exposed wiring on exterior of buildings and between Building's on the samepremises


8.6.1 Location of conductors
,
8.6.2 Clearance of conductors
8.6.3 Power supply conductors

8.7
8.8

Bare bus bars and risers


Installation of boxes, cabinets, outlets and terminal fittings
8.8.1 Number of outlets per circuit
8.8.2 Outlet boxes
8.8.3 Conductors in boxes
8.8.4 Terminal fittings

8.9

Cables, conductors .and wiring methods

'

Annex A (Normative): Schedule of methods of installation of cables

Vlll

229

229

229

229

230

230

230

',' . 231

231

,231
232

233

Section 9

Protection'and Control

9.1 Scope
~ . ~
9.2 Nonnative references
9.3 General requirements
9.3.1 Protective and control devices
9.3.2 Types and ratings of protective and control devices

'

2:37

237

237

237

238

9.4

Protective devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

9.4.1 Overcurrent devices


238

9.4.2 Earth fault protection


239

9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9

Fuses
'
240

Circuit breakers
240

Control devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

Switches
\.,
241

241

Protection and control of miscellaneous apparatus

Section 10

Class 1 and Class 2 Circuits

10.1 Scope
10.2 Normative references
10.3 Classification
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Class! extra-low-voltage power circuits
10.3.3 Class 2 low-energy power circuits
10.3.4 Hazardous location
10.3.5 Circuits to safety control devices
10.3.6 Circuits in communication cables

10.4 Class 1 circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


10.4;1 Limitation of Class 1 circuits
10.4.2 Methods of installation for Class I circuits
10.4.3 Overcurrent protection of Class 1 circuits
10.4.4 Location of overcurrent devices in Class 1 circuits .,
10.4.5 Class I extra-law-voltage power circuit sources including Transformers .
10.4.6 Conductor material and sizes
1004.7 Insulated conductors for Class 1 wiring .' "
~
1004.8 Conductors of different circuits in the .same enclosure, cable, or Raceway
1004.9 Mechanical protection of remote-control circuits
1004.10 Class 1 circuits extending aerially beyond a building

245

245

245

245

246

246

246

246

246

247

247

247

247

247

248

248

248

248

249

249

IX

~ ..
I

Section 13 Flammable Liquid Dispensing and Service Stations, Garages, Bulk Storage
,.. Plants,Finishing Processes and Aircraft Hangars
<,

13.1 Scope . ~ . . ",


13.2. Nonnative references
'
13.3 Gasoline dispensing and service stations
13.3.1 Hazardous areas
, 13.3.2 Wiring and, equipment within hazardous areas
~3.3.3 Wiring and equipment above hazardous areas

"

294

295

295

295

296

297

13.4 Commercial ~arages, repairs and storage


13.4.1 Hazardous areas
13.4.2 Wiring and equipment in hazardous areas
13.4.3' Wiring above hazardous areas
13.4.4 Equipment above hazardous areas

297

297

298

298

298

13.5 Residential storage garages


13.5.1 Non-hazardous location,
13.5.2 Hazardous location. ;
:
13.5.3 Wiring . '
".:'

298

298

299

299

13.6 . Bulk storage plants .'." .............. "


. 13.6.i Hazardous areas
.: . '. ...........................
13.6.2' Wiring and: equipment in haz~dous'areas
13.6.3. Wiring ~d equipment.above hazardous areas
'

299

299

302

302

13.7 Finishing processes', .. , . "." .. '.,


.' .. "
"'" . " .. ,
13.7:1 Hazardous 'locations
13.7.2 Wiring and' equipment hazardous areas .................
13.7.3 'Yiring and equipment above hazardous areas

302

302

304

305

in

'13.8 , Aircraft hangars


;
""
'
, .:
13.8.1 Hazardous areas,
'
'.. ."
13.8.2 Wiring .and equipment in hazardous.'areas

: .~
305

\ .. :............ 305

,. '.,'
306

13.8.3, Wiring not within,'hazardous area. ','. "'~ .': . '." ~


13.8.4 Equipment-not within hazardous' areas: . ~

306

307

Section 14 Patient Care' Areas


14.1 Scope'
1.4.2 Normative references

XII

'.~

'

; .............: .. :
:
'

; ~.'

308

308

----~-~--~

14.3 Definitions,
,
14.4 Circuits in basic care areas. , ,

, .. " . " . , . ,
~ '30'S' ,
, .. , . , .. , . , .. , , .. : .3'1 f ,

,
, , .. ,

14.4.1 Branch circuits. , ,


,
, .. , .. , . , , ,
', '.'
14.4.2 Bonding to earth in basic-care areas ,
,
;
,
14.4.3 Socket outlets in basic-care areas .,"',.:.,
' :
14.5 Circuits in intermediate and critical-care areas .. ',., '

, . , . 311
"" 31.1
:
312

,.,

313

, ,.. , . , ., .. , .. 313

14.5.1 Branch circuits


; .. ' . ,
14.5.2 Bonding to earth in mtermedlete andoritical-care areas
313

14.5.3 Receptacles in intermediate-and critical-care areas ,


, .. 313

14,6 Isolated systems

"

" .,.,

14,6.1 Sources of supply. , ,


, " ' ' '.' . ,
14.6,2 Single-phase isolated circuits , .. , .. , ,
;

'.'
'.: ,

14.6.3 Three-phase isolated systems

,"'

14.7 Essential electrical systems, ,

14.7.1 Circuits in essential electrical systems .. ;.'


14.8 Transfer switches .,
14,9 Emergency supply .. ,

; , , ~ .:.. , 314

, .. : 314

'
314

, .. , .: . 315

,,

315

~ ,

, .. , .. 315

, ".: '..... , " ... ,' ... ~ : .. , ... '.' .. , , : .. 316

,.. ,.",; .. " .. ; .. ,.,., ..,:, .. :, ... ,',316

Section IS Installation of Lighting Equipment


15,1 Scope "."
, , .. , .., '.'
'.' .. , " '.'
',
'.;,' , '.' . , ,
~18
15.2 Nonnative references , . ... , . .'. . '.' , . " . .' . , ' ~.,'. .,.. " .. '. ' . . , ,. , . , 318
'.' '.' . '
. .:. '
, ., . , . , , . , , 318

15.3 Interior Iighting equipment: ,


15,3.1 General ..
','
'.. '
<, , '.'
"
, , , 318

15.32
15.3.3
15.3.4
15.3.5
15.3.6

Location of lighting equipment : . ,


" ,:,.,. '. . , . ,. , ..
,
, .:.. ' .. .: .. ,
Installation. of lighting equipment
:
,,
Wiring of lighting. equipment. '.. , .. ;
, .. , , ., ..
Earthing of.Iighting equipment, : , " .' ;' ... ~,
Electric-discharge lighting systems operating .at 1000V or less

15.4 . Outdoor
lighting equipment ., . , , .. , .. , ,'
. ','.
.,.
.,.,,,
,,"
.

. . , . 320

323

,., .. , 323

, , , . 326
.. , , 326

, , . , . 327

15..4.1 General /. ; .. '. .. " ... '.' .. ., , .......' " . '.. , , , . , . : ' , . , , . , . 327

: . 328

. 15.4,2: Pennanent outdoor floodlighting instaliation ..... ' " ; .~


1,5.4.3
Exposed '
wiring
outdoor
lighting ., .. ,
, , " 331

.'
. forpermanent
.
...
Annex A (Normative) .' .. '. ' ;, , , ,

, .; , . ' .. ,

'. ' , 334

XIII

Section 16 Fire Alarm System and Fire. Pumps"


16.1 Scope, . '. " ., '......... " .. ' " .. '
1'6.2 Normative references
:

16:3 Definitious .. "

";.' '.,'
'. ~

:' ,'
; .... ,

: ,"

.344
,., 344

, ........... ', '. . : ~ .. " : " '. . '.' 344

16.4 Design consideration


~,
' '. . .
'
; .. ' 34( .
16.4.1 General
~
'. '
'~ . ",
:
' .. '. 346'
. . .- . '
.
16A.~ Circuit design "
;
:
'. . ~4~. .
16.4.3 Manual
points .,
" ; .:
~
: '348 ' .
16Ao4 selection of fire detectors . -.:.. .'. . . .. .. . . . ~ . " . .. . '" . :~'.' .: . 3~9'.
16:45 Sitting
detectors' .. ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . ',' . . . . 3Sq
16.4.6Sitting of heat' sensitive cPoint) detectors.....' .... '.... '. '. ~
35i .
16.4.7 Vibration combined with rapid temperature change .. '.' .. "
~S3: .
'1604.8 Sitting ofheat-sensitive.(line) detectors " . : ... '" .. ,
',- . ;
354 . ','
16.4.9 Si.tting of smoke-sensitive detecters ........ ; .. :
',' . .;: ~j:54 .
. : .,
: 3'54
16.4.10 Audible and visual alarms .. " .. ".. " .. , .. ;

can

of

165 Cables and'.wiring -."

16.5.t Cables,
.

, .. '
' .

1'6.5.2 Wiring method


'

...... '

::. ~ "

'

: ..'. ;
'

' .,,

.'

: .. <3.5~:
.

,,~

,"

.'

3St)
~.~

; .,. " ..... 3;S~

" .. ,

16,6 EqUipment bonding . . .....- . .. . .. , . . . . .. . . .' . . .. . . .. . . . :, .. . " : 3~S~


1-6.6.1' Exposed. nea-esrreat carrying' metal p~' .. '.
16.6..2 Bonding conductor
;
,

p.

"

"

.' .

35~

'....... 3~',

tt 7. Power supply system . ., . ". .. . . .. .'- . . . . . '.. . . . . .. . . . . . . " .. . . . .' 3;~

16.7.1 .O.peratIDR voltage . . .


16.7'.2 Seurees.ofpower . ",,,'
1-6.7.3 Current supply."

Jist

.. . . .,~ .. . . . . . .." . . '.' . . ., . . . . . " .


,
3St
',
'
,
36~'

16'.8; .Fire pumps ........',........... ~>. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . , ".. . .. . 36.,

16.8..1 Conductors ..", . .. ... . . . . '.'. .> . . . . . . '" " . . . " . . . . . . . . . 36<~

16;8.2 Wiring method: ., .. . . .. . . . , . . ., . .. . , . . . . .


, . . .. . . . 3'(i,~

16JtJ Consumers:' service &r fire pumps: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 16,f

16.8,4 Protection
~
'
~
, .. ,
36~

Arln.e* A (Informative).
. . . '. . .. , . . ., . . . . .. . . . .,.. .
.
. . J6?~

.' Annex B (Informative): . .. . . . . . . . .. ", . , . .. . .. . . . . . . . . '" . . , . . .. . . 36~

XIV

S&ti()n '.t';" S~gns and Outline Lighting


. '. . 17.1 ".Scope . . .. . . . . . . . . '. ~. . . . . .. .. .. . . . " ; . . . . . . .'
1 i2 Normative references
'
:
'
17.3 General requirements
'
,.
'
.
17 :3.1. Construction

11.3.2. Disconnecting means


17.3.3 Rating of.disconnecting means and control devices
'. . .
17.3.4 Thermal protection . . . .. ~ . . . . . . . . .
'..
17.3.5 Branch.circuit capacity
17.3.6 Location
~
'
'
": .'" :
17.3.7 Bonding
'.. ',
,
;
,
i 7.3.8 Protection of sign leads . ., . . . . . . . . .'. . '. . .'. . . . . . .
17.3.9 Installationof conductors ' .. , . ' : .:: '
'.. ': : . : ~
17.3.10 Fuseholders 'and flashers
, ..... '

. . . J71

'. . 371 .

" . 3.71
371

372

, .. 3/2
.. . . . . . .. :3 72

;
372
'.' .. :. 372

'
,'
373

.. . . . .;. . . . 373

: . 373

,. , . , 373

17.4 .High-voltage luminous discharge tube signs and outline Lighting ... '. ...
17.4.1 Enclosure .......,....... ..' .'. : . , :'. '. . ; . . "'" , . < ;' '. ; ,
" .' .. '....
17.4.2 Protection of uninsulated.part
,
: ..... ~
. 17.4.3 Transformers
'
,
~ . : .'.'
'
:"
17.4.4High,:voltag~ wiring methods
', <. : .. '. , .. :.. ' , .. :.'.. '.

373

373

374

374

375

. Section '18 Lifts, Escalators and SiDiUar Eq~~IJment


,/

18.1 Scope
~'.,
: ','"
:
:
'377
' .. '.' .. : ;
'
,. '
<.. 377 ..
18.2 Normative references .. ,
. '18.3 General .....,...,....... ~ .. ", '.' .' . . . . .~. .; .. .. ,'. . :..
. . 377 '
'
:
37'7
18.3.1 Voltage limitation .... ~ : .'
18.3.2 Live parts enclosed. . ,' .. ;
,
377

.' .: . '. . ~
18,4 Conductors .. '
18A.1 Installation of conductors',
18.4.2 Minimum size of conductors
18.4.3 Motor circuit conductors
.18.5 Wiring
,.:
18.5.1 Wiring methods, .. ,
18.5.2 Branch circuits for auxiliary systems

378

, 378

378

379

379

379

380

'XV

18.6 Installation of conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . 380

18.6.1 Number of conductors in raceway


"
:
380

18.6.2 Supports
380

18.6.3 Different systems in one raceway or travelling cable ......... 380

18.6.4 Wiring in hoistway


:
381

18.6.5 "Electric equipment in garages and similar occupancies


381

18.6.6 Sidewalk lifts


381

18.7 Travelling cables


~.,
"18.7.1 Suspension
18.7.2 Hazardous J.classified) location
18.7.3 Protection against damage
18.7.4 Installation
18.8 Disconnecting means and control
18.8.1 General
18.8.2 Type
18.8.3 Location
18.8.4 Phase protection

381

381

382

382

382

;
;
:
\.
"

382

382

383

383

383

18.9 Overcurrent protection


383

1~.9.1 Control and operating circuits ............".............. 383

18.9.2 Motors
384

XVI

18.10

Machine room
18.10.1 Guarding equipment
18.10.2 Clearance around control panels and disconnecting means

384

384

384

18.11

Earthing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ". . . . . . . . . .
.................
18.11.1 Metal raceway attached to cars
18.11.2 Electric lifts
18.11.3 Non-electric lifts
18.11.4 Method of bonding ......"................;.........

384

384

385

385

385

18.12

Overspeed
"
.'
18.12.1 Overspeed protection
18;12.2 Motor-generator overspeed device

385

385

386

18.13

Emergency power
386

18.13.1 Supply
;
386

18.13.2 Disconnection
386

18.13.3 Hydraulic lifts disconnecting means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

---------_._------_._----

18.14

--- ----------

Machine rooms and hoistway pits lighting and Auxiliary . . . . . . . . . . . 386

386

18.14.1 Machine room .. '.'


18.14.2 Hoist pits
387

Section . 19 Theatre Installation


19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4

Scope
Normative references
,
Wiring method
Fixed stage switchboard
~
19.4.1 Fuses
19.4.2 Overcurrent protection
;
19.4.3 Dimmers
19.4.4 Control of stage and gallery pockets
1904.5 Conductors

; 388

388

388

389

389

389

, 390

390

390

:
:

19.5 Portable switchboard on stage


19.5.1 Construction of portable switchboards
19.5.2 Supply for portable switchboard
~
'
19.6 Fixed stage equipment
19.6.1 Footlights
'
19.6.2 Metal work
;
19.6.3 Clearance at terminals
19.6.4 Mechanical protection of lamps in borders, etc. .
19.6.5 Suspended fixtures
19.6.6 Connections at lampholders '.'
~
19.6.7 Ventilation .for mogullampholers
19.6.8 Conductor insulation for field-assembled fixtures
19.6.9 Branch circuit overcurrent protection
19.6.10 Pendant lights rated more than lOOW
19.6.11 Cables for border lights
~
19.6.12 Wiring to are pockets
19.6.13 Socket outlets and plugs
19.6.14 Curtain motors
19.6.15 Flue damper control

19.7 Portable stage equipment


19.7.1 Fixtures on scenery
'.'
19.7.2 String or festooned lights
19.7.3 Flexible conductors from portable equipment
19.7.4 Portable equipment fo~ 'stage effects

391

391

391

'

'
,

'.'

391

391

391

392

392

, . 392

392

392

392

392

393

393

393

393

394

394

394

394

395

395

, . 395

XVII

-----_._--_._-_.

------------

------_._._--_

Section 20 Emergency Systems, Unit Equipment, and Exit Signs


20.1 Scope
20.2 Nonnative reference
20.3 General
20.3.1 Adequate capacity
20.3.2 Instruction
20.3.3 Batteries maintenance
20.3.4 Lamps
;
20.3.5 Circuits
20.3.6 Method of wiring

'

396

396

396

396

, 397

397

397

397

397

20.4 Emergency systems


20.4.1 Supply
20.4.2 Control
20.4.3 Overcurrent protection
20.4.4 Audible 3.Q.d visual trouble-signal devices

398

398

398

398

398

20.5 . Unit equipment


~ ..
20.5.1 Mounting
20.5.2 Supply connections

399

399

400

20.6 Exit signs


20.6.1 Power supply
20.6.2 Wiring

401

40 I

401

Section 21 Motion Picture Studios, Projection Rooms, Film Exchanges and Factory
21.1 Scope
21.2 Nonnative references
21.3 General .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.1 Wiring method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4 Viewing, cutting and patching table fixture
21.5 Film-vaults and storage rooms
21.5.1 Equipment in film vaults and storage rooms
21.5.2 Wiring method in film-vaults
21.5.3 Lighting fixtures in film-vaults
21.5.4 Film-vault circuits

XVIII

402

402

. 402

. 402

403

403

403

403

403

404

21.6 Motion picture projection rooms.. . , .. . . . . . . . . .


21.6.1 Lamps in projection rooms
21.6.2 Arc lamp current supply
21.6.3 Ventilation
21.7 Motors and generators

. . . .. . . . . . . .. 404

;
404

"
404

404

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . 404

. Section 22 Diagnostic Imaging Installation


22.1 Scope
.. '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '.'
22.2 Nonnative references
'.... "
2'2.3 Defmitions.....................................:.......
22.4 High-voltage guarding ....................................
','
22.5 Connections to supply circuit
22.6 Disconnecting means
22.7 Transformers and capacitors '.' . . . . . ~.. . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.8 Control
22.9 Ainpacity of supply conductors and rating of overcurrent protection
Bonding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . .
22.10

405

405

405

406

406

406

407

407

408

408

Section 23 Electrical Communication Systems


23.1 Scope
'
23;4 Nonnative reference .....................................
23.3 General
23.3.1' Circuits in communication cables
23.3.2 Hazardous locations
'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.3.3 Approved transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

409

409

409

409

410

410

23.4 Inside conductors


~ . . . . . . . . 410

23.4.1 Conductors arrangement


;
410

23.4.2 Insulation
. . . . ..410

,. 410

23.4.3 Earthing conductors with an outer metal covering


23.4.4 Separation from other conductors
:
: 410

411

23.4.5 Penetration of a fire separation


23.4.6 Communication cable in hoistways
411

23.4.7 Communication conductors in ducts and plenum chambers


4J2
23.4.8 Data processing systems
412

23.4.9 Conductors under raised floors


_
-
412
23.4.10 Conductors in concealed installations
412

23.4.11 Type CFC under-carpet wiring system


-413

XIX

- - - - - -_ ....

_0_'

__ ..

23.5 Equipment
414

23.5.1 Communication equipment in bathrooms


414

23.5.2 Equipment in air ducts, plenums, or suspended ceilings


414

23.5.3 Exposed equipment and terminations


; 415

23.5.4 Earth circuits . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . 415

23.5.5 Communication systems in hospitals


415

23.6 Outside conductors


23.6.1 Overhead conductors on poles
23.6.2 Overhead conductors on roofs
23.6.3 Lightning conductors
23.6.4 Swimming pools
23.7 Underground circuits
23.7.1 Direct buried systems
23.7.2 Underground raceway

.:
~

'

;
:

.:
:

415

~15
415

416 .

416 .

416

".
s . 416

417

23.8' Earthing .....................................;........ '.. 417

23;8.1 Bonding of cable sheath. ."


: .. : ....... 417

. 23.8.2 Cable-sheath bonding conductor


:. :. ~ .. "
418

23.8.3 Earthing electrode


.'.. 418

23.8.4 Earthing electrode connection


419

'.:
: 419

23.8.5 Bondingof electrodes

.Section ,24..Community Antenna Installation For Radio And television Reception


".24.1 .Scope
:
:.~
24.2 Nonnative references.:
24.3 Technical requirements ' . ': .'
24.3.1 Mechanical ........................... :
24.3.2 Electrical

'.'

420.
420

421

421

421

24.4 Equipment .. ;
'"
421

24.4.1 Community antenna distribution amplifiers and other power sources . 421

24.4.2 Exposed equipment and terminations


422

422

24.4.3 Equipment earthing ~


24.5 Community antenna distribution network
24.5.1 Conductor
24.5.2 Voltage limitation
24.5.3 Hazardous locations

xx

'

422

422
:422
423

24.5.4
24.5.5
24.5.6
24.5.7
24.5.8

Supports
Earthing of outer conductive shield'~f a coaxial cable
Earthing conductor
Earthing electrode
Earthing electrode connection

423

423

423

424 .

424

~ ,
'i
;
~ " . .:
42~
24.6 Conductors within buildings ~
24.6.1 Separation from other.conductors,
; .. , .
,:.424
-.,.. ,
425

24.6.2 Conductors in it vertical.shaft.. . ; .: .. , .. : .. ,


24.6.3'Penetration of a fire separation
: .' .. ~ ......... '
426

24.6.4 Community an~a distribution co~ductors inducts and plenum C~bers" .. 426'
','
",>, ' ~ ' "
.426

24.6.5 Raceways "


'. . '"

24.7 'Conductors outside of buildings '


:
~ .... 426

; ; '.' :. '
'. :
'. ~ 426 '
24.7.1 Overhead conductors on poles .. ~
24.7.2 Overhead
conductors. on roofs.,' .
' . . ". . .
" 426

.
24.7.3 Conductors on buildings ..........;.......... ..:. . " " . . 426'

24.7.4 Conductors entering buildings " ~


-.
427

24.7.5 Swimming pools , ~ " ................ ; .. :.. " '.. ; . ~ .,


427,

24.8 Underground conductors


,.,.
24.8.1 Direct buried systems .' .. '
,.
~
24.8.2 Underground raceway
:
'. 24.8.3 . Underground black d1stributio~.
24.9 Lightning arresters for ~eceiving stations
24.9.1 Lightning arrester
24.9.2 Earthing conductor
,24.9.3 Earthing electrode

'.'
" : .. ,.... '
'.,
.. ~
'. ' . '. ~.'
,
.
.

427

427

428

429

429

429

429

430

. Annex A (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

. Section 2S Swimming Pools" Fountains and Similar Installations


25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4

Scope
'
'
Nonnative reference
Definitions.............................................
General
'
25.4.1 Equipment installation
25.4.2 Overhead wiring
;
25.4.3 Underground wiring

446

446

446

447

447

448

448

XXI

SECTION

SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

1.1

SCOPE

(1) This Code applies to the design, selection, erection, inspection and testing of electrical
installations for residential, commercial, public and industrial premises including prefabricated
buildings, construction sites, exhibitions, fairs and other temporary installations up to and
including 1000.0V a.c. or 1500.0V d.c.

(2) This Code does not apply to:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
/'

~)

h)
i)
j) .

1.2

electric traction equipment,

electrical equipment of automobiles,

electrical equipment on board ships,

electrical equipment in aircraft,

public street-lighting installations,

installations in mines,

radio interference suppression equipment, except so far as it affects safety of the


installation,
fixed wiring for telecommunication, signalling, control and the like,
internal wiring.of apparatus,
systems for distribution of energy ,to the public, or power generation and transmission
for such systems.

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standards on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

a) IEC 364-1:1972 Electrical Installations of Building, Part 1, Scope, Object and


Definitions.

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-------~~--------------

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

cabinet

an enclosure of adequate mechanical strength, composed entirely of


noncombustible and absorption-resistant material, designed either
for surface or flush mounting, and provided with a frame, mat, or
trim, in which swinging doors are hung.

cable bracket

a horizontal cable support system, consisting of elements fixed at


one end only, spaced at intervals along the length of the cable and
on which the cable rests.

cable channel

an enclosure situated above or in the ground, ventilated or closed,


and having dimensions which do not permit the access of persons
but allow access to the conductors and/or cables throughout their
length during and after installation. A cable channel mayor may
not form part of the building construction.

cable cleat

a component of a support system, which consists of elements


spaced at intervals along the length of the cable or conduit.

cable coupler

a means of enabling the connection or disconnection, at will, of two


flexible cables. It consists of a connector and a plug.

cable ducting

a manufactured enclosure of metal or insulating material, other than


conduit or cable trunking, intended for the protection of cables
which are drawn-in after erection of the ducting..

cable ladder

a cable support consisting of a series of supporting elements rigidly


fixed to main supporting members. The supporting elements
occupy less than 10% of the plan area.

cable tray

a cable support consisting of a continuous base with raised edges


and no covering. A cable tray is considered to be non-perforated,
where less than 30% of the material is removed from the base.

cable trunking

a manufactured enclosure for the protection of cables, normally of


rectangular cross-section, of which one side is removable or hinged.

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 1: SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

cable tunnel

an enclosure (corridor) containing supporting structures


for conductors and/or cables and joints and whose
dimensions allow persons to pass freely throughout the
entire length.

cartridge fuse link

a device comprising a fuse element or several fuse


elements connected in parallel enclosed in a cartridge
usually filled with arc-extinguishing medium and
connected to terminations. See fuse link.

circuit

an assembly of electrical equipment supplied from the


same origin and protected against overcurrent by the
same protective dcvicc(s).

circuit-breaker

a device capable of making, carrying and breaking


normal load currents and also making and automatically
breaking, under predetermined conditions, abnormal
currents such as short-circuit currents. It is usually
required to operate infrequently although some types
are suitable for frequent operation.

circuit-breaker (linked)

a circuit-breaker the contacts of which are so arranged


as to make or break all poles simultaneously or in a
definite sequence.

circuit protective conductor (CPC)

a protective conductor connecting exposed conductive


parts of equipment to the main earthling terminal.

Class I equipment

equipment in which protection against electric shock


does not rely on basic insulation only, but which
includes means for the connection of exposed
conductive parts to a protective conductor in the fixed
wiring of the installation.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

equipotential bonding

electrical connection maintaining various exposed-conductive-parts


at substantially the same.potential.

equipotential zone (see earthen. equipotential zone).


exposed-conductive-part

a conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is


not a live part but which may become live under fault conditions.

externallnjluence

any influence external to an electrical installation which affects the


design and safe operation of that installation.

extraneous-conductive-part a conductive part liable to introduce a potential, generally earth


potential, and not forming part of the electrical installation.
fault

a circuit condition in which current flows through anabnonnal or


unintended path. This may resultfrom an insulation failure or the
bridging of insulation. Conventionally the impedance between live
conductors or between live conductors and exposed or extraneous
conductive-parts at the fault position is considered negligible.

fault current

a current resulting' from a fault.

feeder

a conductor or group of conductors that transmit electrical energy


from a service supply; transformer, switchboard; distribution centre,
'generator, or other source of supply to branch circuit overcurrent
device.

final circuit

a circuit connected directly to current-using equipment, or to a


socket-outlet or socket-outlets or other outlet points for the
connection of such equipment.

fixed equipment

equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in specific


location.

flexible wiring system

a wiring system designed to provide mechanical flexibility in use


without degradation of the electrical components.

10

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTlON 1: SCOPE ANO DEFlNITIONS

functional eartlling'\

'.
connection to earth necessary for proper functioning of electrical
equipment:
4

jimetJontJI extra-low vo1Jllge

any extra-low voltage system in which not all of the protective


measures required for SELV have been applied.

fuse

a device that by the fusing of one or more of its specially designed


and proportioned components, opens the circuit in which it is
inserted by breaking the' current when this exceeds a given value
for a sufficient time. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the
complete device.

fuse element

a part of a fuse designed to melt when the fuse operates.

fuse link

a part of a fuse, including the fuse element(s), which requires


replacement by a new or renewable fuse link after the fuse has
operated and before the fuse is put back,into service.

1I0tair sauna

a room or location in which air is heated to a high temperature and


in which the relative humidity is normally low, rising for short
periods of time only when water is poured over the heater.

indirect contact

contact of persons or livestock with exposed-conductive-parts made


live by a fault and which may result in electric shock.'

installation (abbr., see electrical installation).


insulation

suitable non-conductive material enclosing, surrounding, or


supporting a conductor.

isolation

a function intended to cut off for reasons of safety the supply from
all, or a discrete section, of the installation by separating the
installation or section from every source of electrical energy.

,isoilltor

a mechanical switching device which provides the function of


isolation.

ladder (see cable ladder)

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

11,

ELECTRiCAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

live part

a conductor or conductive part intended to be energised


in normal use, including a neutral conductor.

luminaire

~quipment which distributes, filters, or transforms the

light from one or more lamps, and which includes any


parts necessary for supporting, fixing and protecting the
lamps, but not the lamps themselves, and where
necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means
for connecting them to the supply. For the purpose of
the regulations a lamp holder, however, supported is
deemed to be a luminaire.
luminaire supporting coupler (LSC)

a means, comprising an LSC outlet and an LSC plug,


providing mechanical support for. a luminaire and the
electrical connection to and disconnection from a fixed
wiring installation.

LV switchgear and control gear assembly

a combination of one or more low-voltage switching


devices together with associated control, measuring
signalling protective, regulating equipment, etc.,
completely assembled under the responsibility of the
manufacturer with all the internal electrical and
mechanical interconnection and structural parts. The
components of the assembly may be electro mechanical
or electronic. The assembly may be either type-tested
or partially type-tested.

main earthing terminal

the terminal or bar provided for the connection of


protective conductors, including equipotential bonding
conductors, and conductors for functional earthing if
any, to the means of earthing.

mechanical maintenance

the replacement, refurbishment or cleaning of lamps


and non-electrical parts of equipment, plant and
machinery.

1,2

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-I----~_------'----------------'---~----'---~

-I

SECTION 1: SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

neutral conductor

a conductor connected to the neutral point of a system and


contributing' to the transmission of electrical energy.
c.'

nominal voltage (see voltage, nominal).


obstacle

a part preventing unintentional contact with live parts but not


preventing deliberate contact.

origin of an installation

the position at which electrical energy is delivered to an electrical


installation.

overcurrent

a current exceeding the rated value. For conductors the rated value
is the current-carrying capacity.

overcurrent detection

a method of establishing that the value of current in a circuit


exceeds a predetermined value for a specified length of time.

overload current

an overcurrent occurring in a circuit which is electrically sound.

permit

the official written permission of the Authority having jurisdiction


on a form provided for the purpose, authorizing work to be
commenced on any electrical installation.

phase conductor

a conductor of an a.c. system for the transmission of electrical


energy other than a neutral conductor. The term also means the
equivalent conductor of a d.c. system unless otherwise specified in
this Code.

plug

a device, provided with contact pins, which is intended to be


attached to a flexible cable, and which can be engaged with a
socket-outlet or with a connector.

point

a termination of the fixed wiring intended for the connection of


current-using equipment.

portable equipment

electrical equipment which is moved while in operation or which


can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to
the supply.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-1 0 1995

13

---~------'--------'------'--'- - - - _ .

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

prospective fault current

the value of overcurrent at a given point in a circuit resulting from


a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a
difference of potential under normal operating conditions, or
between a live' conductor and an exposed-conductive-part.

protective conductor

a conductor used for some measures of protection against electric


shock and intended for connecting together any of the following
parts (refer to Figure 1.1):
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

exposed conductive parts


extraneous conductive parts
the main earthing terminal'
earth electrodets)
the earthen point of the source, or an artificial neutral.

raceway

an enclosed channel designed expressly for holding wires, cables,


or busbars, with additional function as permitted in this Code.

reduced low voltage sysiem

a system in which the nominal phase to phase voltage does not


exceed llO.OV ahd the nominal phase to earth 'voltage does not
exceed 63.5V.

reinforced insulation

single insulation applied to live parts, which provides a degree of


protection against electric shock equivalent to double insulation
standard.

.14

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

~~------'~---

SECTION 1: SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

-1

....,

r<

"'"

::;)

3 ___

...t..)~

~\\\3S'" "~I ~

~ " "" " '\ ~"'''

- _Figure 1.1 Example of -,earthing arrangeme..ts


1,2,3,4

_1
2

3
4

Protective conductors
circuit protective conductor
main equipotential bonding conductors
earthing conductor
supplementary equipotential bonding
conductors(where required)

B
M
C

P
T
E

Main earthing terminal


Exposed 'conductive part
Extraneous conductive part
Main metallic water pipe
Earth electrode
Other means of earthing

residual current

the vector sum of the instantaneous values of current flowing


through all live conductors of a circuit at a point in the electrical
installation.

residual current device

a mechanical switching device or association of devices intended to


cause the opening of the contacts When the residual current attains
a given value under specified conditions.

residual operating current residual current which causes the residual current device to operate
under specified conditions.

ETHIOPJAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

15

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

resistance area (for an earth electrode only)

the surface area of ground (around an earth electrode)


on which a significant voltage gradient may exist.

restrictive conductive location

a location comprised mainly of metallic or conductive


surrounding parts. within which it is likely that a person
will come into contact through a substantial portion of
his body with the conductive surrounding parts and
where the possibility of preventing this contact is
limited.

ring final circuit

a final circuit arranged in the form of a ring and


connected to a single point of supply.

safety service

an electrical system for electrical equipment provided


to protect or warn persons in the event of a hazard, or
essential to their evacuation from a location.

SELV

an' extra-low voltage system which is electrically


separated from Earth and from other systems in such a
way that a single fault cannot give rise to the risk of
electric shock.

service

the conductors and equipment for delivering energy


from the electricity supply system to the wiring system
of the premises served.

shock (see electric shock).


shock current

a current passing through the body of a person or


livestock such as to cause electric shock and having
characteristics likely to cause dangerous effects.

short-circuit current

an overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible


impedance between live conductors having a difference
in potential under normal operating conditions.

simultaneously accessible parts

conductors or conductive parts which can be touched


simultaneously by a person or, in locations specifically
intended for them, by livestock.

16

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

I
I

S~CTION 1: SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

Simultaneously accessible parts may be Live parts, exposed


conductive-parts, extraneous-conductive-parts, protective
conductors, or earth electrodes.
socket-outlet

a device, provided with female contacts, which is intended to be


installed with the fixed wiring, and intended to receive a plug. A
luminaire track system is not regarded as a socket-outlet system.

spur

a branch from a ring final circuit.

stationary equipment

electrical equipment which is either fixed, or equipment having a


mass exceeding 18.0kg and not provided with a carrying handle.

supplementary insulation independent insulation applied in addition to basic insulation in


order to provide protection against electric shock in the event of a
failure of basic insulation.
supply authority

any municipal corporation, commission, company or person


supplying electrical power or energy intended for sale or
distribution to the public.

switch

a mechanical device capable of making, carrying and breaking


current under 'normal circuit conditions, which may include
specified operating overload conditions, and also of carrying for a
specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions
such as those of short-circuit. It may also be capable of making,
but not breaking, short-circuit currents.

switch, linked

a switch the contacts ofwhich are so arranged as to make or break


all poles simultaneously or in a definite sequence.

switchboard

an assemblyof switchgearwith or without instruments, but the term


does not apply to groups of local switches in fmal circuits.

switchgear

an assembly of main and auxiliary switching apparatus for


operation, regulation, protection or other control of an electrical
installation.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

. EBCS-10 1995

17

---"~----~--~---'----~"

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

system"

an electrical system consisting of a single source of electrical


energy and an installation. For the purpose of this 'Code, the
.system adopted shall be IT system. A system having one point of
the source of energy directly earthen, the-exposed-conductive-parts
of the installation being connected to-earth electrodes electrically
independent of the, earth electrodes ofthe-source, (see Figure 1.2).

temporary supply unit

an enclosure containing' equipment for the purpose of taking a


temporary electrical supply safely from an item of street furniture.

trunking (see cable trunking).


voltage, nominal

voltage by which an installation (or part of an installation) is


designated. The following ranges ofnominal voltage (r.m.s, values
for a.c.) are defined:
extra-low: Normally not exceeding 50.0V ae, or 120.0V ripple
free d.c., whether between conductors or to earth,
low:

Normally exceeding extra-low voltage but not


exceeding 1OOO.OVa.c. or 150G.OV d.c.between
conductors," or600.0V a.c.or900.0V d.c, between
conductors and earth.

The actual voltage of the installation may differ from the nominal
value bya quantity within normal tolerance.

18

EBCS-l0 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION l: SCOPE ,AND DEFINITIONS

SOURCEO"~

-Jo

Jo
',(X)NSUMfRS

r---J

":'

"SQURCff.ARlH

'INSTAUA~ ' "

.fL-

J ; I

'\
1

'

~EQlJFMr:Nt IN

1
.1

1llIS14l1AT~,

"L - - - - ' - - ,

'NS'JALLATION

:fARTH

fXPOSED
,C......,..
.....V'"
.
~~'I.

PARTS
':r

'EL!ClRODf.

;F~gul'e 1~2

:1

----l

.1

I
f

:1
.J

-=il::-IJlfSlAUAtm
, I:ARlHI:tC1ROI:J:

TT System

Jldltqgereducei1 i,(See ,reiluced,lowvtiltagesystem).


'lfiiring system.

an assembly made up .of-cableor cbusbarsand parts which secure


and, -;if :necessary~ -enclcsethecable-orbusbars.

"

ETHIOPIAN-BlJII.:DINGCODESTANDARD

EBCSo;l'O -t995

,t9

SECTION

9ENERAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1

ADMINISTRATIVE

2.1.1 Authority for Rules


(1) By virtue of the authority vested in the Authority having jurisdiction, this Code has been
adopted and hereby orders and directs its 'observance.

2.1.2

Permit

(I) Electrical contractors or others responsible for the carrying out of the work shall obtain a
permit from the Authority having jurisdiction before commencing work with respect to '
installation, alteration, repair, or extension of any electrical equipment.

2.1.3, Application for Inspection


(1) An application for inspection shall be fixed withthe Authority having jurisdiction on a form
provided by the latter at the time the permit is obtained:

2.1.4

Posting of Permit

(1) A copy of the permit shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the '~ite of the work and shall
not be removed until the inspection is completed.

2.1.5

Notification Re-inspection

(I) The Authority having jurisdiction shall be notified in writing by the electrical contractor that '
work is ready for inspection at such time or times as will permit inspection being made before
any work or portion thereof is commenced.

20

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

. SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1.6 Plans and Specifications


(1) Plans and specifications in duplicate or in greater number if required by the Authority having
jurisdiction one copy to be retained by the Authority, shall be submitted by the owner or his
agent to, and acceptance obtained from; the Authority before work is commenced on:
a) wiring installations of public buildings, industrial establishments, factories, and other
buildings in which public safety is involved:
b) large light and power installations and the installation or apparatus such as generators,
transformers, switchboards, large storage batteries:
c) such other installations as may be prescribed by the Authority having jurisdiction.

2.1.7 Connection Authorization


(1) Where any electrical installation or part thereof to which electrical power or energy has not

. previously been supplied is made in or upon any land building or premises, where any electrical

Installation or part thereof has been disconnected or cut off from any service or other source of

. supply under this Code, no supply authority, contractor or other person shall connect or re
connect the installation or part thereof to any service or other source of supply unless:
a) the installation and all work in respect thereof have been inspected by an inspector; and
b) a connection authorization has been issued by the Authority having jurisdiction in respect
of the installation.

2.1.8 Re-inspection
(1) The Authority having jurisdiction reserves the right to re-inspect at any time electrical
installation notwithstanding any previous inspection and acceptance, if and when it considers
such action to be necessary.

2.1.9 Renovation of Existing Installation


(1) The Authority having jurisdiction may require such changes as may be necessary to be made
to existing installations where, through hard usage, wear and tear, or as a result of alteration or
extensions, dangerous conditions have developed.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

21

ELECTRICALINSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

2.1.10 Use of Approved Equ"lpment


(1) No one shall use any electrical equipmentother than approved electrical equipment ofa kind
or type and rating approved for the specificpurpose fotwhich it is to be employed.
2.1.11 Deviaobilbr Postponement

(1) In any case where deviation or postponement of this Code maybe necessaIy,special
pmnissiotl 'shallbe obtained befort, proceeding with the work, but this special permission shall
apply only to the particular installation for which it is given.
2.1.12 Powers of Rejection
(1) Even though approval has previously been granted, the Authority having jurisdiction may
reject, 'at any time,anyelectrical equipmentunder any of the following conditions:
a) If theequipment is substandard with respect to the sample' on which approval was
granted.
b) If the coaditions of use indicate thatth'e equipmerit:i'sflet suitable.
'c) If the terms ofthe approval agreement are not being carried.out,
2.1.13 lnstallatibn of Electrical EqQ.ipment
(1) Electrical equipment shall be installed as to ensure that,after installation, ,there is ready
access to nameplates and access to parts requiting maintenance.

2.1.14 Damage and Interference


(1) No person shall interfere with any electrical installation or component thereof except when,
I'll the course of alterations or repairs to non-electrical-equipment or structures, it maybe
necessary to disconnect or move components of an electrical installations.
(2) It shall be the responsibility ofthe .pers.~anying out thealteratiens or repairs to ensure tha~
the electrical installation is restored to 'a safe operating condition 'as soon as the progress ofthe
alterations or repair will permit.

22EBCS~10

1,995

ETHIOPIAN 'BUILDING CODE STANDAlitp

I--------~

---

I
SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

2.2

TECHNICAL

2.2.1 Conventional Symbol$


(1) Graphical symbols that are to be used in all dmwings, wiring plans, etc for electrical
installations of buildings shall be as indicated in Section 26 of this Code.

2.2.2 Coordination
(1) Proper coordination and' collaboration between th~ architect, building engineer and the
electrical engineer shall be effected from the planning stage of the installation.

(2) The provisions that will be needed. for tI:k accommodation of substation, transformer, switch
room, lift wells and other appurtenant rooms, service cable ducts, rising mains and distribution
cables, sub-distribution boards, openings and chases in floor and walls for all required electrical
installation, etc, shall be specified in advance.

2.2.3 .Location and Requirement of Substation


(1) The ideal location of an electrical substation for a group of buildings would be at the load

centre and shall be located on the ground floor.

(2) In multi-storeyed buildings, the substation shall preferably be installed on the lowest floor
level, but direct access from the street for installation or removal of the equipment shall be
provided. The floor level of the substation or switch room shall he above the highest flood level
of the locality. In this case, the load centre would be somewhere between the geometrical centre
and the air-conditioning plant room.
(3) The availability of power lines nearby may also be kept in view while deciding the location
of the substation.

2.2.4 Rooms (Spaces) Required


(1) In allocating area of a substation, it shall be noted that the flow of electric power is from
supply company's room to high tension room, then to transformer and finally to the low voltage
switchgear room. The layout of rooms shall be in accordance with this flow.

ETHIOPIAN ,BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

23

EL.ECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(2) The following rooms are required in a substation:


a) Switchgear Room - Supply iompany's switchgear room and/or space for meters.
b) Transformer Rooms - The number and size of transformer rooms shall be ascertained
from the total power requirement,of the consumer.
c) Low-Voltage Switch Rooms - The floor area requirement in respect of low voltage
switchgear room shall be ascertained from the number of feeders.
;I) Stand-by Generators. A room space not.less than 6.0m x 9.0m may be provided for
housing a stand-by generator.
e) Location' of Switch Rooms - In large installations other than where a substation is
provided! a separate switch room shall be provided; this shall be located as closely as
possible to the electrical load centre and suitable ducts shall be laid with minimum
number of bends from the point of entry of the supply to the position of the main
switchgear. The switch room shall also be placed in such a position that rising ducts
may readily be provided therefrom to the upper floors of the building in one straight
vertical run. In larger buildings, more than one rising duet and horizontal ducts may also
be required for running cable from the switch room to the foot of each rising main.
Such cable duets shall be reserved for the electrical services only which may, however,
include medium and low voltage installation, such as call-bell systems; telephone
installations should be suitably segregated.
\

2.2.5

Location and Requirements of Distribution Boards

(l) The electrical control gear distribution boards and other apparatus, which 'are required on
each floor may conveniently be mounted adjacent to the rising mains, and adequate space should
be provided at each floor for this purpose.

2.2.6

Location and Requirements of PBXlPABX Rooms

(I) Information regarding provision for and location of PBXIPABX shall be obtained from the
relevant authority and adequate space should be provided for installation of the boards.

24

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

2.3

PLANNING AND DESIGNING

2.3.1

General

(1) The design and planning of an electrical installation shall take into account all the prevailing
conditions which may include some or all of the following:
Type of supply.
Envisaged load having regard to the requirements of the owner or occupant.
The probable modifications and future extensions.
The degree of electrical and mechanical protection necessary.
The probable operation and maintenance cost taking into account the electricity supply
tariffs available.
f) The relative cost of various alternative methods.
g) The need for radio and telecommunication interference abatement.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

2.3.2 Layout and Installation Drawing


(1) The electrical layout should be considered after proper locations of all outlets for lamps,
fans, appliances - both fixed and transportable, motors, etc, have been selected and best methods
of wiring determined.

(2) All runs of wiring and exact positions of all points of switch-boxes and other outlets shall
be first marked on the plans of the building and approved by the engineer in charge or the owner
before the actual commencement of the work.

2.3.3 Design
(1) The design of electrical installation shall ensure:

a) the protection of persons, livestock and property;

b) the proper functioning of the electrical installation for the intended use.

(2) The information required as a basis for design shall be:


a) nature of current: a,c, and/or d.c.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

25

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION .OF BUILDINGS

b) nature and number of conductors:


i) for a.c.:
- phase conductor(s);
- neutral conductor;
- protective conductor..
ii) for d.c.:
- conductors equivalent tothose listed above.

c)
d)
e)
t)
g)
h)
i)

voltage and voltage tolerances;


frequency and frequency tolerance;
maximum current allowable;
prospective short-circuit current;
nature of demand;
emergency supply or supplies;
environmental conditions.

(3) The design shall comply with the requirements of this Code.

2.4 MARKING OF EQUIPMENT


2.4.1

General

(I) Each piece of electrical equipment shall bear such of the following markings as may be
necessary to identify the equipment and ensure that it is suitable for the particular installation:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
t)
g)
h)
i)

j)
k)
I)
m)

26

The maker's name, trademark, or other recognized symbol of identification..


Catalogue number or type.
Voltage.
Rated load amperes.
Watts, volt-amperes, or horsepower.
Whether for a.c., d.c., or both.
Number of phases.
Frequency in Hertz.
Rated load speed in revolution per minute.
Designation of terminals.
Whether for continuous or intermittent duty.
Evidence of approval.
Such other marking as may be necessary to ensure safe and proper operation.

EBCS10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

'SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUlREMEN,TS

(2) Each service box, at the time of installation, shall be marked in a conspicuous, legible. and
permanent manner to indicate clearly the maximum rating of the overcurrent device which may
.be used for this installation.
(3) At each distribution point, circuit breakers, fuses, and switches shall be marked, adjacent
thereto, in a conspicuous and legible manner to indicate clearly:

a) which installation or portion of installation they protect,or control;

b) the maximum rating of overcurrent device ,that is permitted, ,

2.4.2

Workmanship and Materials

(l) Careful attention shall be paid to the mechanical execution of the work in connection with
any electrical installation.

(2) Any installation that has been badly arranged or poorly executed, either generally or in any
particular way, will not be accepted by the Authority having jurisdiction.

2.4.3

Material for Anchoring to Masonry and Concrete

(1) Wood or other similar materials shall not be used as an anchor into masonry or concrete for
the support of any electrical equipment.

2.4.4

Protection of Persons and Property

(1) Electrical equipment shall be installed and guarded so that adequate provision is made for
the safety of persons and property and for the protection of the electrical equipment from
mechanical or other injury to which it is liable to be exposed.

2.4.5

Maintainability

(1) An assessment shall be made of the frequency and quality of maintenance the installation
can reasonably be expected to receive during its intended life.
(2) Where an authority is to be responsible for the operation of the installation, that authority
shall be consulted.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

27

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(3) The following characteristics are to be taken into account in applying the requirements of
this Code, having regard to the frequency and quality of maintenance expected:
a) Any periodic inspection and testing and maintenance and repairs likely to be necessary
during the intended .life can be readily and safely carried o~t.
b) The effectiveness of the protective measures for safety during the intended life is
ensured.
c) The reliability of equipment for proper functioning of the installation is appropriate to .
the intended life.

.2~4.6

Enclosures

(1) Degree of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment shall be in accordance
with IEC 529.

28

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION

ILLUMINATION
"(1_

3.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section of the Code gives guidance on design and installation of artificial lighting
systems in interiors; it also applies to artificial lighting of outdoor areas.

3.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standards on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

(a) BS 8206: 1985

Part 1 - Lighting for Building.

(b) DIN 5035:1990

Part 1 - Artificial Lighting, Terminology and General Requirements.

(c) DIN 5035:1990

Part 2 - Artificial Lighting, Recommended Values fdr Lighting


Parameters for Indoor and Outdoor Workplaces.

(d) DIN 5035:1988

Part

(e) DIN 5035:1983

Part 4 - Artificial Lighting ofInteriors, Special Recommendations for


Lighting Educational establishments

(f) DIN 5035:1987

Part 5 - Artificial Lighting ofInteriors, Emergency Lighting.

- Artificial Lighting of Interiors, Hospital Lighting.

(g) DIN 5035:1988 Part 7 - Artificial Lighting ofInteriors, Lighting of Rooms with VDU
Workstation or VDU Assisted Workplaces.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

29

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUfLOINGS


3.3

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose ofthis Section of the Code, the following definitions shall apply in addition
to the terms defined in Section 1.

mean illuminance (E)

the arithmetical mean of the illuminance in a room or in a room


zone being defined as that area of a room in which the same type
of activity is performed at a number of work-places or which is
used for similar purposes.

rated illuminance (EJ

the nominal value of the mean illuminance that the lighting


installation is-designed to illuminate.

Ught loss facto,. (V)

the ratio of the rated illuminance, En. to the design value of the
mean illuminance of a lighting systeIh.

depreciation factor (P)

the reciprocal of the light loss factor.

reflectance (Pc)

the ratio of the luminous flux reflected from a surface to the


luminous flux incident on it.

general lighting

the required average illuminance with a certain degree of


uniformity over the total area; and is obtained by a regular
arrangement of luminaries over the ceiling area (see Figure 3.1).

localized lighting

a non-uniform illuminance over the whole work area (see


Figure 3.2).

local lighting

lighting for individual workplace in addition to the general lighting


produced by placing luminaries close to the visual task and
supplemented by a general lighting (see Figure 3.1).

30

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

----'----~---~--'------'---~~---~---------'-------'-"-------

SECTION 3: ttlUMlNATION

---.-

~-'--::::~-~_:::-::-:---,

1\

'/

\ I

1\

----.-..
1\
1\
'"

\ I '\

\ I

....

_...- '., .. ..

- ... '

...

--. ... .....

--

.. -....

.._-_.....

/\

\'

,'~

11

1 1 ,1 \

II

1\

ft

f1 ,

:/\

A'

~,.),rauped

Figure 3.1 Generat fighting


"I

-. b)MtChid

1\ r.
IV \
1"

1\

F1gure3.3 Lacallighting

ETHrOPIANBUILD1NGCOOE STANDARD

i\ .1\

V \

~gul'e'3~1

LoealizedLighting

EBCS.:1\() 1:995

31

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

glare

a condition in which vision is affected by an excessive luminance


and/or excessive differences in luminance in the visual field (i.e;
parts of this field are excessively bright).
A distinction is made between:

Note:

disability glare, defined asglarecausing an actualphysiological reduction in visual


capability (impaired, perception of contrasts and forms), and
discomfort glare, defmed as glare considered solely in terms of its psychological
effect on the occupant. Discomfort glare experienced by the occupantof a room
increases withtime andleadsto premature fatigue and a reduction in performance,
performance attitude, and well-being.

direct glare

a glare caused directly by luminance from luminaries of luminous


ceilings.

reflected glare

glare and contrast reduction caused by reflection of high luminance


from glossy surfaces.

Note:

The maindisturbances causedbysuchreflection are contrast reduction, and impaired accommodation


and fusion.

colour appearance

Note:

the chromaticity of an illuminant and is generally expressed as the


colour impression received when looking at a light source.

The colour of the light emitted by a near-white sources can be indicated by its correlated colour
temperature (CCT). Each lamptypehasa specific CCTj but for practical use,they have beengrouped
into three classes (see Table 3.1).

Table 3.1: Correlated colour temperature classes

Correlated colour temperature


(CCl)
-

CCT < 3300


3300 < CCT < 5300
5300 < CCT

32

EBCS-10 1995

CCT CI188
..

..

--

_. --

Warm (White) - WW
Intermediate (white) - NW
Cool (daylight white)- TW

ETHIOPIAN BUII.DING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION.

colour rendering
Note:

the relationship between the original colour of an object and the


colour in which it is rendered by artificial lighting.

The ability of light source to render colours of suiface accurately can be conveniently quantified by'
the crn general colour rendering index. This index is based on the accuracy with which a set oftest
colour:are reproduced by the lam~t of interest relative to how they are reproduced by an appropriate
standard light source, identical agreement being given a value of 100.0/.1:, Bach lamp trJIe has a ,
specitic cm general colour rendering index; but for practical usc they can be divided into a number
of groups (see Table 3.2)

'Table 3.2 Colour relldering groups

Colour
rendering
groupe

CIE general colour


rendering Index (AJ

1A

R. > 90

Wherever accurate colour matching is reqUired;


e.g. colour printing inspection.

18

80'<R.<90

Wherever accurate colour jUdgements are


necessary and/or good colour rendering Is
. essential to appearance; e.g. shops and other
commercial premises.

60 < R;, <80

Typical applloatlon

Wherever moderatecolour rendering Isrequired.


3

40< R. < 60
Wherever colour rendering Is of little significance .
but marked distortion of colour is acceptable.

20 < R. < 40
Wherever colour rendering li'01 no Importanceat
all and markeddistortion of colour Is acceptable.

emergency lighting

lighting designed to become operative promptly ifthe power supply


to normal artificial lighting fails.

safety lighting

an emergency lighting requked for reasons of safety (general safety,


prevention of accidents).

t For tabular florescentlamps apparent colour and colour rendering charaoteristics, refer to Table 3.4.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 199.6

33

"

E1.ECTR~CAL

'INSTALLATION OF BUU..DINGS

escape lighting

a specified minimum illuminance for


emergency escape purposes, thus,permitting
buildings and plant to be safely evacuated at
any time during their utilization.

'qfety lighting for ptU1lcIIlIu 1uIzJmImuworjplm:a

.safety lighting designed to ensure that the work


performed arsuch workplaces can be safely
terminated in the manner required and the
workplaces .themselves evacuated' without

danger.
Note:

ParticulllfhllZllfduUll wurkplacesan:;those whic:h representan immediate rlskafaccldlmtor apotentlaJ


source of danger to third parties 'if the supply to the ligbtingshould fail, raised platfortns, theatre
stages.race-coursesand arenas counting as particularly 'hazardousworlq;laces.

stIIIIdbyllghting

an emergency lighting which caaassumethe function of


normaiartificial lighting for.B limited period so as to enable
nomul1 ,activities to continue.

,..nsetiIM

the interval :between a faillR in the 'powersuppty to-the


'normal artificial lighting and the provision of:therequired
illuminance by the ,emergen~y lighting.
.

!NItt!ildllrlltlono!opertdlon

the period oftime for which an emergency lighting system is


designed too,perate.

Umltdllrfltlollofoperatloll

the mmimum ;period of time during which :anemergency


>lightingsystemshall :still :00 capBbleofachiev~gth.em:inim.um
itluminancespecified for the given 'application.

Note:

'Thisconceptapplies~pecificaUytobauery-Qperated~stems.

illS.qldlife

the duration ofian emergency lighting system 'fromthe;dateof


its commissioning up to ,the point in time at "which it only
achieves the limit duration of operation.

sa/etyll1minaries

'a 'luminBry'which ,ml?:Y 'or may 'not be provided .with "its 'own
powersupply and whlchisused forsafe~ lighting.

34

"EBCS.;10 t995

EfHIOPIAN 'BUILDING ,CODE .STANDARD

_ _ _ _ _ 0.

~_

SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION

escape sign luminaries

standby lighting luminaries

3.4

a moulded luminaire bearing a graphical symbol to serve as an


escape sign; it indicates and assist the identification of escape
. route.
a luminary which mayor may not be provided with its own
power supply and which is used for standby lighting.

LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS .

3.4.1 D1umio~ote
(1) Recommended illuminance for different types of interiors, tasks and workspaces given in
Table 3.5 and Table 3.6 shall be taken as the recommended minimum values on which the
design and assessment of lighting installations are to be based.
(2) For indoor workplaces that are manned full-time, a minimum rated illuminance of 200.01x
shall be provided unless other factors (such as nature of operation, physiological reasons) require
different values.
(3) (a) In interiors designed for permanent human occupation, a minimum rated illuminance of
100.Olx is required.

(b) If tasks are performed at fixed-location workplaces outdoors that correspond to tasks
performed indoors (e.g. operation of wood-work machines), then a rated illuminance
specified for such tasks in Table 3.5 for indoor workplaces shall be provided.
(4) At no stages in the useful life of the lighting installation shall the mean illuminance.. E,

obtained at the workplaces be less than 0.8 times the value of the rated illuminance; at no single

workplace shall illuminance ever fall to less than 0.6 times the rated illuminance.

3.4.2 Lumlnance
. (1) Reflectance in the working zone shall be planned so that the ratio between task luminance
(inner field) and that of the surrounding of the task are no greater than approximately 3: 1.
(2) Reflectance of from 0.2 to 0.5 are recommended for working surfaces such as bench and,

desk tops.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

35

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

3.4.3

Glare

(1) Glare shall not be caused by lamps qr luniinaries (direct glare) nor by reflection of high
luminance from glossy surface (reflected glare).

(2) Lamps with a high luminance (e.g. filament lamps and high discharge lamps) shall always
be' shielded.
(3) In case of luminaries for local workplaces lighting, a direct view of the lamps shall be'
precluded by shielding or by arranging them in a suitable position..

3.4.4

Light Direction and Modelling

(1) Lighting 'shall be directed to produce an adequate degree of modelling shadow to enable
objects and surface texture to be easily recognized.
(2) Unduly hard shadows shall be avoided. If the ratio E, (cyllndricalj.E, (horizontal) at a hight
of 1.20m above floor is not smaller than 0.3, unduly hard shadows can be avoided.
(3) Deep shadows producing excessive luminance contrasts shall be avoided.

3.4.5

Colour Rendering

(1) For inspection and comparison of colours, the cm general colour rendering index R, shall
not exceed 90 and the rated illuminance shall be 1000.Olx.

(2) Only lamps meeting the requirements of Colour Rendering Group 3 (or higher) shall be used
for lighting interiors.
(3) Safety colours, shall be duly recognizable as such.

36

. EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION

3.5

EMERGENCY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

3.5.1 Escape Lighting

3.5.1.1

Illunfinance

(1) The minimum illuminance of the safety lighting for escape routes shall be I.O/x. This
requirement applies to the centre line of an escape route along a horizontal plane O.2m above
floor level.

(2) The response time shall not exceed a maximum of 15.0sec.


(3) The rated duration of operation shall at least equal to the time that will be specified by safety
law to be enacted by the concerned government body.
(4) The limit duration of operation shall be % (for 1.0hr) or % (for 3.0hr) ofthe rated duration.
(5) Safety luminaries for escape routes shall be sited according to their luminance distribution
so as to meet the requirements specified for safety lighting and in such a way that they cannot
easily be rendered ineffective. (Principal locations for the sitting of safety luminaries are, thus,
near the exits of escape routes and at points where it is necessary to emphasize the positions of
potential hazards.)

3.5.2

3.5.2.1

Safety Lighting for Particular Hazardous Workplaces

Illunfinance

(1) The minimum illuminance for such workplaces shall be O.IEn (rated illuminance specified
for the task and room of such workplaces in Table 3.5) but not less than 15.0/x.

(2) The minimum illuminance for platform and theatre stages shall be 3.0/x, and 15.0/x for
arenas and race-courses.

3.5.2.2

Colour rendering

(1) The colour rendering shall at least be equivalent to Group 3 so as to ensure that safety
colours remain recognizable as such.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

37

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

3.5.2.3

Response time

(l) The response time of safety lighting shall not exceed a maximum of 6.5s.
(2) In case of raised platform, theatre stages, arenas and race-courses, the maximum response
time shall be 1.0s.
3.5.2.4

.. Rated duration of operation

(1) For workplaces, the lighting shall be effective for as long as the hazard subsists; with a
minimum duration of 1.0min.

(2) For raised platform, theatre stages, race-courses and arenas, the rated duration of operation
shall at least be equal to the duration required by law.

3.5.2.5

Siting of safety luminaries in hazardous workspaces

(1) Safety luminaries shall be sited so as to ensure that the required illuminance is provided over
the entire area in which hazardous tasks are carried out.
3.5.3

Standby Lighting

(1) The requirements to bernet by standby lighting are analogous to those applying for normal
artificial lighting. To enable normal activities to continue, a minimum illuminance of 10% of
the rated illuminance value is generally required.

3.6

LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS

3.6.1

General

(l) The design objectives for lighting shall be to provide both good task visibility and a
satisfactory visual environment.
(2) (a) The lighting of workspaces shall ensure good visibility of the visual objects;
(b) The lighting of workplaces shall also be conducive to concentration and performance
attitudes, counteract premature fatigue and permit any potential hazards to be clearly
recognized.

38

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD ..

!--------'--

-----=------.c

~~

__

.J

I
SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION

3.6.2

Industrial Buildings

(1) In addition to the lighting required for specific tasks, ageneral illumination shall be provided
to allow safe movement through the building at all material times.
(2) Where critical colour .matching is to be done for a long period, a minimum illuminance of
1000.01x shall be provided.

3.6.3

Offices

(1) As indicated on rated illuminance tables, for general offices illuminance of SOO.O/x and for
drawing offices illuminance of 7S0.01x shall be provided.
(2) Where VDU (Visual Display Units) are used, the illuminance shall be restricted to SOO.Olx
or less to minimize the high brightness reflection from the screen and' large luminance
differences between screen, any source documents and the backgrounds against which these
items are seen.
(3) Where localized lighting is used, the ratio of illuminance between adjacent areas shall not
be morethan 3: 1 with a minimum illuminance for 3lty continuously occupied area of 200.01x.
(4) Where local lighting is used, the ratio of illuminance between task area and the surrounding.
area shall not exceed 3: 1.

(S) A glare limiting index of 19 is appropriate for general office rooms and an index of 16 is
desirable for drawing offices because of the more demanding nature of work.
(6) Where daylight makes a substantial contribution, lamps with a CCT of 4000.0k or above
should be used.

3.6.4

Hotels and Restaurants

(1) In dinningrooms and restaurants an illuminance of 100.0lx is recommended on a dinning table.


(2) In lounge and public bars, an average illuminance of SO.O/x is recommended.
(3) In kitchens and other service areas, a general illuminance of 300.0/x is recommended and
working areas should have an illuminance of SOO.O/x.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

39

----------

ELECTRICAL ~NSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(4) Escape lighting shall be provided for public rooms, staircases and corridors and provisions
shall be made for emergency lighting and exit signs.

3.6.5 Educational Establishments


(I) The wide range of activities carried. out in teaching and 'the variety of working media used
create constant changes in visual tasks; due to this, special requirements, over and above those
given in Clause 3.4.1, shall apply to the quality of the lighting in teaching rooms. This
requirements are given in the following Clauses.
-s

(2) The guideline values for illuminance, colour appearance, colour rendering group and quality
of class of direct glare restriction given in Table 3.7 shall be applied in teaching spaces.
(3) Should the relevant type of room or activity not be listed in Table 3.7, the values given for
a similar, comparable room or activity shall be used mutatis mutandis.
(4) The guideline values given in Tables 3.5 and 3.6 for workspaces shall apply to rooms which
have the same visual requirements as comparable workplaces, as well as to general purpose and
office-type rooms.
(5) The main chalkboard in teaching rooms and demonstration desks in teaching rooms for
special subjects shall be equipped with a: supplementary lighting system to increase the vertical
illuminance.

3.6.6 Hospitals
(1) The guideline values for hospital lighting set in Table 3.8 shall apply to all rooms and zones
of a hospital.
(2) The lighting of bedded areas shall be conducive to the well-being of the patient, while also
-nabling examination or treatment to be carried out. . To achieve these goals:
a) (i) the general lighting illuminance shall be IOO.Olx and shall not dazzle the patients or
nursing staff.
(ii) the mean luminance as perceived by the recumbent patients shall be limited to

IOOO.Ocdlm 2 while the luminance of the ceiling shall nowhere exceed 500.0cd/m 2

40

EBCS-1 0 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION

b) (i) Each bed shall be equipped with a rigidly mounted, adjustable luminaire, A rated
illuminance of 300.0lx shall be achieved on the reading plane (see Figure 3.4).
(ii) To avoid glare in multi-bed wards, the luminance of reading luminaries in the field

of vision of other patients shall not exceed 1000.Ocd/m2


c) (i) For the examination and treatment of patients at.the bedside, a rated horizontal
illuminance of 300.Olx, inclusive of the general lighting, shall be provided 0.15m
above the longitudinal axis of the plane of the bed surface.
(ii) At no point along the axis in (i) above shall the illuminance be less than 150.0lx.

(iii)

The uniformity ratio of illuminance Emin:E, shall here not be less than 1:2.

d) (i) Night watch lighting with illuminance of approximately 5.0lx shall be provided for
keeping patients under observation during the night. .
(ii) In wards occupied by infants, a rated illuminance of 20.0lx is recommended.

(3) (a) General lighting with a rated illuminance of 500.0lx and Group I colour rendering
properties shall be.provided for examination and treatment.
(b) In addition to the general lighting an illuminance of at least 1000.Olx is generally
required at the site of examination.
(4) (a) The lighting in operatin~ theatre shall always be designed in conjunction with the
lighting of the operating theatre field.
(b) In view of the illuminances of 20,000lx to 100,000.Olx required in the operating field,
the surrounding lighting shall be designed to reduce the adaptation problems which
would be caused by extreme difference in the luminance between operating field and the
surrounding area.
(c) The illuminance of the surrounding light shall not be less than 1000.Olx at a height of
1.0m above floor level.
(5) (a) Standby lighting system shall be provided forthe operating theatres, anaesthetic rooms,
sterilizing sinks and recovery rooms.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

41

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(b) The standby lighting of the -operating table should be equal in all respects to the normal
lighting of this area, and should be of the maintained type to ensuiJ!' continuous
illumination.
,

;'~~

800

900

..

_ --

.. ..

Reading plane
'

Examination
plane
Plane "0--1 .
sur .Bce -,

be~

...
o

C>

,o

CIO

Figure 3.4 Reference plans of a hospital bed

OUTDOOR LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

3.7
3.7.1

Illuminance

(1) For outdoor workspaces, circulation areas/zones and work roads, the recommended rated
illuminances in Table 3.6 shall be provided and they are to be taken as the recommended
minimum values.
(2) If the type of application of interest to the user is not listed, the recommended values
specified for a similar space shall be applied analogously.
3.7.2

Colour Rendering Group

(1) At fixed location workspaces, the colour rendering capability shall at . least meet the
requirements of Group 3t ; safety colours and colours used for classification purposes shall be
recognizable as such.

42

Data on the group to which lamps belong with respect to their colour rendering capability are given in
product lists of manufacturers.

EBCS-1 0 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

~---~-------~-----'------------~--'-----------_-----':~----~--

SECTION 3: ILLUMINATION

3.7.3

Limitation of Glare

(1) Limitation of direct glare shall be based on Clause 3.4.3 of this Section.
(2) If the outdoor workplace is floodlight, the luminaries used shall be so located and arranged
that hazards due to direct glare are precluded.
3.7.4

Lighting of Outdoor Fixed Location Workspaces

(1) If -tasks art: performed at fixed location work spaces outdoors that correspond to tasks
performed indoor, then, local wor~place lightings shall be provided .with rated illuminance
equivalent to the values specified for such tasks in Table 3.5.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

43

~
~

Table 3.3 Typical characteristics of lighting sources used for general lighting
Tungsten

Characteristics

Filament

II

Tungsten

halogen

. Low-pressure

High-pressure

sodium

sodium

Hot cathode

Cold cathode

High-pressure

tul;M.Jlar

tubular

mercury

fluorescent

fluorescent

fluorescent

I
Mercury halide

Range of luminous
efficac'~

(1.0 Im/W)

8to 18

18 to 24

100 to 175

65 to 120

35 to 90

40 to 60

35 to 55

65 to 85

25 to 1500

100 to 2000

10to 200

50 to 1000

4 to 125

20 W/mto 30

50 to 2000

250 to 10000

5000 to 10000

5000 to 10000

Available wattage range

fY'I)

W/m
Range of nominal life

(h)
Colour rendering group

1000 to 2000

2000 to 4000

6000 to 12000

1A

1A

Non existent

6000 to 12000

5000 to 10000

20r4

20000

depending on

lamp pressure

usec!.

Can very Widely


depending on additives
Manufacturers

should be consulted.

Need for control gear

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Operating position

Any

Horizontal

Horizontal

Any

Any

. Any

Any

Scme restriction

Run-up time (min)

Immediate

Immediate

6 to 12

4 to 7

Immediate

Immediate

Restrike time (min)

Immediate

Immediate

Immediate

Immediate

25000 to 3000

28OOOt031oo

Not applicable

2200

2700 to 6500

2700 to 6500

CCl (K)

Note: Detailed information about any specific lamp type should be obtained from the manufacturer.

.:1

10
. 3600 to 4400

Table 3.4 Tubular fluorescent lamps apparent colour and colour rendering characteristics of lamps in general use
Lamp name

Apparent colour

Colour rendering

(CCT class)

group

Cool

Colour rendering characteristics

Typical application

1A

Similar to northsky light; emphasizes blues and,


to less extent, greens

Used where colour rendering similar to north sky daylight


is needed

Cool

1A

similar to north light/colour matching but emits


more ultraviolet to conform with natural sky light

Used where critical colour matching complying with

8S 95:Part 1 is required

Special

Intermediate

1A

Equal emphasis given to all colours

Triphosphor 4000

Intermediate

18

Emphasizes oranges, greens and blue-violets,


subdues yellows and deep reds

Northlight colour
matching
Artificial daylight

.,"

Used where fine colour judgements are required, e.g.


hospitals, art galleries and museums
Factories. offices and shops where good, but not critical,
colour rendering or matching is required together with
high luminous efficacy

Triphosphor 3000

Warm

18

Emphasizes oranges, greens and blue-violets,


subdues yellows and deep reds

Intermediate

I
I

Intermediate

White

but not critical, colour rendering or matching is required

I together with high luminous efficacy

Cool white (natural)

Social areas, restaurants, hotels and homes Where good

significant proportion of daylight is admitted

Emphasizes yellows, and to less extent, greens;

Factories, offices and shops

Factories, offices and shops, particularly where a

shift towards violet


Warm

Warm white

Emphasizes yellows and, to less extent, greens;

Commercial/public buildings

reds slightly subdued, blues subdued and shifted


towards violet
Warm

Lower-power compact
lamps

VI

18

Emphasizes yellows and, to less extent, green


and blues; red shifts slightly towards orange

subdues red and to some extent blues, which

Emphasizes oranges, greens blues and violets;

I Hotels, shops, homes; as a replacement for tungsten

subdues some yellows end deep reds

I filament lamps

0\

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance


1

Type of interior and/or task

Rated illuminance

Colour

Colour

Class of

rendering

direct glare

group

limitation

En. in Ix

appearance

50

ww,nw

50

ww,nw

retrieval tasks

100

ww,nw

1.2.3 Warehouses with reading tasks

200

ww,nw

Remark

1 General spaces
1.1 Circulation zones in storerooms
1.2 Warehousing
1.2.1 Warehouses 10r goods of one kind or of large unit size
1.2.2 Warehouses with goods of different kinds and search and

1.3 Automatic high-bay store


1.3.1 Aisles and gangways

20

ww,nw

1.3.2 Control platform

200

ww,nw

2A

1.4 Despatch room

200

ww,nw

1.5 Rest rooms; sanitary facilities; medical rooms


1.5.1 Canteens

200

ww,nw

1.5.2 Other rooms for recreation and rest purposes


1.5.3 Rooms for gymnastic exercises

100

ww,nw

2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
2A

WW,nw

1A

ww,nw

300

ww,nw

1.5.4 Changing rooms

100

ww,nw

1.5.5 Washrooms

100

ww,nw

1.5.6 Toilets

100

1.5.7 Medical treatment and nursing rooms; first-aid facilities

500

Incandescent lamps may

be used when lighting is

to create a specific

atrnosphsre.

Supplementary mirror

lighting

optional

1.6 Building services installations


1.6.1 Machine rooms

100

ww,nw

1.6.2 Power supply and distribution

100

ww,nw

1.6.3 Telex and post rooms

500

ww,nw

2A

1.6.4 Telephone switchboard

300

ww,nw

2A

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd) .


1

Type of interior and/or task

Rated illuminance,

Colour
appearance

En' In .!!
I

2 Circulation areas In bUildings


2.1 For persons

50

2.2 For persons and vehicles

100

4
Colour
rendering
group

Class of direct
glare
. limitation

6'

Remark

2.3 Stairs; escalators, and ramps

100

2.4 Loading platforms

100

lNW,nw
lNW,nw
lNW,nw
lNW,nw

adjoining circulation areas

100

lNW,nw

where E n1 = En of the
circulation areas.

2.6 Shed entrances

100

lNW,nw

En2 = En of adjoining

Adjustment of rated
illuminance to

adjoining spaces;

En1~0.1 En2

2.5 Automatic transport facilities or conveyor belts in' or

spaces
2.6.1 Day-time operation

x E/

lNW,nw

Only luminaries

min 400.0~

without luminous
.side panels are
to be used.

2.6.2 Night-time operation

0,5 E/

lNW,nw
lNW,nw

Only luminaries
without luminous
side panels are
to be used.

, -...:l

interior.
The interior area of
the shed entrance is
to be illuminated.

to
0,2 Ent

tEn of adjoining

tEn of the adjoining


interior. The interior

area of the shed


entrance is to be
illuminated

l.

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)


1

Type or Interior and/or task


13

rated illuminance,
Em InJ!!.

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering
group

Class or direct
glare
limitation

Remark

750

ww,nw,tw

2A

Leather Industry (conte'd)

13.4 Leather dyeing (mechanical)


13.5 Quality control
13.5.1 Medium standard
13.5.2 High standard
13.5.3 Very high standard
13.6 Colour matching

Fa surface inspection tasks, provide


lighting with oblique
incidence. Local workplace lighting
recommended.

s~plementary

750
1000
1500

nw
nw,tw
nw,tw

1B
1B
1B

1"
1
1

100

tw,nw

1A

ww,nw

300
300

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
2A

2
2

500
750
750
1000
1000
1500

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
nw,tw

2A
2A
2A
2A
1A
2A

1
1
1
1
1
1

Shield from light sources with a


different illuminant. Local workplace
lighting recommended.

14 Manufacture and processing or textiles


14.1
14.2

14.3
14.4

14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9

Workplaces and work zones at baths and in


bate breaking areas
Combing, washing, lroninq, devilling and
carding work; drawing, teasing, sizing, card
cutting; slubbing; jute and hemp spinning
Dyeing
Warping, beaming, spinning, spoiling and
winding, twisting, braiding, knitting, and
weaving
Comb pricking; perching; sewing; block printing
Millinery
Trimming; burling
Goods inspection; colour matching
Invisible mending

200

; Local workplace lighting

I recommended.
I For colour matching tasks, shield
from light sources with a different
iIIuminant.

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)

lJl

Colour
appearance

Colour rendering
group

Clliss of direct
glare limitation

Remark

50

WVf,nw

100

.ww,nw

200

ww,nw

300
500

ww,nw
ww,nw,tw

2A
2A

1
1

200

~90

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3

2
2

300

ww,nw

300

ww,nw

500
300

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3

1
1

750
200

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3

1
2

300
300
500

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3
3

2
2
1

2
Rated

Type of Interior and/or task

illuminance,
In Ix

En'

6 Smelting y(orks, Iron and steal works, roiling


mills, foundrl'"!

6.1 Production plants not reqUiring manual


intervention

6.2 Production plants requiring occasional manual


intervention

6.3 Permanently manned workplaces in production


plants

6.4 Measuring stations, control platform and


observation posts

6.5 Testing and inspection areas

Where required for operational reasons,


~ may be less than 300.0!!

. may exceed 500.0Ix

7 Metal working and flnlshl~g

7.1 Hammer-forging of small parts


7.2 Welding
7.3 Machining centres; automatic or semiautomatic
machining plant

7.4 Rough and medium machining tasks, with


permissible deviations greater than 0.1 mm
7.5 Precision machining tasks, with permissible
deviations less than 0.1 mm
7.6 Robot-equipped workpleces
7.7 laying out and control workplaces; measuring
stations

7.8 Cold roiling mills


7.9 Wire and tube drawing works; manufacture of
cold rolled sectional strip

7.10 Mechl:'l and working of sheet metals


re of hand tools and cutlery
7.11 Manuf

..

..... _ . _ . . . . .

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)


1

Type

or Interior and/or task

Rated
IIlumlnance,En,
In.1it

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering group

Class ot direct glare


limitation

Remark

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3
3
3

2
1
1

200
300
300
500
300

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2

300
500
750

ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw

3
3

2A

2
1
1

1000

ww,nw,tw

7 Metal working and tlnlshlng (conte'd)


7.12 Assembly
7.12.1 low precision
7.12.2 Medium precision
7.12.3 High precision
7.13 Drop forging
7.14 Foundries
c
Underfloor man-sized trenches, belt
7.14.1
conveyor roads, cellars, etc.
7.14.2 Platforms
7.14.3 Sand preparation
7.14.4 Dressing room
7.14.5 Workplaces at cupola furnaces and mixers
7.14.6 Casting bays
7.14.7 Shake out bays
7.14.8 Mechanical moulding
7.14.9 Hand moulding
7.14.10 Core moulding
7.14.11 Patternmaking
7.15 Die casting works
7.16 Surface treatment
7.16.1 Electroplating
7.16.2 Priming, painting, varnishing
7.16.3 Inspection areas
7.17
Tool, gauge jig manufacture; precision
mechanics; highprecision assembly

Vl

200
300
500

200

50
100

200
300

200
300

200

2.
!

local workplace lighting recommended

VI

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)


1

Type of Interior and/or task

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering
group

Class of direct glare


limitation

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2
2

500
750

ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww;nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw

50
100

ww,nw
ww,nw

2
3

200
100

ww,nw
ww,nw

2A

50
100
300

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

2A
2A

2
1

,500

ww,nw

2B

Rated
illuminance,
En' In Ix

I'

Remark

7 Metal working and finishing (conte'd)


7.18 Motor vehicle manufacture
7.18.1 Shell manufacture
7.18.2 Body surface treatment
7.18.3 Paint spray booth
7.18.4 Paint polishing bays
7.18.5 Retouching
7.18.6 Upholstery
7.18.7 Final vehicle assembly
7.18.8 Inspection

I.
500
500
1000
750
1000
500 .

1
1
2
2
1

Shielding against direct glare at


asserrbly lines with local workplace
fluorescent lighting may be dispensed
with i '!he operational conditions so
reqlire.

8 Power stations
8.1 Loading plant
8.2 Iiloiler room
8.3 Pressure equalizing chamber in nuclear power
stslions
8.4 Machine rooms
8.5 Ancillary rooms, e.g. pump rooms, condenser
rooms
8.6 Switchboard plant
8.7 Control rooms
8.8 Maintenance work on turbine and generator

1
2

Where required for operational


reasons, En may be less than 300.0J!.
By providing supplementary lighting
while work is carried out.

Electrical engineering Industry

9.1 Cable manufacture; varnishing and impregnation


of coils; simple assembly tasks; winding of coils .
and armatures with heavy-gauge wire

'.

300

ww,nw

TabTe3~~rindoor workspaces reeommtmded illuminance (conte'd)


1

Type of interior 81Id/or task

Rated
illuminance,
e.,. in Ix

Colour appearance

Colour rendering
group

Class of direct glare


limitation

500

ww,nw,tw

6
Remark

Electrical engineering Industry (conte'd)

9.2 Assembly of telephones and small motors;


winding of coils and armatures with mediumgauge wire
9.3 Assembly of precision devices; radio 81Id
television sets; winding of fine wire coils;
fabrication of fuses; adjustment, testing and
calibration

1000

ww,nw,tw

9.4 Assembly of high-precision parts and of electronic


components

1500

ww,nw,tw

2A

1000
1500
1500

ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw

2A

1
1
1

100
200
300

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3

2A

3
2
2

500

ww,nw

1A

500
500
750

ww,nw
ww,nw
nw,tw

2A
2A

Local workplace lighting


recommended

10 Jewellery Industry, watch and clock making


Industry
10.1 Manufacture of jewellery
10.2 Working of precious stones
10.3 Optician's and watchmaker's workshops

11

2A

Woodworking

11.1 Stearn pits


11.2 Saw mils
11.3 Bench work, gluing, assembly
11.4 Selection and inspection of veneer wood;
marquetry work
11.5 Pattern making shop; polishing; varnishing
11.6
Work at woodworking machines; turning,
chamfering, dressing, rebating, slotting,
cutting, sawing,sinking
. 11.7 Surface finishing
11.8 Checking for defects

1B

1A

1
1
1

Local workplace lightr,g


recommended

.....

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaees recommended illuminance (conte'd)


2

Rated
Illuminance,
Em In Ix

Colour
appearance

Colour
renclerlng
group

200

ww,nw

cardboard fabric8lion

300

ww,nw

3.

12.3 Standard bookbinding; wallpaper printing

300

ww,nw

2A

12.4 Trimming, gilding, embossing: work 8l printing


presses

500

ww,nw

2A

12.5 Hand printing;paper sorting

750

ww,nw,twl<

2A

12.6 Retouching; lithography; hand and machine


composing; make-ready

1000

ww,nw,tw

2A

12.7 Colour control in multi-coloured printing

1500

ww,nw,tw

1A

12.8 Steel and copper engraVing

2000

ww,nw,tw

2A

-1

13.1 Work 8l v8ls; tubs, pits

200

ww,nw

13.2 Scraping, splitting, smoothing, fulling of hides

300

ww,nw

2A

Type of Interior andlor task

Cia.. of direct
glare
limitation

Remark

12 Paper Industry, printing and allied trades


12.1 Work 8l Hollanders, edge runners, grinding
mills

12.2 Paper-making and corrug8ling machines;


Avoidance of reflected glare by
selection of correct light incidence; for
hand composing, obliquely from the
side.

Local workplace lighting


recommended.

13 Leather Industry

13.3

For tubs, due attention must be given


to vertical lighting, reflections being
avoided by means of suitable light
incidence.

.Saddlery work; quilting; sewing polishing;


sorting; pressing; cutting to size punching;
shoe manufacture

500

ww,nw

2A

For dark m8lerials, increase to


1ooo.0I,!. local workplace .lighting
.... lIE!Ioi ........

I~-...I.

...... _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ ..

:.-.a.

I
I

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)


1

rated illuminance,
EmlnJ!

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering
group

Class of direct
glare
limitation

Remark

13.4 Leather dyeing (mechanical)

750

ww,nw,tw

2A

13.5 Quality control


13.5.1 Medium standard
13.5.2 High standard
13.5.3 Very high standard

750
1000
1500

nw
nw,tw
nw,tw

1B
1B
1B

1"
1
1

100

tw,nw

1A

ww,nw

300
300

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
2A

2
2

500
750
750
1000
1000
1500

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw
nw,tw

2A
2A
2A
2A
1A
2A

1
1
1
1
1
1

Type of Interior and/or task

13

Leather Industry (conte'd)

13.6 Colour matching

For surface inspection tasks, provide


supplementary lighting with oblique
incidence. Local workplace lighting
recommended.

Shield from light sources with a


different illuminarit. Local workplace
lighting recommended.

14 Manufacture and processing of textiles


14.1
14.2

14.3
14.4

14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9

Workplaces and work zones at baths and in


bate breaking areas
Combing, washing, ir,oning, devilling and
carding work; drawing, teasing, sizing, card
cutting; slubbing; jute and hemp spinning
Dyeing
Warping, beaming, spinning, spoiling and
winding, twisting, braiding, knitting, and
weaving
Comb pricking; perching; sewing; block printing
Millinery
Trimming; burling
Goods inspection; colour matching
Invisible mending

200

Local workplace lighting


recommended.
For colour matching tasks, shield
from light sources with a different
iIIuminant.

VI
VI
I

VI

0'1

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended iIIuminance(conte'd)


1

Em in Ix

Colour appearance

Colour rendering'
group

Class of direct glare


limitation

Remark

Workplace and work zones in breweries


end malthouses; washing, tiing in
barrels, cleaning, sieving, peeling,
cooking and boiling in canning and
chocolate factories; workplaces and
work zones in sugar refinwies, for drying
and fermenting leaf tobaccO; fermenting
cellar

200

ww,nw

2A

Sorting and washing of produce;


grinding, mixing, packaging

300

ww,nw

2A

butcher's stores, dairies, mills and filter


beds

300

nw

2A

Cutting and sorting d fruit and


vegetables

300

nw

2A

Making of delicatessen products;


kitchens; cigar and cigaJette manufacture

500

nw

2A

Inspection of glass jars and product


control; garnishing, decorBting, and
sorting

500

nw

2A

Colour matching; laboratories

1000

ww,nw,tw

1A

16.1 Sales areas

300

ww,nw

2A

16.2 Cash desks

500

ww,nw

2A

Type of interior end/or task

Rated illuminance,

15 Food and luxury food Industries


15.1

15.2

15.3

15.4

15.5

15.6

15.7

Wor~pJaces. and work zenas In abattoirs,

18 Wholesale al'ld retail trade

_ _ . _ 0_ _ _ _ _ 0. __

Depending on the layout of the


workplace, ensure adequate vertical
illuminance.

For colour matching, shield from


light sources with a different
illuminant. Local workplace lighting
recommended.

Table 3.5 Indoor workspaces recommended illuminance (conte'd)


1

Type of interior and/or task

Rated illuminance,
Em in Ix

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering group

Class of direct
glare limitation

Remark

200

ww,nw

200
300
300
500
500

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3
3
3
3
2A

2
2
2
2
1
1

17 Craft and trades (examples from different


b-enches)

17.1 Removing rust and painting steel components


17.2 Subassembly of heating and ventilation
system
17.3 Locksmith and plumbing work
17.4 Motor car workshop
17.5 Carpentry and joinery
17.6 Repair shops for machines and appliances
17.7 Radio and television repair workshops

1a Services enterprises

VI
.--.1

18.1 Hotels and restaurants


18.1.1 Reception
18.1.2 Kitchen
18.1.3 Dining rooms
18.1.4 Conference rooms
18.1.5 Self-service restaurants
18.2 Laundries and dry cleaners
18.2.1 Washing
18.2.2 Machine ironing
18.2.3 Ironing by hand
18.2.4 Sorting
18.2.5 Stain removal inspection
18.3 Hairdressing
18.4 Beauty treatment

200
500
200
300
300

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww
ww,nw
ww,nw

2A
2A
1B
2A
1B

1
2

300
300
300
300
1000
500
750

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw,tw
ww,nw,tw

2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
1A
1A

2
1
1
1
1
1
1

19 Plastics processing
19.1 Injection moulding
19.2 Blowing
19.3 Compression moulding

500
300
300

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3
3

2
2
2

1
1

Local workplace lighting permitted

,"

... ",

..

." '!,"

tit

00

Table 3.6 Outdoor workspaces


"

1
Type of outdoor workspace circulation areas/zones and
workshops

Rated
illuminance, En
in !!

Uniformity of
illuminance, gl =

50

0.5

s"in

g2'~0.08

Su. min.. and g2 related ta the centreline

m~

g21~ 0.3

min and 9:;, relate to

s.~

4
Colour rendering
group

Remarks

1 Circulation areas on works premises, works roads


1.1 Gates
1.2 Footpaths

shall be 1.0L,minimum.

cithepath.
1.3 Cycle paths

path.
1.3.1 Works roads with loading and unloading zone or with
heavy cross traffic and a speed limit of 30.0km/h or
less

10

0.4

1.3.2 Works roads with loading and unloading zone or with


heavy cross traffic and a speed limit of 50.0km/h or
less

20

0.4

0.2

20

0.2

2 Parking areas
3 Harbours
3.1 Container transshipment areas
3.1.1 Open storage areas and circulation areas
1) g~=Emin/m~

the centre line of the

Table 3.6 Outdoor workspaces (conte'd)


1

Rated
illuminance,
g", in Ix

Uniformity of
illuminance, 9! =E~

3.1.2 Loading and unloading containers


3.2 Quayage
3.2.1 Quayside
3.2.2.Loading unit loads
3.2.3 Loading bulk goods (dry bulk and fluids)
3.3 Workspaces in depot areas
3.3.1 Unit loads
3.3.2 Bulk goods
3.3.3 Hazardous fluids
3.4 Wharfs for passenger traffic
3.5 Wharfs for mixed traffic
3.6 Docks
3.7 Repair facilities in harbour

100

0.2

S~plementary

5
20
10

0.2
0.2
0.2

4
4
4

Dazzling of shipping to be avoided.

20
5
5
30
50
50
50

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

4
4
4
3
3
4
4

4 Transshipment areas, loading areas

30

0.5

5 Workspaces in depot areas, stacks


5.1 Piece goods
5.2 Bulk goods

30
10

0.2
0.2

4
4

Type of outdoor workspace, circulation areas/zones, and


workshops

IS

Colour rendering
group

Remarks

3 Harbours (conte'd)

6 Track system
6.1 Sidings, shunt yards
6.1.1 Public transport
6.1.2 Other traffic
6.2 Platforms
6.3 Rehandling yards
6.4 Level crossing

VI
\0

3
5
30
20

local workplace lighting


required in containers.

0\

Table 3.6 Outdoor workspaces (conte'd)


..

Types of outdoor workspace, Circulation areas/zones, and


workshops

Rated
illuminance, EN
in Ix

Uniformity of
illuminance,
gl-=-Em~

Colour rendering
group

Remarks

7 Building sites
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Overground workings
Underground workings
Structural steelwork, structural metalwork
Tunnelling

8 Larg.scale chemical production plant

20
20
20
30

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

4
4
4
4

10

0.2

10
20

0.2
0.2
0.5

4
4
4

3
20

0.2

4
4

0.2

9 Power stations
9.1

Circulation areas
9.1.1 Conventional fuel power stations
9.1.2 Nuclear power stations
9.2 Switchboard plant

20

10 Open cast mining


10.1 Directional lighting
10.2 Supplementary working zone lighting

11 Sewage treatment works


11.1 Paths and roads
11.2 Tanks and basins

12 Filing stations

100

4
4

0.5

Lighting only where needed

Table 3.7
1

Types of space or activity

Guideline values for educational establishment lighting


2

Rated
Illuminance, ~
In Ix

Colour
appearance

Colour
rencterlng
property group

Quality class of
direct glare
restriction

50
20

ww,nw
ww,nw

3
3

200
200

ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2

2
2

If necessary, supplementary lighting for


steeks cabinets

100
100
100
200

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww;nw
viW,nw
ww,nw

2
2
2
2
2
2

3
2
3
1
2
1

If necessary, supplementary lighting for


objects eXhibited, platforms and shelves.

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2
2
2

1
1
1
2

Remarks
-

1 Outside structures
1.1 Roofed recreation area
1.2 Roofed bicycle stands

2 Secondary rooms for special purposes


2. 1 Room for teaching aids and collections
2.2 Projection

Community rooms

3.1 Corridors
3.2 Staircases
3.3 Entrance halls
3.4 Canteens
3.5 exhibition rooms
3.6 Multi-purpose rooms
3.7 Auditoria, rooms for functions, if not included under
3.6 above
3.8 Libraries (books, other media)
3.9 Reading rooms
3.10 Book stack-rooms

0
f-'

roo
300
100
300
500

200

0\

tv

Table 3.7 Guideline values for educational establishment lighting (conte'd)


1

Type of space or activity

Rated
illuminance, E.
In..!!

Colour
appearance

Colour
rendering
property
group

Quality class of
direct glare
restriction

4 General.teachlng rooms
4.1 Rooms for pre-schooling purposes
4.2 Teaching rooms, if not included under 4.3 below
4.3 Teaching rooms with a day-light factor .Q (see DIN
5034 Part 1) less than 1% at the most unfavourable
working position, teaching rooms used chiefly in the
evening or specially for adult education
4.4 Open-plan teaching spaces
- with high reflectance 3
- with medium reflectance

300
3001

ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2

1t
1t

5O<f

ww,nw

1t

750
1000

ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2

1
1t

500
500
500
500
500
500
700

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2
2
1
2
2
2

2
2
1
1
1
1
1

500
750

ww,nw
ww,nw

2
2

1
1

Remarks

The main chalkboard and/or demonstration


desk require supplementary lighting.
1) At the working positions, a minimum of
O.Ss, is required.
2) The "luminance required if the room is
put to other uses can be attained by
switching parts of the lighting system
3) High reflectance is deemed to be at least
0.7 for the ceiling, at least 0.5 for the
walls or room dividers.

5 Teaching rooms for special purposes


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

Kitchens for teaching purposes


Rooms for manual training
Rooms for handicrafts, sewing, typewriting
Drawing, painting
Physics, chemistry and biology
Laboratories, demonstration rooms
Technical drawing 4

8 Lecture theatres
6.1 Lecture theatres with windows
6.2 Lecture theatres without windows

t The values of the Iwninance restriction curve belonging

to the next highest nominal illuminance shall be observed

4) En with respect of the drawing-board


positioned as for use at 75 from the
horizontal, the centre of the board being
7at a height of 1.2m

Table 3. 8 Guidance value for hospital lighting

Room type

Bedded area

Type 01 activity I type


illumination

01

Rated
illuminance,
~,In!!

Ughtlng
colour

colour
renderinggro
Up1

Quality class for


restriction 01 direct
glare

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

General lighting
Reading lighting
Examination lighting
Night watch lighting
Night lighting

100
200
300

ww
ww
ww
ww
ww

Infants ward

General lighting
Night-watch lighting

200
20

ww
ww

1
1

1
1

General examination and


treatment rooms

General lighting
At site of examination

500
>1000

ww,nw
ww,nw

1
1

Gyna~ology

500
50
50
50

WW,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

General lighting
Refractometry
Skiascopy
Ophthalmoscopy
Ophthalmometry
Perimetry
Adaptometry

500
50
50
50
50
5
5

ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw
ww,nw

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

General lighting
Work at monitor

500
20

ww,nw
ww,nw

1
1

1
1

'Remarks

,
Reduced glare for patients
Approximately 5.0~
i

General lighting at workplaces


not less than 160.0Ix

Special examination and


treatment rooms
For endoscope examination

For ophthalmic examination

for radiographic examination

, 0'1
I

Preparation
Urology
Rectoscopy

If required, switchable or

controllable to give lower

illuminance values

"

If required, switchable or

controllable to give lower

illuminance values

0'1

Table 3. 8 Guidance value for hospital lighting (conte'd)

Room type

Ughting
colour

colour
rendering
groupl)

Quality class for


restriction of direct
glare

nw
nw
nw

1
1
1

1
1
1

500

nw

500

nw

500
500
500
500
500
100

nw
1

nw
nw
ww,nw

General lighting

300

ww,nw

General room lighting


General lighting in beddes
areas

100

ww

500

WW

General lighting
Colour check

500
1000

ww,nw

1
1

1
1

Type of activity f Type of


illumination

Rated
illuminance,

s... in!!

Remarks

Special examination and


treatment rooms (conte,d)
for dental examinations
for dermatological examinations
Intensive care areas
Operating 1heatre suites

Ancillary rooms

Therapy rooms
Medicinal baths
PhysiotherapyMassage
Dialysis rooms

Laboratories and dispensaries

General lighting
Operating field lighting
Surround lighting in operating
theatre
General lighting for changing
rooms
Wash rooms
Rooms for pre-surgery
preparation
Rooms for post-surgery
treatment
Instrument stories
Sterile parts stoles
Sterilization stores
Recovery room
Recovery lighting

1000

nw
nw

tw

Illuminance: from 20000 to


100000.0Ix, tooo.ou
minimum; desired
illuminance: 2OOO.01x

Reduce<t glare for patients

Reduced glare for patients

Workplace lighting, if
required.

Table 3. 8 Guidance value for hospital lighting (conte'd)

Room type

Corridors and stairs

Type of activity I Type of


Illumination
Bedded areas
- day-time
- at night
Operating theatre suit
- day-time
- at night

Rated
illuminance ~,
in Ix

Lighting
colour

Colour
rendering
group1

Quality class for


restriction of direct
glare

200
50

ww
ww

2
2

300
100

nw
nw

2
2

1
1

100

ww

200

Sanitary blocks connecting to


bedded areas
Toilets
Dirty work areas

300

ww
ww,nw

Duty rooms for doctorsand nursing


staff

General lighting
Lighting for difficult visual tasks

300
500

ww
ww

1
1

1
1

Post-mortemexamination rooms

General lighting
Workplace lighting

1000
>5000

nw
nw

1
1

Toilets and dirty work areas

0\

VI

Remarks

If required, workplace
lighting for filling hypodermic
syringes, sorting medicines
etc.

j'

ELECTICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

SECTION

CONDUCTORS

4.1

SCOPE

1) This Section of the Code specifies the nominal cross-sectional areas of conductors in electric
cables and cords used for lighting, appliance and power supply circuits for a nominal voltage
not exceeding 1.OkV.
2) The conductors include solid and stranded copper and aluminium conductors in cables for
fixed installation and flexible copper conductors.
3) The provisions of this Section do not apply to conductors for telecommunication purposes.

4.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standards on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

66

(a) BS 7671:1992

Requirements for Electrical


Regulations Sixteenth Edition.

(b) BS 6360:1991

Specification for Conductors in Isolated Cables and Cords.

(c) IEC 228: 1976

Conductors of Insulated Cables.

(d) IEC 50(461): 1984

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.

(e) IEC 364-5-523:1993

Electrical Installation of Buildings.

EBCS-1 0 1995

Installation,

lEE

Wiring

ETHIOPIAN BILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

(f) C22.1:1990

4.3

Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section of the Code, the following definitions shall apply in addition
to those tenus defined in Section 1.

conductor (of a cable)

a part of a cable which has the specific function of carrying current.

plain conductor

a metal conductor in which the wire or wires are not coated with
an additional metal.

metal coated conductor

a conductor in which eacn individual wire is covered with a thin


layer of a different metal or metal alloy,

solid conductor

a conductor consisting of a single wire. (A Solid conductor may be


circular or shaped otherwise.)

shaped conductor

a conductor the cross-section of which is other than circular.

stranded conductor

a conductor consisting of a number of individual wires, all or some


of which generally have a helical fohn. (The stranded conductor
may be circular or shaped otherwise.)

flexible conductor

a stranded conductor having wires of diameters small enough and


so assembled that the conductor is suitable for use in a flexible
cable.

concentric conductor

a conductor so constructed as to surround one or more insulated


conductors.

insulation (of a cable)

. insulating materials incorporated in a cable with the specific


function of withstanding voltage.

extruded insulation

insulation consisting generally of one layer of a thermoplastic or


thermosetting material and applied by extrusion process.

ETHIOPJAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

67

ELECTICAL INSTALLATION OF BUII.DINGS

mineral insulation

insulatron consisting of compressed mineral powder.

conductor screen

an el<;:ctricalscreen of non-metallic and/or metallic material


covering ~/1e conductor.

Insulating screen; core screen

an electrical screen of non-metallic material covering the insulation.

shield (of a cable)

a surrounding
earthed metallic layer to confine the electric field
,
within the cable and/or to protect the cable from external electrical
influence. (Metallic sheaths, armours and earthed concentric
conquctors may also serve as shields).

core (insulated conductor) an p.ssembly comprising a conductor with its own insulation (and
screen if any).
sheath (jacket)

a uniform and continuous circular covering of metallic or non


metallic material, generally extruded.

oversheatn

a non-metallic sheath applied over a metallic covering, constituting


the outer-most sheath of the cable.

armour

.a covering consisting of a metal tape(s) or wires, generally used to


:' protect the cable form external mechanical effects.

slngle-cond/lctor cable; single-corecable

a cable having only one core.

multiconductor cable

a cable having more than one core.

multicore cable

a .cable having more than one core.

flat (multicore) cable

a multicore cable having cores or groups of cores arranged in


parallel flat formation.

flexible cable

a cable which is required to be capable of being flexed while in


service and of which the structure and materials are such as to fulfil
this requirement.

68

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4:. CONDUCTORS

cord

a flexible cable with a limited number of conductors of small cross


sectional area.

aerial (insulated) cable

an insulated cable designed to be suspended overhead and outdoors.

heating cable

a cable withorwithout a shield or a metallic sheath, intended to


give off heat for heating purposes.

4.4

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS

4.4.1 Phase Conducton in a.e, Circuits and Live Conducton in de circuits


.(1) The minimum nominal cross-sectional area of conductor shall be:

a) .1.Omm 2 for cables and insulated copper conductors for power and lighting circuits;

b) 1O.Omm2 for bare copper conductors for power circuits;

c) 16.0mm2 for bare aluminium conductors for power circuits; .

d) O.Smm2 for flexible cables of copper conductors for extra low voltage.

4.4.2 Neutral Conductors


(1) For a polyphase circuits in which imbalance may occur in normal service, the neutral
conductor shall have a cross-sectional area adequate to carry the maximum connected load
between the neutral I and anyone ungrounded conductor.

(2) For a polyphase circuit in which serious imbalance is unlikely to occur in normal service,
other than a discharge lighting circuit, multicore, cables incorporating a reduced neutral conductor
may be used. When single-core cables are used- in such circuits, the neutral conductor shall have
a cross-sectional area appropriate to the expected value of the neutral current.
(3) In a discharge lighting circuit, the neutral conductors shall have a cross-sectional area not
Jess than that of the phase conductor(s).

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

69

""

._._--------"."-----

ELECTICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

4.5

AMPACITY OF WIRES, CABLES AND FLEXIBLE CORDS

4.5.1

Conductor Operating Temperature

(1) The current to be carried by any conductor for sustained periods during normal operation
shall be such that conductor operating temperature given'i~'tl1e appropriate table. of current
carrying capacity in Annex B ofthis Section is not exceeded,

4.5.2

Cables Connected in Parallel

(1) Except for a ring final circuit, cables connected in parallel shall be of the same construction,
of cross-sectional area, length and disposition, without branch circuits and arranged SO as to
carry substantially equal current.

4.5.3

Cables Connected to Bare Conductors or Busbars

(1) Where a cable is to be connected toa bare conductor busbar, its, type of insulation andior
sheath shall be suitable for the maximum operating temperature ofthe bare conductor or busbar,

4.5.4

Voltage Drop

(1) The size of conductors shall be such that the voltage,drop between the supply terminal and

fixed current-using equipment shall not exceed 4% of the nominal voltage of the supply line
when the conductors are carrying the full lo~d current.

4.6 FLEXIBLE CORDS


(1) Flexible cords may be used for:
a) electrical equipment for household or similar use having a rating of t6~OA or less at
voltages not exceeding,230.0V and which is intended to be moved from place to place;
b) electrical equipment for industrial use which must be capable ofbeing moved from place
to place for operation;
c) pendants;
d) the connection of stationary equipment to facilitate its interchange;
e) the connection of electrical components between which relative motion is necessary;
f) the connection of appliances such as ranges and clothes dryers;
g) supplying of current of portable lamps and other devices.or exhibition purposes;
h) wiring of cranes and hoists.

70

EBCS-10 1995

ETHiOPIAN BILDING CODE STANDARD

SECT~ON 4: CONDUCTORS

(2) Flexible cord shall not be used:


a) as a substitute for the fixed wiring of structures and shall not be:
i)

permanently secured to any structural member; or

ii) run through holes in walls, ceilings,or floors; or

iii) run through doorways, windows, or similar openings;

b) at temperature above the temperature rating of the cord or at a temperature sufficiently


low as to be liable to result in damage to the insulation or overall covering;
c) for the suspension of any device weighing more than 2.3kg unless the cord and device
assembly are marked as capable of supporting a weight upto II.Okg.
(3) Flexible cord shall be protected by insulating bushing or in some other acceptable manner
where it enters 01' passes through the enclosure wall or the partitioning of a device or enters a
lampholder.
(4) Where a flexible cord is used as an extension cord or to plug into an appliance or other
device, no live parts shall be exposed when one end is connected to a source of supply and the
other end is free.
4.7

COLOUR OF CONDUCTORS

(1) Colour identification of conductors shall be as specified in Tables 4.1 and 4.2
4.8

MAXIMUM PERMISSIDLE TEMPERATURE

(1) Any cable must be capable of withstanding.the maximum expected short-circuit current in

its circuit for the maximum expected disconnection time of its protective device without
exceeding the maximum permissible temperature given in Table 4.3

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

71

- - - - _.. ~--------------------~

ELECTICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table 4.1 Colour identification of cores of flexible cables and cords

Number of cores

Function of core

Colour(s) of core

Phase
Neutral
Protective

Brown
Blue
Green-and-yellow

phase
Neutral

Brown
Blue

Phase
Neutral
Protective

Brown
Blue
Green-and-yellow

4 or 5

Phase
Neutral
Protective

Brown or black
Blue
.Green-and-yellow

Table 4.2

Colour identification of cores of non-flexible cable and


- bare conductors for fixed wiring

Function

Colour identification-

Protective (including earthing) conductor

Green and yellow

Phase of a.c. single - phase circuit

red or yellow or blue

Neutral of a.o. single or three-phase circuit


Phase R of 3- phase circuit

black
red

Phase Y of 3-phase a.c. circuit

yellow

Phase B of 3-phase a.c. circuit

blue

Positive of d.c. 2-wire circuit

red
black

Negative of d.c. 2-wire circuit


Outer (positive or negative) of d.c. 2-wire circuit derived from
3-wire system
Positive of 3-wire d.c. circuit
Middle wire of 3-wire d.c. circuit
~egative

72

red
red
black
blue

of 3-wire d.c. circuit

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table 4.3 Maximum conductor operating temperature

Conduot
or
material
Copper

700C p.v.c (general purpose)


600C rubber
850C rupber
900C thermosetting
Impregnated paper

Copper

Minerai
Plastic covered or exposed to
touch
Bare and neither exposed to
touch nor in contact with
combustible materials

Alumlniu
m

Ineulatlon materl.1

700C p.v.c (general purpose)


85C p.v.c
60C rubber
85C rubber
goDC thermosetting
Impregnated paper

Conductor
op....tlng
t.mp.ratur. C

Umltlng final
temperature
C

70
60
85
90
80

160/140t
200
220
250
160

70 (sheath)
105 (sheath)

160
250

70
85
60
85
90
80

160/140t
160/140 t
200
220
250
160

above 300.0m2

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS10 1995

.73

ANNEX

PREFACE TO THE TABLES IN ANNEX At ANI).'


ANNEX n- FO,R CABLES AND FLEXIBbE CORDS
.,:'

A.I

BASIS OF TABULATED CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY

The current-carrying capacity set out in Annex B takes account of lEe Publication 364-5-523(1983),
so far as the later is applicable.
For types of cable not treated in the mc publication (e.g. armoured cables), the current-carrying
capacity of Annex B is based on data provided by ERA Technology Ltd. ttt, and the British
Cable Makers' Confederation (see also ERA Report 69-30 'current Rating Standards for
Distribution Cables"),
The tabulated current-carrying capacity relates to continuous service and is also known as the
full thermal current rating' of the cable, corresponding to the conductor operating temperature
indicated in the headings to the tables concerned.
It is intended to provide for a satisfactory life of conductor and insulation subject to the thermal
effects of carrying current for sustained periods in normal service. A cable may be seriously
damaged, leading to early failure, or its service life may be significantly reduced, if it is operated
for any prolonged period at a temperature higher than the indicated value.
In addition, there are other considerations affecting the choice of the cross-sectional area of a
conductor, such as the requirements for protection against electric shock, protection against
thermal effects, overcurrent protection (see A.5 below), voltage drop (see A.7 below) and the
limiting temperatures for terminals of equipment to which the conductors are connected.

tt
ttt
74

Annex A: Correction factors


Annex B: Current-carrying capacity and voltage drop
ERA Technologies Ltd, Cleave Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7SA

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

The tabulated current-carrying capacity relates to a single circuit in the installation methods
shown in Annex A of Section 8, in an ambient air temperature of 30C. The current-carrying
capacity given in the tables for a.c. operation apply only to frequencies in the range 49.0 to
61.0Hz. For other conditions, appropriate correction factors are to be applied as described below.
The current ratings given for. single-core armoured cable are for the condition of armour bonded
at (both ends and to earth.

A.2

CORRECTION FACTORS .FOR CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY

The current-carrying capacity of a cable for continuousservice is affected by grouping, by


ambient temperature, by partial or total enclosure in thermal insulating and for a.c., by
frequency. Annex A provides relevant correction factors as in the following:
"

A.2.t Grouping
Tables A.I, A2 and A3 give the correction factors to be applied to the tabulated current
carrying capacity where cables or c~rcuits are grouped.

A-2.2 Ambient temperature

Tables A4 and A.S give the correction factor to be 'applied to the tabulated current-carrying
capacity depending upon the actual ambient temperature of the location in which the cable is to
<be installed.:
In practice, the ambient air temperatures may be determined by thermometers placed in free air
as close as practicable to the position at which the cables are installed or are to be installed,
subject to the provision that the measurements are not to be influenced by the heat arisingfrom
the cables; thus, if the measurements are made while the cables are loaded, the thermometers
should be placed about 0.5m or ten times the overall diameter of the cable, which ever is the
lesser, from the cables, in the horizontal plane, or 150.0mm below the lowest of the cables.
Tables AA and A5 do not take account of temperature increase.iif any, due to solar or other
infra-red radiations; where cables are subject to such radiation, the current-carrying, capacity may
need to be specially calculated.
,()If

,.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING COgE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

75.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

A.2.3 Other frequencies


In extreme cases, notably for large multicore cables, the reduction in current-carrying capacity
of cables carrying, for example, balanced 400.0Hz a.c, compared with the current-carrying
capacity at 50.0Hz, may be as much as 50%. For small cables and flexible cords, such as may
be 'used to supply individual tools, the difference in the 50.0Hz and the 400.0Hz current-carrying
capacities may be negligible.

A.3

EFFECTIVE CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY

The current-carrying capacity of a cable corresponds to the maximum current that can be carried
in specified conditions without the conductors exceeding the permissible limit of steady state
temperature for the type of insulation concerned.
The values of tabulated current represent the effective current carrying capacity only where no
correction factor is applicable; otherwise, the current-carrying capacity corresponds to the
tabulated value multiplied by the appropriate factor or factors for ambient temperature, grouping
and thermal insulation, .~ applicable.
Irrespective of the type of overcurrent protective device associated with the conductors
concerned, the ambient temperature correction factors to be used when calculating current
carrying capacity (as opposed to those used when selecting cable sizes) are those given in
Table A.4.

A.4

RELATIONSIDP OF CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY


CIRCUIT PARAMETERS

TO" OTHER

The relevant symbols used in Annex A and Annex B are as follows:


I,

the current-carrying capacity of a cable for continuous service, under the particular
installation conditions concerned.

II

the value of current tabulated in Annex B for the type of cable and installation
method concerned, for a single circuit in an ambient temperature of 30C.

I,

the design current of the circuit, i.e, the current intended to be carried by the circuit
in normal service.

76 EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN'SUffi]'ING CODE STANDARD

~--_.

__. _ - - - - _ ._ _

.~~-----,-.--'-----

'\

SECTION 4: CONPUCTORS

""'.

'."".

':,:

\~

the nominal current or current setting of the device protecting the circuit against
',i ..

overcurrent,
the operating current (i.e. the fusing current or tripping current for the conventional
operating time) of the device protecting the circuit against overload.

12

Co -

A correction factor to be applied where the installation conditions differ from those for
which values of current carrying capacity are tabulated in AnnexB. The various
correction factors are identified as follows':

c.
CL

for ambient temperature

for grouping

C1

for thermal insulation

C,

for operating temperature of conductor.

In all circumstances, Iz must be not less than lb' and I, also must be not less than Ib,
Where the overcurrent device is intended to afford protection against overload, 12 must not
exceed 1.451z and I, must not exceed I~ (see A.5 below).
Where the overcurrent device is intended to afford short circuit protection only, I, can be
greater than I, and 12 can be greater than 1,45Iz

A.5

OVERLOAD PROTECTION

Where overload protection is required, the type of protection provided does not affect the
current-carrying capacity of a cable for continuous service (lJ, but it may affect the choice of
conductor size. The operating conditions of a cable are influenced not only by the limiting
conductor temperature for continuous service, but also by the conductor temperature which might
be attained during the conventional operating time of the overload protection device, in the event
of an overload.
This means that the operating current of the protective device must not exceed 1,45Iz . Where the
protective device is a fuse or a miniature circuit-breaker, this requirement is satisfied by selecting
a value of I, not less than In,
In practice, because of the standard steps in nominal rating of fuses and circuit-breakers, it is
often necessary to select a value of In exceeding lb' In that case, because it is also necessary for

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

77

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

I, in tum to be not less than the selected value of In' the choice of conductor cross-sectional area
may be dictated by the overload conditions and the current-carrying capacity
conductors will not always be fully used.

OJ

of the

The size needed for a conductor protected against overload by a semi-enclosed fuse can be .~
obtained by the use of a correction factor, 1.45/2=0.725, which results in the same degree of
protection as that afforded by other overload protective devices. This factor is to be applied to
the nominal rating of the fuse as a divisor, thus indicating the minimum value of It required of
the conductor to be protected. In this case also, the choice of conductor size is dictated by the
overload conditions and the current-carrying capacity (lJ of the conductors cannot be fully used.

A.6

DETERMINATION OF THE SIZEOF CABLE TO BE USED

Having established the design current (Tb) of the 'circuit under consideration, the appropriate
procedure described in A-6.1 to A-6.4 below will enable the designer to determine the size of
.the cable that will be necessary to use.
As a preliminary step, it is useful to identify the length of the cable run and the permissible
voltage drop for the equipment being supplied,as this may be an over-riding consideration (see
A,7 below). The permissible voltage drop in mV, divided by Ib and by the length of run, will
give the value of voltage drop in mv/Alm which can be tolerated. A voltage drop not exceeding
that value is identified in the appropriate table and the corresponding cross-sectional area of
conductor needed on this account can be read-off directly before any other calculations are made.
The conductor size ne~essary from consideration of the conditions of normal load and overload
is then determined, All correction factors affecting I, (that is, the factors for ambient
temperature, grouping and thermal insulation) can, if desired, be applied to the values of I, as
multipliers. This involves a process of trial and error until a cross-sectional area is reached
which ensures that I, is not less than I, and not less than I, of any protective device that is
'intended to seiect. In any event, if a correction factor for protection by a semi-enclosed fuse is
necessary, this has to be applied to ~ as a divisor. It is, therefore, more convenient to apply all
the correction factors to ~ as divisors.
L~'l;;d\ .

This ineth~d is used in A,6.1 through A,6.3 and'~produces .~ \falue of current and that value (or
the next larger value) can readily be located in the appropriate table of current-carrying capacity
and the corresponding cross-sectional area of conductor can be identified directly. It should be
noted that the value of I, appearing against the chosen cross-sectional area is not Iz It is not

78

":EBC$.. tb':f~~5

..,

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

necessary to know I, where the size of conductor is chosen by this method; but if it is desired
to identify I, the value is determined by the method indicated in A3 above.
However, this method cannot be used for cables installed in enclosed trenches (Installation
Methods 18, 19 and 20 of Annex A, Section 8) because the correction factors given in Table A3
are related to conductor cross-sectional areas. For such cables, it is, therefore, necessary to use
the process of trial and error described above, selecting on a trial basis a particular size of cable
from, for instance, voltage drop considerations.
A.(i.l' Overload protection afforded by a fuse or a miniature circuits breaker

(1) For single circuits


-

divide nominal current of the protective device (I..) by any applicable correction factor
for ambient temperature (C.) given in Table A4.

then further divide by any application for thermal insulation (CJ

(2) The size of cable to be used shall be such that its tabulated current-carrying capacity (L)
give in Equation (A.1) below is not less than the value of nominal current of the protective
device adjusted as above:

t, ~ .::

Ca~

(AI)

(Ampere)

(3) For groups


-

divide the nominal current of the protective device (1..) by the correction factor for
grouping (C g) given in Table~ AI, A2, or A3:

It

~ ~

Cg

(A2)

(Ampere)

Alternatively, it may be selected in accordance with the following formulae, provided that the
circuits of the group are not liable to simultaneous overload:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-101995

79

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(.'\.3)

I t > Ib

and

I,

~ ~I;+O.48I; (1~::]

(A.4)
(Ampere)

The size of cable to be used shall be such that its tabulated single-circuit current-carrying
capacity (IJ is not lessthan the value of I, calculated in accordance with Equation (A.2) above
or, where Equations.(AJ) and (A.4) are used, not less thanthe larger of the resulting
values
of I..

two

Where correction factors C, and/or C, are applicable, they are to be applied as divisors to the
value of I. determined by the above formulae.
A.6.2

Protection 'devi~e a

semi-en~lo8ed

fuse

(1) For single circuits

~ divided the nominal current of the fuse Ou) by any applicable correction factor for
ambient temperature (CJ given in Table A.S;
then further divide by any applicable correction factor for thermal insulation, (e l) ;
~

then further divide by 0.725.

The size of cable to be used shall be such that its tabulated current-carrying capaci1;y <I.) hi not
less than the value of nominal current of the fusc adjusted as above:

It ~

In
O.725C
Il

80

EBCS~ 10

1995

c,

(A.s)
(Ampere)

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

(2) For groups

- divided the nominal current of the fuse I, by 0.725 and by the applicable correction
factot for grouping (C s) given in Tables A.1, A.2 ,or A.3

I>
~
t - 0.725 C

(A. 6)

(Ampere)

Alternatively,
,. it may be selected by the following formulae, provided that the circuits of the
group are 40t liable to simultaneous overload.

I >

(A. 7)

t,
Cg

t -

and

It

1.91;+0.481;

[1-~:]

(A. 8)

(Ampere)

"Cg

The size
of cable to be used shall be such that its tabulated single-circuit current-carrying
,:
capacity (It) is not less than the value of I, calculated in accordance with Equation (A.6) above
or, where Equation (A. 7) and (A.8) are used, not less than the larger of the resulting two values
of It1;
Where correction factors C. and/or C, are applicable, they are to be applied as divisors to the
va~~e of I, determined by the above Equation.

4.6.3 Overload protection not required


;Where the cable under consideration is not required to be protected against overload, the design
current of the circuit (Ib) is to be divided by any applicable correction factors, and the size of
the cable to be used shall be such that its tabulated current-carrying capacity (Ljgiven by

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

81

------------------~---

ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS
.
.,
Equation (A.9) below for the installation method concerned is not less than the value of Ib
adjusted as above:
(A.9)

t,
It?:' CCc.
a g

(Atnpere)

A.6.4 Variation of installation conditions along a cable route


<1
The procedures in A.6.1 through A.6.3 above are based on the assumption that allthe conditions
necessitating the use of correction factors apply to the same part of the route of the conductors
of the circuit. Where various factors apply to different parts of the route, each part may be
treated separately or, alternatively, only the factor or combination of factors appropriate to the
most onerous conditions encountered along the route may be applied to the whole of the route.
It is permissible to obtain more precise factors by calculation of the various conductor
temperature rises that will occur along such a route, provided that the appropriate limiting
temperature of the conductor is nowhere exceeded.
I

A.7

TABLES OF VOLTAGE DROP

In the tables, values of voltage drop are given for a current of one ampere for a metre run, i.e,

for a distance of 1.0m along the route taken by the cables, and represent the result of the voltage
drops in all the circuit conductors. The values of voltage drop assume that the conductors are
at their maximum permitted normal operating temperatures.
The values in the tables, for a.c.-operation, apply only to frequencies in the range 49-.0Hz to
61.0Hz; and for single-core armoured cables, the tabulated values apply where the armour is
bonded to earth at both ends.. The values of voltage drop for cables operating at higher
frequencies may be substantially gre~ter.
For a given run, to calculate the voltage drop (in mY) the tabulated value for the cable
concerned has to be multiplied by the length of the run in metres and by the current the cable
is intended to carry; namely, the design current of the circuit (lb) in amperes. For three-phase
circuits, the tabulated mVI Aim values relate to the line voltage and balanced conditions have
been assumed.

82

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

---'--

._---_.-~----_._._----,

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

_For cables having conductors of 16.0mm2 or less cross-sectional area, their inductances can be
ignored and (mV/Afm)r values only are tabulated. For cables having conductors greater than
16.0mm2 cross-sectional area, the impedance values are given as (mV/Afm)z' together with the
resistive component (mV/Afm)r and the reactive component (mV/Afm)x.
The direct use of the tabulated (mV/Afm)r or (mV/Afm)z values, as appropriate, may lead to
pessimistically high calculated values of voltage drop or, in other words, to unnecessarily low
values of permitted circuit lengths. For example, where the design current of a circuit is
significantly less than the effective current-carrying capacity of the cable chosen, the actual
voltage drop would be less than the calculated value because the conductor temperature (and,
hence, its resistance) will be less than that on which the tabulated mV/Afm had been based.
As regards power factor in a.c, circuits, the use of the tabulated mV/Afm values, (tor the larger
cable sizes, the tabulated (mV/Afm)z values) to calculate the voltage drop is strictly correct only
when the phase angle of the cable equals that of the load: When the phase angle of the cable
does not equal that of the load, the direct use of the tabulated mV/Afm or (mV/Afm)z values
leads to a calculated value of voltage drop higher than the actual value. In some cases, it may
be advantageous to take account of the load power factor when calculating voltage drop.
Where a more accurate assessment of voltage drop is desirable the following methods may be
used.
(a) Correction for operating temperature shall be carried as follows:
For cables having conductors of 'cross-sectional area 16.0mm 2 or less, the design value of
mV/Afm is obtained by multiplying the tabulated value by a factor C, given by

230

I~

- ~)(t
+ tp - (C:C:
ag
I,2
P

~=--

30)

(A. 10)

230

'

where tJ, is the maximum permitted normal operating temperature, C.


Equation (A. I0) applies only where the overourrent protective device is other thari a fuse and
where the actual ambient temperature is equal
to or greater than 30C.
/

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

83

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Note:

For convenience, the aboveformula is basedon the resistancs-temperature coefficient of 0.004 per Cat 20
C for both copper and aluminium conductors.

For cables having conductors of cross-sectional area greater than 16.0mm:l, only the resistive .
component' of the voltage drop is affected by the temperature and the factor C, is therefore
applied only to th~ tabulated value of (mV/Alm1 and the design value of (mV/Nm)z is given
by the vector sum of C, (mV/Alm)r and (mV/Nm'h.
For very large conductor SIzeS where the resistive component of voltage drop is much less than
the corresponding reactive part (i.e when x/r~3) this correction factor need not be considered.
(b) Correction for load power factor,
For cables having conductors of cross-sectional area of i6.0mm2 or less, the design value of
mV/ Aim is obtained approximately by multiplying the tabulated value by the power factor of
the load, cos tP.
For cables having conductors of cross-sectional area greater than 16.0mm2 the design value of
mV/Aim is given approximately by: costP [tabulated (mV/Alm)rl +sintP [(tabulated (mV/Alm)xl
For single-core cables in flat formation, the tabulated values apply to outer cables and may
underestimate for the voltage drop between an outer cable and the centre cable for cross
sectional areas above 240.0mm 2 and power factors greater than 0.8.
(c) Combined correction for both operating temperature and load power factor
From (a) and (b) above, where it is considered appropriate to correct the tabulated mV/Aim
values for both operating temperature and load power factor, the design values of mV/ Aim are
given as follows:
i) For cables having conductors of 16.0mm2 or less cross-sectional area:
C, cos tP (tabulated mV/Alm)
ii) For cables having conductors of cross-sectional area greater than 16.0mm2 :

Ctcos tP (tabulated mV/Alm)r) + sin tP (tabulated mV/Alm)x)'

.84

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

_-'=_~-O..=__.:...._".JI

ANNEX

..----

(NORMATIVE)

CORRECTION FACTORS
Table AJ: Correction factors for groups of more than one circuit of single-core cables, or more than one multicore cable

(To be applied to the corresponding current-carrying capacity for a single circuit in Tables B.I through 8.8, B.9 through B.16, B.17 throughB.19, B.20, B.27, B.28, B.31 through B.38, B.39 through B.46 t )

Reference method of installation (see Annex a.-A of Section 6)

Correction factor (CJ


Number of circuits or multicore cables
2

10

12

14

16

16

20

0.80

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.57

0.54

0.52

0.50

0048

0045

0043

0.41

0.39

0.38

Touching

0.85

0.79

0.75

0.73

0.72

0.72

0.71

0.70

Spaced tt

0.94

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

Touching

0.86

0.81

o.n

0.7

0.74

0.73

0.73 0.72

0.71

0.70

Spaced tt #

0.91

0.89

0.88

0.8

0.87

Horizonl81

0.90

0.85

Vertical

0.85

0.66

0.82

0.80

0.79

0.76

0.76

0.78

Enclosed (Method 3 or 4) or bunched and clipped direct lD a non- metallic surface (method 1)

0.90

0.90

0.90

o.n

Single layer clipped to non-metallic surface (Method 1)

Single layer multicore on a perforated metal cable tray, vertical or


horizontal (method 11)

Single layer single core on a perforated metal cable tray,


touching (Method 11)

Single layer multicore touching on ladder supports (Method 13)

When cables having differing conductor operating temperatures are grouped together, the current rating shall be based upon the lowest operating temperature of any cable
in the group.

tt Spaced by a clearance between adjacent surfaces of at least one cable diameter (OJ where the horizontal clearances between adjacent cable exceeds 2D", no correction factor need be applied.
#

00

V\

Not applicable to mineral insulated cables, see Table A.2.

.~_~~_~

_----'-__

~~J<T------'-~--'--~--,------

(Installation Methods 18, 19 and 20 of Annex A, Section 8)t


The correction factors tabulated below relate to the disposition of cable illustrated in Item No. 18 to Item No. 20 of Annex A, Section 8, and are applicable to the current carrying
capacities for Reference Methods 12 or 13 of Annex A, -Seetion 8, as given in the relevant tables of this Annex.

Installation Method 18
conductor
cross
sectional area

2 single-core
cables, or 1
three- or fourcore cable

3 single-core
cables, or 2
two-core
cables

4 single-core
cables, or 2
three- or fourcore cables

6 single- core
cables, 4 twocore cables,
or 3 three- or
four-core
cables

4
6
10
16

0.93
0.92
0.91
0.91

0.90
0.89
0.88
0.87

0.87
0.85
0.84

0.82
0.81
0.80
0.78

0.86
0.86
0.85
0.83

25
35
50
70
95

0.90
0.89
0.88
0.87
0.86

0.86
0.85
0.84
0.82
0.81

0.82
0.81
0.79
0.78
0.76

0.76
0.75
0.74
0.72
0.70

120
150
185
240
300

0.85
0.84
0.83
0.82
0.81

0.80
0.78
0.77
0.76
0.74

0.75
0.74
0.73
0.71
0.69

4"00
500
630

0.80
0.78
0.77

0.73
0.72
0.71

[mm~

"

Installation Method 19

~.86

Installation Method 20

6 single- core'
12 single-core
cables, 4 two 8 single-core cables, 8 twocore cables,
cables, or 4
core cables,
Of-3 three- or three- or four- or 6 three- or
four- core
core cables
four-core
cables
cables

12 single
core cables,
8 two-core
cables, or 6
three- or four
core cables

18 single-core
cables, 12
two-cere
cables, or 9
three- or four
core cables

24 singlecore cables,
16 two-core
cables, or 12
three- or fourcore cables

10

11

0.83
0.82
0.80
0.78

0.76
0.75
0.74
0.71

0.81
0.80
0.78
0.76

0.74
0.73
0.72
0.70

0.69
0.68
0.66
0.64

0.81
0.80
0.78
0.77
0.75

0.76
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.70

0.69
0.68
0.66
0.64
0.63

0.74
0.72
0.71
0.70
0.68

0.67
0.66
0.64
0.62
0.60

0.62
0.60
0.59
0.57
0.55

0.69
0.67
0.65
0.63
0.62

0.73
0.72
0.70
0.69
0.68

0.68
0.67
0.65
0.63
0.62

0.61
0.59
0.58
0.56
0.54

0.66
0.64
0.63
0.61
0.59

0.58
0.57
0.55
0.53
0.52

0.53
0.51
0.49
0.48
0.46

0.59
0.58
0.56

0.66
0.64
0.63

0.60
0.58
0.57

0.52
0.51
Q.49

0.57
0.56
0.54

0.50
0.48
0.47

0.44
0.43
0.41

-.....

0.67
0.66
"0.65

when cables having different conductor operating temperatures are grouped together, the current rating shall be based on the lowest operating temperature of any cable in the group:

oe
oe

Table A.4 Correction factors for ambient temperature where protection is against short-circuit
'Note

This table applies where the associated overcurrent protective device is intended to provide short-circuit protection only. Except where the device is a semi-enclosed fuse, the table also applies where the
device is intended to provide overload protection.
'

Type of insulation

Operating
temperature

Ambient temperature c
25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Rubber (flexible cables only)

60C

1.04

1.0

0.91

0.82

' 0.71

0.58

0.41

General purpose p.v.c.

70C

1.03

1.0

0.94

0.87

0.79

0.71

0.61

0.50

0.35

Paper

80C

1.02

1.0

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.77

0.71

0.63

0.55

0.45

0.32

Rubber

8SoC

1.02

1.0

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.74

0.87

0.60

0.52

0.43

0.30

Heat resisting p.v.c.t

8SoC

1.03

1.0

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.87 .

0.84

0.79

0.71

0.61

"0.50

0.35

90C

1.02

1.0

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.58

0.50

0.41

0.29

1.03
1.02

1.0
1.0

0.93
0.96

0.85
0.92

0.77
0.88

0.67
0.84

0.57
0.80

0.45
0.75

0.31
0.70

0.65

0.60

0.54

0.47

0.40

0.3

Thermosetting
Mineral'

70C sheath
10SoC

NOTE: (i) Correction factors for flexible cords and for 85C or 150C rubber insulated flexible cables are give in the relevant table of current-carrying capacity.

(ii) This table also applies when determining the current-canying capacity of a cable.
(t) These factors are applicableonly to rating in Columns 2 through 5 of Tables B.l and B.2.
I

..

Table A.5 Correction factors for ambient temperature where the overload protective device is a semi-enclosed fuse
Ambient temperature

FCJ

Operating
Type of insulation

temperature

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

1.0

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.79

0.56

FCJ
Rubber (flexible cables only)

60

1.04

General purpose p.v.c.

70

1.03

1.0

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.87

0.84

Paper

80

1.02

1.0

0.97

0.95

0.92

0.90

0.87

60

65

85

90

95

70

75

80

0.69

0.48

0.84

0.76

0.62

0.43

Rubber

85

1.02

1.0

0.97

0.95

0.93

0.91

0.88

0.86

0.83

0.71

0.58

0.41

Heat resisting p.v.c. *

85

1.03

1.0

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.87

0.84

0.80

0.76

0.72

0.68

0.49

0.90

1.02

1.0

0.98

0.95

0.93

0.91

0.89

0.87

0.85

0.79

0.69

0.56

0.39

70, sheath

1.03

1.0

0.96

0.93

0.89

0.86

0.79

0.62

0.42

I 0.98

0.96

0.93

-0.91

0.89

0.86

0.84

0.82

0.79

0.77

0.64

0.55

0.43

Thermosetting
Mineral: Bare and exposed to
touch p.v.c. covered

Bare and not exposed to


touch

105, sheath

1.02

1.0

These factors are applicable only to ratings in columns 2 to 5 of Tables B.I and B.2.

Correction factors for flexible cords and for 85C or 150C rubber-insulated flexible cables are given in the relevant table of current-carrying capacity.

Note:

ANNEX

B (NORMATIVE)

TYPE OF CABLE AND AMPACITY


Table B.I Single-core P.V.C. insulated cables, non-armoured, with or without sheath
(copper conductor)
Current-carrying capacity (Amperes)

Ambient temper-ature
: 30C
Conductor operating temperature: 70 C
f

Conductor
crosssectional area

Reference Method 3 (enclosed in


conduit on a wall or in trunking
etc.)

2 cables,
single-phase
ac. or d.c.

2 cables,
single-phase
ac. or d.c.

3 or 4 cables
three-phase
ac.

3 or 4 cables
three-phase
ac.

Reference Method 1 (clipped


direct)

2 cables,
single-phase
ac, or d.c. flat
and touching

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforaled cable tray horizontal or

vertical)

3 or 4 cables
!lYee- phase
ac. flat and
touching or
trefoil

2 cables,
single-phase
a.c, or d.c. flat
and touching

3 or 4 cables
three phase
ac. flat and
touching or
trefoil

Reference Mehod 12 (free air)


Horizontal flat

Vertical flat

spaced

spaced

2 cables
single-phase
ac. ad.c. a
3 :abies
three-phase

2 callies,
single-phase
ac. or d.c. cr
:3 cables
tlYee-phase

ac,

ac.

Trefoil

3 cables trefoil
!lYee phase
. ac.

II

10

11

12

mm2

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

1
1.5

11
14.5

10.5
13.5

13.5
17.5

12
15.5

15.5
20

14
18

2.5
4
6
10
16

19.5
26
34
46
61

18
24
31
42
56

24
32
41
57
76

21
28
36
50
68

27
37
47

25
33

25

80
99
119
151
182

73
89
108
136
164

101
125
151
192
232

112
141
172
223
273

146
181
219
281
341

',30
162
197

110
137
167
216
264

210
240
273
320
367

188
216
245
286
328

269

. 396
456

:!62
0419
0480

35
50
70
95

120
150
185
240

300
400
500
630
800
1000

Note:

Reference Method 4 (enclosed in


conduit in thermally insulating
wall etc.)

43
59

87

79

89.
110
134
171
207

114
141
182
234
284

104
129
167
214
261

330
381

303
349

436

400

404
463

515
594

472

456

239
262
296
346
394

549

545

635

318
369
424
504
584

546

467

694

626
720

533

634
723

792
904
1030
1154

732
835
953
1086
1216

679
778
892
1020
1149

65

300
341

400

611

826
943
1058

i) Where the conductoris to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the preflll:C to this Annex.

ii) The current-carrying capacitiesin columns 2 to S are also applicable to flexible cables where the cables are used in fixed inslll11ations.

126
156
191
246

300

349

521
515

:<:54
:!11

569

109

659

852
982
' 138
"265
"420

920
1070
1188
1'337

795

308

356
409
485
561
656
749
855
971
1079

Table B.2 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperature : 70C
2 cables- single-phase
Conduct
or crosssectional
area

2
cables
d.c,

3 or 4 cables - three-phase

B.C.

Reference Methods 3
and 4 (Enclosed in
conduit etc. in or on a
wall)

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (clipped or
direct on trays,
touching)

Reference Method 12
(spaced t )

Reference Methods 3
and 4 (Enclosed in
conduit etc. in or on a
wall

B.C.

Reference Methods 1,
11 and 12 (in trefoiQ

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Flat and
touching)

Reference Method 12
(flat spaced t)

'\

mrTf

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

1
1.5

44
29

44
29

44
29

44
29

38
25

38
25

38
25

38
25

2.5
4
6
10
16

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

15
9.5
6.4
3.8
2.4

15
9.5
6.4
3.8
2.4

15
9.5
6.4
3.8
2.4

15
9;5
6.4
3.8
2.4

25
35
50
70
95

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.46

1.80
1.30
0.95
0.65
0.49

0.33
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28

1.80
1.30
1.00
0.72
0.56

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.47

0.20
0.195
0.190
0.185
0.180

1.75
1.25
0.95
0.66
0.50

1.75 0.29 1.80


1.25 0.28 1.30
0.93 0.28 0.97
0.63 0.27 0.69
0.47 0.27 0.54

1.50
1.10
0.81
0.56
0.42

0.29
0.27
0.26
0.25
0.24

1.55
1.10
0.85
0.61
0.48

120
150
185
240
300

0.36
0.29
0.23
0.180
0.145

0.39 0.27
0.31 0.27
0.25 0.27
0.1950.26
0.160 0.26

0.47
0.41
0.37
0.33
0.31

0.37
0.30
0.24
0.185
0.150

0.175
0.175
0.170
0.165
0.165

0.41
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.22

0.37
0.29
0.24
0.185
0.150

0.26
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25

0.45
0.39
0.35
0.31
0.29

0.33
0.27
0.22
0.17
0.14

0.23
0.23
0.23
0.23
0.23

0.41
0.36
0.32
0.29
0.27

400
500
630
800
1000

0.105
0.086
0.068
0.053
0.042

0.1300.26 0.29
0.110 0.26 O.~
0.094 0.25 0.27

0.120
0.098
0.081
0.068
0.059

0.160
0.155
0.155
0.150
0.150

0.20
0.185
0.175
0.165
0.160

0.115
0.093
0.076
0.061
0.050

0.25
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24

0.27
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.24

0.12 0.220.25
0.10 -0.22 0.25
0.08 0.22 0.24

1.50
1.10
0.80
0.55
0.41

0.175
0.170
0.165
0.160
0.155

1.50
1.10
0.82
0.57
0.43

1.50
1.10
0.80
0.55
0.41

0.25
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.23

1.55
1.10
0.84
0.60
0.47

0.32 0.150
0.26 0.150
0.21 0.145
0.160 0.145
0.130 0.140

0.36
0.30
0.26
0.22
0.190

0.32 0.23
0.26 0.23
0.21 0.22
0.160 0.22
0.130 0.22

0.105 0.'140
0.086 0.135
0.0720.135
0.060 0.130
0.0520.130

0.175
0.160
0.150
0.145
0.140

0.105 0.21
0.086 0.21
0.072 0.21
0.060 0.21
0.052 0.20

1.50
1.10
0.80
0.55
0.40

0.32
0.32
0.32
0.31
0.31

1.55
1.15
0.86
0.63

0.40
0.34
0.31
0.27
0.25

0.32 0.30
0.26 0.30
0.21 0.30
0.160 0.20
0.130 0.29

0.44
0.40
0;36
0.34
0.32

0.24
0.23
0.22
0.22
0.21

0.100 0.29
0.081 0.29
o.oes 0.28
0.053 0.28
0.044 0.28

0.31
0.30
0.29
0.29
0.28

0.~1

Spacing larger than those specified in Method 12(see Annex A, section 8) will result in larger voltage drop.

Table B.3 Multicore P.V.C. insulated cables, non-armoured


.(copper conductors)

tS

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 7(y>c

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


I

Conductor .
cross
se tional
c
area

I Reference Method 4 (enclosed in an


insulated wall, etc.)

Reference Method 3 (enclosed in


conduit on a wall or ceiling, or in
trunking)

Reference Method 11 (on a perforated


cable tray) or Reference Method 13
(free air)
I

.
t
1 two-core cable
. I h
sing e-p ase a.c.
d
or .c,

1 three core
t
cable or 1 four
bi thre
core ca e,
e
h
p ase a.c..

1 two-core cablet,
single-phase a.c.
ord.c.

1 three-core
cable t or 1 fourcore cable, threephase a.c.

IS

mm2

1 two-core cablet,
single-phase
a.c. or d.c.

1 three-core
cal?let or 1 fourcore cable, threephase a.c,

13.5
17.5

17
22

14.5
16.5

1 three-core
1 two-core cablet
. cable t or 1 foursingle-phase a.c.
core cable, threeord.c.
phase a.c.

1
1.5

11
14

10
13

13
16.5

11.5
15

15
19.5

2.5
4
6
10
16

18.5
25
32
43
57

17.5
23
29
39
52

23
30
38
52
69

20
27
34
46
62

27
36
46
63
65

24
32
41
57
76

30
40
51
70
94

25
34
43
60
60

25
35
50
70
95

75
92
110
139
167

66
83
99
125
150

90

80

111
133
166
201

99
116
149
179

112
136
168
213
256

96
119
144
184
223

119
146
160
232
262

101
12.6
153
196
236

120
150
185
240
300

192
219
248
291
334

172
196
223
261
298

206
225
255
297
339

299
344
392
461
530

259
299
341
403
464

328
379
434
514
593

276
319
364
430
497

402

634

557

715

597

232
258

I,

294
844

1
I

394

I
400

Reference Method 1 (clipped direct)

4-~O

-.

With or Without protective conductor.


2

Circular conductors are assumed for sizes up to and including 16.0mm Values for larger sizes relate to shaped conductors and may safely be applied to circular conductors.
Note: Where the conductor is to be protected bya semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.

,I
.J

I
1

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

'Table B.4 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)

Conductor operating temperature : 70C

Conductor
Cross-sectional
area

Two-core
cable d.c ..

mm 2

mV

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

Three-or four-core cable


three-phase a.c,

mV

mV

,.,

. . .n

....

1
1.5

44
29

44
29

38
25

2.5
4
6
10
16

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

18
11
7.3
4.4
2.8

15
9.5
6.4
S.8
2.4

r '

25
35
50
70
95

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.46

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.47

0.170
. 0.165
0.165
0.160
0.155

120
150
185
240
300

0.36
0.29
0.23
0.180
0.145

0.38
0.30
0.25
0.190
0.155

0.155
0.155
0.150
0.150
. 0.145 \

400

'0.105

0.115

0.145

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

1.75
1.25
0.94
0.65
0.50

1.50
1.10
0.80
0.55
0.41

0.145
0.145
0.140
.0.140
Q.135

1.50
1.10
0.81
0.57
0.43

0.41
0.34
0.29
0.24
0.21

0.33
0.26
0.21,
0.165
0.135

0.135
0.130
0.130
0.130
0.130

0.35
0.29
0.25
0.21
0.185

0.185

0.100

0.125

0.160

EBCS-10 1995

93

\0
~

Table D.S Single-core armoured P.V.C. insulated cables, non-magnetic armour

(copper conductors)

Current-Carrying Catpacity (Amperes):


Conductor operating temperature: 70c
Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)
Conductor
crosssectional
area

Note:

Reference Method 11 on a
perforated cable tray

2 cables,

Reference Method 12 (free air)

2 cables single-phase a.c.

2 cables d.c.

2 cables,
single-phase
a.c. or d.c.
flat and
touching

3 or 4
cables,
three-phase
a.c. flat and
touching

shinglephase a.c.
flat and
touching

3 or 4
cables
three-phase
a.c. and
touching

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

Horizontal
spaced

mm2

50
70
95

193
245
296

179
225
269

205
259
313

169
238
285

229
287
349

120

342

309

360

327

401

3 or 4 cables, three-phase a.c.

Vertical,
spaced

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

3 cables
trefoil

9-

10

11

12

217
272
332

229
294
357

216
279

230
286
338

212
,263
313

161
231
280

383

415

396

385

35'7

324

340

185
240
300

447
525
594

399
465
515

469
550
624

422
492
547

511
593
668

489
568
640

548
648
748

525
622
719

490
566
616

456
528
578

425
501
567

400
500
630
800
1000

687
763
643
919
975

575
622
669
710
737

723
805
891
976
1041

618
673
728
777
808

737
8fO
893
943
1008

707
777
856
905
967

885
1035
1218
1441
1685

851
997
1174
1390
1627

674
721
771
824
872

632
676
723
7720
816

657
731
809
886
945

Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.

Table 8.6 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


Conductor operating temperature: 70De
3 or 4 cables - three-phase a.c.

2 cables - single-phase a.c.


Conductor crosssectional area

2 cables d.c.

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Touching)

Reference Method
12 (spacedl)

Reference Methods 1,
11 and 12 (in trefoil
touching)

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Flat and
touching)

Reference Method 12
(Flat spaced')

mrn"

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

"

\0
Vi

50
70
95

0.93
0.63
0.46

0.93
0.64
0.48

0.22
0.21
0.20

0.95
0.68
0.52

0.92
0.66
0.51

0.30
0.29
0.28

0.97
0.72
0.58

0.80
0.56
0.42

0.190
0.180
0.175

0.82
0.58
0.45

0.79
0.57
0.44

0.26
0.25
0.25

064
062
050

0.79
0.59
0.47

0.34
0.32
0.31

0.86
0.68
0.57

120
150
185
240
300

0.36
0.29
0.23
0.180
0.145

0.39
0.31
0.26
0.20
0.160

0.195
0.190
0.190
0.180
0.180

0.43
0.37
0.32
0.27
0.24

0.42
0.34
0.29
0.23
0.190

0,.28
0.27
0.27
0.26
0.26

0.50
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.32

0.33
0.27
0.22
0.175
0.140

0.170
0.165
0.160
0.160
0.155

0.37
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.21

0.36
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.165

0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.22

0.43
0.38
034
0.30
0.28

0.40
0.34
0.29
0.24
0.20

0.30
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.28

0.50
0.45
0.41
0.37
0.34

400
500
630
1300
1000

0.105
0.066
0.068
0.053
0.042

0.140
0.120
0.105
0.095
0.091

0.175 0.22
0.170 0.21
0.165 0.195
0.160 0.185
0.155 0.180

0.180
0.165
0.150
0.145
0.140

0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.190

0.30
0 .29
0.27
0.25
0.24

0.120
0.105
0.091
0.082
0.079

0.130
0.145
0.145
0.140
0.135

0.195
0.180
0.170
0.160
0.155

0.160
0.145
0.135
0.125
0.125

0.21
0.026
0.20
025
0.195 0.23
0.180 0.22
0.165 0.21

0.21
0.190
0.175
0.170
0.165

0.25
0.24
0.22
0.195
0.170

0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24

Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A, Section 8) will result in larger voltage drop.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.7 Multicore armoured P.V.C. insulated cables


(copper conductor)
Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):
Ambient temperature: 30C
Conductor operating temperature: 70C
Reference Method 1
(Clipped direct)

Conductor
cross-sectional
area

1 two-core cable,
Single-phase a.c.
or d.c.

- -.2

rnrn"
1.5
2.5

-.-----~----

1 three or four
core cable,
three-phase a.c.

16
25

22
31

33

41

42
56
77

53

10
16

21
26
36
49
67
69

19
26
35
45
62
63

25
35
50
70
95

116
145
175
222
269

102
125
151
192
231

126
157
190
241
291

120
150
165
240
300

310
356

267
306

336
366

400

96

1 two-core cable,
single-phase
a.c. or d.c.

1 three or four
core cable,
three-phase a.c.
3

Note:

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforated horizontal or vertical cable
tray), or Reference Method 13 (free
air)

72
97

110
135
163

207
251

547

346
409
469

592

290
332
376
445
510

621

540

663

590

405

476

439
516

Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A. 6.2 of the Preface to this
Annex.

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.8 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)

Conductor operating temperature: 70C

Conductor
crosssectional area

Two-core cable
d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c,

three or four-core cable,


three-phase a.c.

rnrn"

mV

mY

mV

1.5

29

29

25

2.5
4

10

16

18

11

7.3
4.4
2.8

18

11

7.8
4.4

15

9.5
6.4
3.8

2.6

2.4

25

35

50

70

95

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.46

1.75
1.25
0.93
0.63
0.47

0.170
0.165
0.165
0.160
0.155

1.75
1.25
0.94
0.65
0.50

0.41~

0.145
0.145
0.140
0.140
0.135

120

150

185

240

300

0.36
0.29
0.23
0.180
0.145

0.38
0.30
0.25
0.190
0.155

0.155 0.41
0.155 0.34
0.150
0.29
0.150
0.24
0.145
0.21

0.33
0.26
0.21
0.165
0.135

0.135
0.130
0.130
0.130
0.130

0.35
0.29
0.25
0.21
0.185

400

0.105

0.115

0.145 0.185

0.100

0.125

0.160

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

1.50
1.10
0.80
0.55

EBCS-10 1995

1.50
1.10
0.81
0.57
0.43

97

. ,~..s

\0

Table B.9 Single-core cables having thermosetting insulation, non-armoured, with or without sheath

00

(copper conductors)
Current carrying capacity (Amperes):

Conduct
or
cross
sectlona :
I area

Reference Method 4 (enclosed


in conduit in thermally
Insulating wall etc.)

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 90C
Reference Method 3 (enclosed
in conduit on a wall or in . . . Reference Method 1 (clipped
direct)
trunking etc.)

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforated cable tray horizontal
or vertical

Reference Method 12 (fee air)


Horizontal flat
spaced,

Vertical flat
spaced

Trefoil

a,c.

2 cables
single phase
ac. or d.c,

3 or 4 cables
three- phase
ac.

2 cables
single-phase
ac. or d.c. flat
and touching

3 or 4 cables
three-phase
ac. flat and
trunking or
trefoil

2 cables
single-phase
ac. or d.c. flat
and touching

3 or 4
. cables threephase ac. flat
and touching
or trefoil

2 cables,
single phase
acor d.c. or
3 cables
three-phase

2 cables,
single-phase
ac. or d.c. or
3 cables
three-phase

3 cables,
trefoil threephase a.c,

10

11

12

1
1.5

14
18

13
17

17
22

15
19

19
25

17.5
23

2.5
4
6
10
16

24
33
43
58
76

23
30
39
53
70

30
40
51
71
95

26
35
45
63
85

34
46
59
81
109

31
41
54
74
99

25
35
50
70
95

100
124
149
189
228

91
111
135
170
205

126
156
189
240
290

111
138
168
214
259

143
176
228
293
355

130
161

158
195
293
308
375

140
176
215
279
341

183
226
274
351
426

163
203
246
318
389

138
171
209
270
330

120
150
185
240
300

263

235
270
306
358
410

336
375
426
500
573

299

300
341
400

328
370
433
.\
493

413
476
545

379
436
500
590
681

436
505
579

495
570
651

686
794

398
461
530
630
730

683
783
900

793
904
1033
1179
1323

915
1044
1191
1358
1520

849
973
1115
1275
1436

1065

2 cables
single phase
a,c. or d.c.

3 or 4 cables
three- phase

400
500
630
800
1000

459

644
743

584

868

666

990
1130
1288
1443

764

209
268
326

"

769
886

1228
1423
1581
1n5

453

385

524
600
711
824

511
606
701

994
1150
1338
1485
1671

820
936
1069
1214
1349

445

Note:
Where the conductor is to "be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
The current-carrying capacity in Columns 2 to 5 are also applicable to flexible cables where the cables are used in fixed installations. For cable in rigid p.v.c. conduit. the values stated
in Tables B.1 and B.2 are applicable. Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7rfC, it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable
for the conductor operating temperature.
.

Table B.10 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperature: 90C
2 cables, single-phase a.c.
Reference
Methods 3 and
4(Enclosed in
conduit etc. in or
on a wall)

3 or 4 cables- three-phase .a.c,


Reference
Methods 3 and 4
(Enclosed in
conduit etc. in or
on a wall)

Reference Method
1 and 11 (Clipped
direct or on trays,
touching)

Reference Method
12 (Spaced t )

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

1
1.5

46
31

46
31

46
31

46
31

40
27

40
27

40
27

40
27

2.5
4
6
10
16

19
12
7.9
4.7
2.9

19
12
7.9
4.7
2.9

19
12
7.9
4.7
2.9

19
12
7.9
4.7
2.9

16
10
6.8
4.0
2.5

16
10
6.8
4.0
2.5

16
10
6.8
4.0
2.5

16
10
6.8
4.0
2.5

Conducto
r cross
sectional
area

2
Cable
s d.c.

rnrn"

r
25
35 .
50
70
95

" X

0.28
0.27
0.27
0.26
0.26

1.85
1.35
0.99
0.68
0.49

1.85
1.35
1.00
0.70
0.51

0.31
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.27

1.90
1.35
1.05
0.75
0.58

1.85
1.35
0.99
0.68
0.49

0.190
0.180
0.180
0.175
0.170

1.85
1.35
1.00
0.71
0.52

1.85
1.35
0.99
0.68
0.49

120
150
185
240
300

0.39
0.32
0.25
0.190
0.155

0.41
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.175

0.26
0.26
0.26
0.26
0;25

0.48
0.43
0.37
0.33
0.31

0.39
0.32
0.26
0.20
0.10

0.165
0.165
0.165
0.160
0.160

0.43
0.36
0.30
0.25
0.22

0.39
0.25
0.32
0.25
0.25 0.25
0.195 0.25
0.155 0.25

400
500
630
800
1000

0.120
0.093
0.072
0.056
0.045

0.140 0.25
0.120 0.25
0.100 0.25

0.29
0.28
0.27

0.1300.155
0.1050.155
0.086 0,155
0.072 0.150
0.063 0.150

0.20
0.185
0,175
0.170
0,165

0.1~5
0.098
0.078
0.064
0,054

0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24

z
1.85
1.35
1.00
0.73
0.56

r
1.60
1.15
.0.87
0.60
0.44

Reference
Methods 1, 11,
and 12 (In trefoil)

0{2.7
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.23

1.65
1.15
0.90
0.65
0.50

1.60
1.15
0.86
0.59
0.43

0.165
0.155
0.155
0.150
0.145

0.23
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.22

z
1.60
1.15
0.87
0.61
0.45

Reference
Methods 12 (Flat

spacedl)

1.60
1.15
0.86
0.59
0.43

0.190
0.180
0.180
0.175
0.170

1.6ci
1.15
0.87
0.62
0.46

1.60
1.15
0.86
0.59
0.43

0.27
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25

1.65
1.20
0.89
0.65
0.49

0.47
0.41
0.36
0.31
0.29

0.35
0.29
0.23
0.185
0.150

0.42
0.37
0.32
0.29
0.27

0.34
0.28
0.22
0.170
0.140

0.140 0.37
0.140 0.31
0.140 0.26
0.140 0.22
0.1400.195

0.34
0.28
0.22
0.170
0.135

0.165
0.165
0.165
0.165
0.160

0.38
0.32
0.28
0.24
0.21

0.34
0.28
0.22
0.170
0.135

0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24

0.42
0.37
0,33
0.29
0.27

0.27
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.24

0.125 0.22 0.25


0.100 0.22 0.24
0.088 0.21 0.23

0.110
0.090
0,074
0.062
0.p55

0.1350.175
0.1350.160
0.1350.150
0.1300.145
0.1300.140

0.110
0.088
0.071
0.059
0.050

0.160 0.195
0.1600.180
0.160 0.170
0.155 0.165
0.155 0.165

0.110
0.085
0,068
0.055
0.047

0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.23

0.26
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.24

\0
\0

Reference
Methods 1 and 11
(Flat touching)

Spacing larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A, Section B) will result in larger voltage drop'

8
I'

Table B.ll . Multicore, non..a rmoured cable having thermosetting insulation


(copper conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30"C
Conductor operating temperature: 90"C

. Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Reference Method 4 (enclosed in an


insulated wall, etc.)
Conductor
CrossSectional area

Reference Method 1 (clipped direct)

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforated cable tray) or Reference
Method 13 (free air)

1 two-core cable
single-phase a.c.
or d.c.

1 three- or
four-core cable
three-phase
a.c.

1 two-core
cable singlephase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three- or fourcore cable threephase a.c.

1 two-core
cable singlephase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three- or fourcore cable threephase a.c.

1 two-core
cable singlephase a.c.
0" d.c,

1 three-or fourcore cable threephase a.c.

rnrn"

107

96

115

100

105
128
154
194
233

138
171
209
269
328

119
147
179
229
278

149
185
225
289
352

127
158
192
246
298

305
334
384
459
532

268
300
340
398
455

382
441
506
599
693

322
371
. 424
500
576

410
473
542
641
741

346
399
456
538
621

625

536

803

667

865

16

76-

68

91

80

25
35
50
70
95

99
121
145
183
220

89
109
130
164
197

119
146
175
221
265

120
150
185
240
300

.253
290
329
386
442

227
259
295
346
396

400

Note:

Reference Method 3 (enclosed in


conduit on a wall or ceiling , or in
trunking)

:~

741

(i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to the Annex.
(ii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 70C, it shall be ascertained that theequipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor

operating temperature.

!.

,.

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.12 Voltage Drop(per ampere per metre)

Conductor operating temperature : 90C

Conductor
cross- sectional
area

Two-core cable
d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

rnm"

mV

16

2.9

Three-or four-core cable


three-phase a.c.
4
,

mV
2.9

mV
2.5

1.85
1.35
0.99
0.67
0.50

0.160
0.155
0.155
0.150
0.150

1.90
1.35
1.00
0.69
0.52

1.60
1.15
0.86
0.59
0.43

0.'140
0.135
0.135
0.130
0.130

1.65
1.15
0.87
0.60
0.45

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195
0.155

0.40
0.32
0.26
0.200
0.160

0.145
0.145
0.145
0.140
0.140

0.42
0.35
0.29
0.24
0.21

0.34
0.28
0.22
0.175
0.140

0.130
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.120

0.37
0.30
0.26
0.21
0.185

0.120

0.130

0.145

0.195

0.115

0.125

0.170

25
35
50
70
95

1..85
1.35
0.98
0.67
0.49

120
150
185
240
300
400

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

101

'~
"""
Table B.13 Single-core cables having thermosetting insulation, non-magnetic armour
(copper conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30"c
Conductor operating temperature: 9O"C

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Method 1
(clipped djrect)
Conductor
crosssectional
area

Reference Method 12 (free air)

~cables,

singlephase a.c.
or d.c. flat
and
touching

3 or 4
cables,
threephase a.c.
flat &
touching

mm2

50
70
95

237
303

Note:

Reference Method 11 (on


a perforated cable tray)

2 cables single-phase

3 or 4
cables
threephase a.c.
flat &
touching

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

Horizontal
spaced

Vertical
spaced

Horizontal
flat spaced

10

11

12

253
322
389

232
293
352

282
357
436

266
3$1
412

284
356
446

270
349
426

288
358
425

266

~67

220
277
333

331
393

222
285
346

120
150
185
240
300

425
488
557
656
755

383
437
496
579
662

449
516
587
689
792

405
462
524
612
700

504
566
643
749
842

477

519

539
614
714
805

600

497
575

688
815
943

782

485
549
618
715
810

449
510
574
666
755

402
463
529
625
720

400
500
630
800
1000

853
962
1082
1170
1261

717
791
861
904
961

899
1016
1146
1246
1345

767
851
935
987
1055

929
1032
1139
1204
1289

889
989
1092
1155
1238

1137
1314
1528
1809
2100

1094
1266
1474
1744
2026

848
923

797
8r
940
978
1041

815
918
1027
1119
1214

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c. flat
& touching

2 cables d.c.

a.c.

3 or 4 cables. three-phase a.c.

660

906

99~r

1042
1110

Ve~ical

flat
spaced

3 cables trefoil

(i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse. see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
(ii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7C1'C. it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating
temperature.

Table B.14 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


COnductor operating temperature: 90"C
-

2 cables - single-phase a.c.


Conductor cross
sectional area

2 cables d.c.

rnrn"

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Touching)

Reference Method 12
(Spaced t )

Reference Methods 1,
11 and 12 (in trefoil
.touching)

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Flat touching)

Reference Method
12( Flat spaced')

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

......
o

IoN

3 or 4 cables - three-phase a.c.

0.64
0.62
0.49

0.33
0.32
0.31

0.90
0.70
0.56

.0.21
0.200
0.195

1.00
0.71
0.55

0.96
0.69
0.53

0.29
0.29
0.26

1.00
0.75
0.60

0.66
0.59
0.44

0.160
0.170
0.170

0.67
0.62
0.47

0.64
0.60
0.46

0.25
0.25
0.24

0.66
0.65
0.52

0.41
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.170

0.190
0.165
0.165
0.160
0.175

0.45
0.36
0.33
0.26
0.25

0.43
0.36
0.30
0.24
0.195

0.27
0.27
0.26
0.26
0.25

0.51
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.32

0.35
0.29
0.23
0.160
0145

0.165
0.160
0.160
0.155
0.150

0.39
0.33
0.26
0.24
0.21

0.36
0.31
0.26
0.21
0.170

0.24
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.22

0.44 . 0.41
0.39
0.34
0.34
0.29
0.30
0.24
0.26
0.20

0.145
0.125
0.105
0.090
0.092

0.170
0.170
0.165
0.160
0.155

0.22
0.21
0.195
0.190
0.160

0.160
0.165
0.150
0.145
0.140

0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.21

0.30
0.29
0.27
0.27
0.25

0.125
0.105
0.092
0.066
0.060

0.150
0.145
0.145
0.140
0.135

0.195
0.160
0.170
0.165
0.155

0.160
0.145
0.135
0.130
0.125

0.21
0.20
0.195
0.160
0.170

50
70
95

0.96
0.67
0.49

0.99
0.66
0.51

120
150
165
240
300

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195
0.155

400
500
630
600
1000

0.115
0.093
0.073
0.056
0.045

Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A, Section 8) will result in larger voltage drop .

0.27
0.25
0.24
0.23
.0.21

0.20
0.190
0.175
0.175
0.165

0.30
0.29
0.29
0.26
0.27

0.51
0.45
0.41
0.37
0.34

0.27
0.24
0.23
0.195
0.160

0.33
0.31
0.29
0.26
0.24

------'-

---------~------

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.15 Multicore armoured cables having thermosetting insulation


(copper conductors)

Ambient temperature : 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 90C

Current-Carrying Capacity (Amperes):

Reference Method 11 (on


perforated horizontal or vertical
cable tray) or Reference Method 13
(free air)

Reference Method 1 (clipped direct)


Conductor cross
sectional area

1 two-core
cable, single
phase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three-or four
core cable,
three-phase a.c.

1 two-core
cable, single
phase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three-or fourcore cable,


three-phase a.c.

rnrn"

1.5

27

23

29

2.5
4
6
10
16

36
49
62
85
110

31
42
53
73
94

39
52
66
90
115

33
44
56
78
99

25
35
50
70
95

146
180
219
279
338

124
154
187
238
289

152
188
228
291
354

131
162
197
251
304

120
150
185
240
300

392
451
515
607
698

335
386
441
520
599

410
472
539
636
732

353
406
463
546
628

400

787

673

847

728

t!'

25

Note:

(i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this
Annex.
(ii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7(J'C, it shall be ascertained that the
equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating temperature.

104

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

------"----

-._._._--_.-.-._-~-

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.16 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


:"J.

Conductor operating temperature: 90C


Conductor
crosssectional
area

Two-core Cable
d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

mm 2

mV
,"

Three-or four-core cable


three-phase a.c.

mV

mV

1.5

31

31

27

2.5
4
6
10
16

19
12
7.9
4.7
2.9

19
12
7.9
,.. 4.7
2.9

16
10
6.8
4.0
2.5

25/
35
50
70
95

1.85
1.35
0.98
0.67
0.49

1.85
1.35
0.99
0.67
0.50

0.160
0.155
0.155
0.150
0.150

1.35
1.00
0.69
0.52

1.60
1.15
0.86
0.59
0.43

0.140
1.135
0.135
0.130
0.130

1.65
1.15
0.87
0.60
0.45

120
150
185
240
300

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195
0.155

0.40
0.32
0.26
0.20
0.16'

0.145
0.145
0.145
0.140
0.140

0.42
0.35
0.29
0.24
0.21

0.34
0.28
0.22
0.175
0.140

0.130
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.120

0.37
0.30
0.26
0.21
0.185

400

0.120

0.13

0.145

0.195

0.115

0.125

0.170

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

1.90

EBCS-10 1995

105

""""
~

Table B.17 Ssingle-core non-armoured cables having 8SoC rubber insulation


(copper conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30"C
Conductor operating temperature: 85"C

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Method 3 (enclosed in
conduit, etc. in or on a wall)
Conductor
Cross
sectional
area

1
mm

Reference Method 1(clipped direct)

2 cables, singlephase a,c. or d.e,


flat and touching

3 or 4 cables

Reference Method 11(on a perforated


cable tray)Horizontai or Vertical

3 or 4 cables, three-

.
-

154
192
235
3:J3
370

134
167
204
262
320

451
499
573
079

373
432
495
587
680

3 or 4 cables

phase a,c, or d.c.

three- phase a,c.

17

three-phase a,c.
flat and touching
or trefoil .

phase e,c. flat and


touching or trefoil

1
1.5

15
19.5

19
25

17.5

22

2.5
4
6
10
16

30
40
52
72
96

27
36
46
63
85

34
45

59
81
108

31
42
54
75
100

.
-

25
35
50
70
95

127
157
190
242
293

112
138
167
213
258

143
177
215
274
332

133
164
199

'153
189
229

140
174
211

254

308

293
356

327

120
150
185
240
300

339

298

372
428
510
593

334

384
442
519
607
695

357
411
469
553
636

412
475
542
639
735

379
437
499
589
679

827
946
1088

755

860
989
1143

798
,918
1062

400
500
630

443

506

719

602

835

689

975

791

single-phase a,c,
or d.c. or 3 or L
cables 'three
phase ac. flat
spaced horizontal
or vertical

2 cables, single
phase a.c. or d.c.
flat and touching

2 cable single

379

Reference Method 12 (free air)

23

865

996

269

786
929

1061
1263

3 cables trefoil three-phase


a.c,

799
919
1060

Note:(i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 oft the Preface to Annex.
.
(ii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 70C ,it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating temperature.

Table B.18 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


Conductor operating temperature: 85C
3 or 4 cables - three-phase a.c,

2 cables - single-phase ac.:


Conductor
crosssectional

2
cables
d.c.

Reference Method
3(Enclosed in conduit
etc. in or on a wall

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (clipped
director on trays,
touching)

Reference M~hod 12
Spaced )

Reference Method
3(Enclosed in conduit .
etc. in or on a wall)

Reference Methods
1. 11, and 12 (in
trefoil touching)

mm2

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

1
1.5

46
31

46
31

46
31

40
26

40
26

40
26

2.5
4
6
10
16

18
12
7.7
4.6
2.9

18
12
7.7
4.6
2.9

18
12
7.7
4.6
2.9

16
10
6.7
4.0
2.5

16
10
6.7
4.0
2.5

16
10
6.7
4.0
2.5

t
I-"

'x

. Reference Methods 1
. Reference Meth~ 12
and 11 (Flat
(Flat spaced )
touching)

1.60 0.25

1.60

1.60

0.32

1.65

25

1.80

1:85 0.32 1.90

1.85 0.20

1.85

1.85

0.29

1.85

1.60

0.28

1.65

1.60 0.175

35
50
70
95

1.30
0.95
0.65
0.48

1.35
1.00
0.68
0.51

0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28

1.40
1.05
0.74
0.58

1.30
0.97
0.66
0.49

0.195
0.190
0.185
0;180

1.35
0.99
0.69
0.52

1.30
0.97
0.66
0.49

0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27

1.35
1.00
0.72
0.56

1.15
0.87
0.60
0.44

0.27
0.26
0.25
0.25

1.20
0.91
0.65
0.51

1.15
0.84
0.57
0.43

0.170 1.15
0.165 0.86
0.160 0.60
0.155 0.45

1.15
0.84
0.57
0.43

0.24
0.24
0.24
0.23

1.15
0.88
0.62
0.48

1.15
0.84
0.57
0.42

0.32
0.32
0.31
0.31

1.20
0.90
0.65
0.52

120
150
185
240

0.38
0.30
0.25
0.190

0.40
0.33
0.27
0.21

0.27
0.27
0.27
0.26

0.49
0.42
0.38
0.33

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195

0.175 0.43
0.175 0.36
0.170 0.30
0.165 0.26

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195

0.26
0.26
0.26
0.25

0.47
0.40
0.36
0.32

0.35
0.29
0.23
0.180

0.24
0.24
0.23
.0.23

0.43
0.37
0.33
0.29

0.34
0.27
0.22
0.170

0.155
0.150
0.150
0.145

0.37
0.31
0.26
0.22

0.34
0.27
0.22
0.170

0.23
0.23
0.22
0.22

0.41
0.35
0.31
0.28

0.34
0.27
0.22
0.170

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

0.45
0.40
0.37
0.34

300
400
500
630

0.150
0.115
0.091
0.072

0.170
0.140
0.115
0.100

0.26
0.26
0.26
0.25

0.31
0.30
0.28
0.27

0.155
0.125
0.100
0.082

0.165
0.160
0.155
0.155

0.155
0.120
0.097
0.077

0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24

0.29
0.28
0.26
0.25

0.150
0.130
0.105
0.085

0.23
0.22
0.22
0.22

0.27
0.26
0.24
0.24

0.135
0.110
0.089
0.073

0.140
0.140
0.135
0.135

0.195
0.175
0.165
0.155

0.135
0.110
0.089
0.073

0.22
0.21
0.21
0.21'

0.26 .
0.24
0.23
0.22

0.135
0.105
0.085
0.067

0.29
0.29
0.29
0.28

0.32
0.31
0.30
0.29

0.23
0.20
0.185
0.175

Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A of Section 8) will result in larger voltage drop.

1.60

t-'

o00
Table B.19 Multicore, sheathed and non-armoured cables having 85C rubber insulation
(copper conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30"C
Conductor operating temperature: 85C

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Method

3 (enclosed)

Reference Method

1 (clipped direct)

sectional area

11 (on a perforated cable tray). or

1 two-core cable single

1 three- or four-core

1 two-core cable, single

1 three- or four-core

1 two-core cable single

1 three- or four-core cable, three-

phase a.c. or d.c.

cable, phase a.c.

phase a.c. or d.c,

cable, three-phase a.c.

phase a,c, or d.c,

phase a.c.

"7

mm2

1
1.5

6.5
21

14.5
18.5

18
23

16
20

19.5

17.5

25

22

25
33

32

34

43

55
76
103

28
37
48
66

30
40
52
71

2.5
4
6
10
16

I
I

29
38
48
66

87
114
139
167
211

58
77
100
122
147

43

50
70
95

254

! ss
Z"!2

136
168
201
256
310

120
150
185
240
300

292
320
368
439
509

256
287
326
381
436

359
413
470
553
636

25
35

Note: (i)
(ii)

Reference Method

Refrence Metthod 13 (free air)

Conductor cross-

88

46
59
81
109

117
144
174
222
269

144
177
213
272
329

123
151
186
237
287

312

381
438
499
587
675

333
383
437
515
593

~59

409
482
555

Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 70C, it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating temperature.

94

----------'------------------'------~~---~-~~~--~~-----'----~-'---'--~-

I
I

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.20 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperatures: 85uC
Conductor
cross- sectional
area

Two-core
cable d.c.

Two-core cable single-phase a.c.

Three- or four-core, cable threephase a.c.

rnrn"

mV

mV

mV

1.5

46

31

46

31

40

26

2.5

10

16

19

12

7,7

4.6

2.9

19

12

7.7
4.6
2.9

16

10

6.7
4.0
2.5

25

35

50

70

95

1.80
1.30
0.95
0.65
0.48

1.85
1.30
0.97
0.66
0.49

0.175
0,170
0.170
0,165
0.160

1,85
1.35
0.99
0.68
0.52

1.60
1,15
0.84
0.58
0.43

120

150

185

240

300

0.38
0.30
0.25
0.190
0.150

0.39
0.31
0.25
0.195
0.155

0.160
0.155
0,155
0.150
0.150

0.42
0.35
0.30
0.25
0,22

0.34
0,27
0.22
0,170
0.135

0.150
0.150
0.145
0.140
0.140

1.60
1.15
0.86
0,59
0.45

0.135
0.135
0.130
0.130
0.130

0,36
0.30
0.26
0.22
0.185

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995 - 109

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.21 60C rubber-insulated flexible cables, other than flexible cords
Current-carrying capacity: Ambient temperature: 30C
(Amperes): Conductor operating temperature: 60"C
Single-phue a,c, or d.c ..

Three-phase a,c.

Single phase a.c. or d.c,

1 two-core cable with or


without protective conductor

1 three-core, four-core or
five- core cable

2 single core cables

mm2

.-

Conductor
cross- sectional
area

--_ ....

.... _.. _--

4
6
10
16

30
39
51

26
34
47

73

63

25
35
50
70
95

97

83
102
124
158
192

120
150
185
240
300

222
255
291

400
500
630
Notes:

',~"

140
175
216
258

394

302
347
394
471
541

644
738
861

343

(i) The tabulated current ratings are for cables in free air, but may also be used for cables resting on a surface.
If the cable is to wound on a drum on load, the ratings should be reduced in accordance with (iii) below and,
for cables which may be covered, (iv) below.
(ii) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the preface to this Annex.
(iii) The current ratings of cables used on reeling drums are to be reduced by the following factors:
a) Radial type drum

i)
ii)

ventilated: 85%

unventilated: 75%

b) Ventilated cylindrical type drum

i) 1 layer cable: 85%

ii) 2 layers of cable: 65 %

iii} 3 layers of cable: 45%

iv) 9 layers of cable: 35%

A radial-type drum is one where spiral layers of cable are accommodated between closely spaced flanges; if fitted
with solid flanges, the ratings given above should be reduced and the drum is described as non-ventilated, and if
the flanges have suitable apertures as ventilated.
A ventilated cylindricalcable drum is one where layers of cable are accommodated between widely spaced flanges
and the drum and end flanges have suitable ventilating apertures.
(iv) Where cable may be covered over or coiled up whilst on load, or the air movement over the cable restricted,
the current rating should be reduced.
It is not possible to specify the amount of reduction; but the table of rating factors for reeling drums can be used

as a guide.

110

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

Table B.22 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


Conductor operating temperature: 60"C

........
....

Conductor
crosssectional
area

Two-core
cable d.c.

Two-core cable single-phase


a.c.

1 three-core, four-core or five-core


cable three-phase a.e,

mrn"

mV

mV

4,
6
10
16

12
7.8
4.6
2.9

12
7.8
4.6
2.9
r

-x

1.80

0.175

25
35
50
70
95

1.80

120
150
185
240
300

400
500
630

Larger voltage drop will result if the cables are spaced .

z
1.85

d.c.

Single-phase a.c. t

mV

mV

mV

10
6.7
4.0
2.5

1.55
1.10
0.83
0.57
0.42

0.150
0.150
0.145
0.140
0.135

0.8~

0.33
0.27
0.22
0.170
0.135

0.135
0.130
0.130
0.130
0.125

2 single-core cables touching

1.55'
1.15

0.58
0.44

1.31
0.91
0.64
0.49

1.31
0.91
0.64
0.49

0.21
0.21
0.20
0.195

1.32
0.93
0.61
0.53

0.36
0.30
0.26
0.21
0.185

0.38
0.31
0.25
0.190
0.150

0.38
0.31
0.25
0.195
0.155

0.190
0.190
0.190
0.185
0.180

0.43
0.36
0.32
0.27
0.24

0.115
0.090
0.068

0.120
0.099
0.079

0.175
0.170
0.170

0.21
0.20
0.185

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.23 85C or 150C robber-insulated flexible cables


Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Conductor cross
sectionalaf8a

d.c. or singlll-phase a.c.


(1 twocore cable, with
or without protectIve
conductor)

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 85C

Thf8e-phase a.c. (1 three


cors, four-core or fivlI
corB cablB)

Single phase a.c. ~r d.c. 2


singlll-corll cabllis
touching

mnl

4
6

41
53
73
99

36
47
64
86

--

10

16
25
35

131

50
70

95
120
150

114

240
300

192

140
170

240

216
262

297
354

303

414
476

348
397
467
537

185

540

645
741
885

400
500
630

1017
1190

CORRECTION FACTOR FOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURE


85 DC rubber-insulated cables:
Ambient Temperature (DC):
35
40
45
50
55 60
65
70
75
80
0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.74 0.67 0.60 0.52 0.43 0.30
Correction factor:
150C rubber-insulated cables:
35 to 85
90
95 100 105 110 115 t 120t 125 t 130135 t
Ambient Temperature (0C)
1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.83 0.78 0.73 0.68 0.62 0.55 0.48
Correction factor:

Ambient Temperature (0C):


Correction factor:
t

140t 145
0.39 0.28

Refer to notes for Table B.2l.

112

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

Table B.24 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperature: 85"C

Conductor
cross-sectional
area

1 two-core or single-core
cables d.c.

2 single-core cables touching

Two-core cable single-phase


a.c.

1 three-core, four-core or fivecore cable three-phase a.c.

Single-phase a,e, t

"'

mm"

mV

mV

mV

mV

4
6
10
16

13
8.4
5.0
3.1

13
8.4
5.0
3.1

11
7.3
4.3
2.7

""""
VJ
""""

25
35
50
70
95

2.0
1.42
0.99
0.70
0.53

120
150
185
240
300

0.41
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.165

400
500
630

0.125
0.098
0.073

2.00

0.175

z
2.00

1.70
1.20
0.90
0.61
0.46

0.150
0.150
0.145
0.140
0.135

1.70
1.20
0.91
0.63
0.48

0.36
0.29
0.24
0.185
0.145

0.135
0.130
0.130
0.130
0.125

0.39
0.32
0.27
0.22
0.195

1.42
0.99
0.70
0.53

0.21
0.21 "
0.20
0.195

1.43
1.01
0.72
0.56

0.41
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.170

0.190
0.190
0.190
0.185
0.180

0.46
0.38
0.33
0.28
0.25

- 0.130
- 0.105
- 0.084

0.175
0.170
0.170

0.22
0.20
0.190

Note:(i) The voltage drop figures given above are based on a conductor operating temperature of 8SoC and are, therefore, not accurate when the operating temperature is
in excess of 8SC. In the case of the lSO"C cables with a conductor temperature of lSO"C, the above resistive values should be increased by a factor of 1.2 (This factor is only
applicable to the range of lS00C rubber-insulated cables up to 16mm2 nominal cross-sectional area).
(ii) larger voltage drop will result if the cables are spaced.

--------------~

---~~

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.25 Current-carrying capacity [Amperes] (flexible cords)

Single-phase a.c.

Three-phase a.e,

Maximum mass
supportable by
twin flexible cord

mm"

kg

0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2.5
4

3
6
10
13
16
25
32

3
6
10

3.

Conductor crosssectional area

Current-carrying capacity

~-~

16
20
25

2
5
5
5
5
5

Where cable is on a reel, see notes to Table B.2l.

CORRECTION FACTOR FOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURE


60C rubber and p.v.c. cords:
Ambient Temperature (0C):
Correction factor:

35
40 ~
45
50
55
0.91 0.82 0.71 0.58 0.41

85C rubber cords having a h.o.f.r. sheath or a heat-resisting p.v.c, sheath and for 85Cheat-resisting p.v.c.
cords:
55
60
65
70
Ambient Temperature (Oe): 35 to 50
Correction factor:
1.00 0.96 0.83 0.67 0.47
1500C rubber cords:
Ambient Temperature (C):35 to 120 125 130 135 140 145
Correction factor:
1.00 0.96 0.85 0.74 0.60 0.42
Glass'fiber cords:
Ambient Temperature (C):35 to 150 155 160 165 170 175
Correction factor:
1.00 0.92 0.82 0.71 0.57 0.40

\
\

114

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.26 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)

Conductor operating temperature: 60 0Ct

Conductor crosssectional area

d.c. or single-phase a.c.

Three-phase a.c.

mm"

mV

mV

0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.50
4.00

93
62'
46
37
32
19
12

80
54
40

2:7
10 .
16

The tabulated values are for 60"C rubber-insulated and p.v.c-insulated flexible cords. For other types of
flexible cords, they are to be multiplied by the following factors:
.
For 85C rubber or p.v.c-insulated:
150"C rubber-insulated:
185C glass fibre:

1.09

1.31

1.43

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

115

1--1
1--1

I.

Table B.27 Mineral insulated cables bare and exposed to touch (see Note ii below) or having overall covering of P.V.C.

0\

(copper conductors and sheath)


Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):
Reference Method 1 (Clipped Direct)

Ambient temperature: 30C


Sheath operating temperature: 70C

2 single core
cables or 1
Conductor
two-core
cross-sectional
.
cable,
singlearea
.
phase a.c. or
d.c.
I

3 single-core
cables In
trefolle or 1
three-core
cable, threephase a.c.

3 single-core
cables in flat
formation,
three- phase
a.c. ~

1 four-core
cable 3 cores
loaded threephase a.c.

1 four-core
cable all cores
loaded

1 seven-core
cable all
cores loaded

1 twelve-core
cable all cores
loaded

1 nineteencore cable
all cores
loaded

rnrn"

Light duty, 500V


1
1.5
2.5
4

18.5
23
31
40

15
19
26
35

17
21
29
38

15
19.5
26

13
16.5
22

10
13
17.5

Heavy duty, 750V

1
1.5

19.5
25

16
21

18
23

16.5
21

14.5
18

11.5
14.5

9.5
12.0

8.5
10.0

2.5
4
6
10
16

34
45
57
77
102

28
37
48
65
86

31
41
52
70
92

28
37
47
64
85

25
32
41
55
72

19.5
26

16.0

25
35
50
70
95

133
163
202
247
296

112
137
169
207
249

120
147
181
221
264

110

94

120
150
185
240

340
388
440
514

286
327
371
434

303
346
392
457

i) For single-core cables, the sheaths of the circuit are assumed to be connected together at both ends.
For bare cables exposed to touch, t~e tabulated values should be multiplied by O~9. ~~
_______ 0__

. -lD

,I,
I'

Note:

"..

sheath)~(:;;~t;'d)"J

..........--------------(~-----

Jl.

(copper conductors and

u ........

qi;overall covering ofP.V.C.

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Method 11 (On a perforated cable tray, horizontal or vertical)

Conductor
cross- sectional
area

2 singlecore
cables
touching

1 twocore
cables

Single phase a.c. or


d.c.

Ambient temperature; 30"C'


Sheath operating temperature: 70C

1 threecore
cable,
threephase a.c.

1 four-core
cable 3
loaded
three-phase
a.c.

1 fourcore
cable all
cores
loaded

1 sevencore
cable all
cores
loaded

1 twelvecore
cable all
cores
loaded

1
nineteen-

3 single - core cables three-phase a.c,

core
cable all
cores
loaded

Vertical
space

Horizoota
Flat
I spaced touching

Trefoil

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

18.5
24
31
42

19.5
25
33
44

16.5
21
28
37

16
21
28

14
18
24

11
14
19

19
25
32
43

22
28
37
48

17
22

1
1.5

20
25

21
26

17.5
22

18
23

16
20

12
15.5

10
13

2.5
4
6
10
16

34
45
57
78
104

36
47
60
82
109

30
40
51
69
92

30
40
51
68
89

27
35
44
59
78

21
28

17

25
35
50
70
95

135
165
204
251
301

142
174
215
264
317

120
147
182
223
267

116

101

120
150
185
240

346
395
448
524

364
416
472
552

308
352
399
466

mm

Ught duty, 500V

1.0
1.5
2.5
4.0 .-

29'

39

16.5
21
28
37
I,

Heavy duty, 750V

......

......
-l

.
.

9
11

21
27

35
47
59
80
105

24
30
41

19
25

17.5
22

67
90
119

32
43
54
,,73
97

30
40
51
69
92

135
164
202
246
294

154
187
230
279
333

125
153
188
229
275

120
147
182
223
267

I'

335
380
424
472

382
431
482
537

314
358
405
471

308
352
399
466

53

Note: i) For single-core cables, the sheaths of the circuit are assumed to be connected together at both ends .
ii) For bare cable exposed to touch, the tabulated values should be multiplied by 0.9.

I,

.......

Table B.27 Mineral insulated cables bare and exposed to touch (see note 2) or having overall- covering of P.V.C

......

00

(copper conductors and sheath) (conte'd)


Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):
Reference Methods 12 and 13 (Free air)

Conductor
crosssectional area

rnrn"
~

Light duty 500V


1
1.5
2.5
4

Ambient temperature: 3O"C


Sheath operating temperature: 70C

3 single-core
2 single- core
cables in trefoil or
cables or 1 two1 three core
core cable, single
cable, threephase a.c. or d.c.
phase a.c.

1 four-core
cable 3 cores
loaded threephase a.c.

1 four-core
cable all
cores
loaded

1 sevencore cable
all cores
loaded

1 twelvecore cable
all cores
loaded

1 nineteencore cable
all cores
load

25

26

27

22

23

24

3 single-core cables threephase a.c.

I Touchin

Vertical
spaced

Horizont
al
spaced

28

29

30

31

.
19.5
25
33
44

16.5
21
28
37

16
21
28

24

16
20

20
26
34
45

23
29
39
51

18
23
31
41

12
15.5

10
13

9
11

22
32

25
32

20
26

17

37
49

43

62
84
110

71
95
125

34
45
57
102

142
173
213
259
309

162
197
242
294
351

132
161
198
241
289

353
400
446
497

402
45,4'
507
565

11
14
19

14
18

Heavy duty, 750V

Note:

..

1.0
1.5

21
26

17.5

22

18
23

2.5
4
6
10
16

36
47
60
82
109

30
40
51
69
92

30
40
51
68
89

27
35
44
59
78

21
28

25
35
50
70
95

142
174
215
264
317

120
147
182
223
267

116

101

120
150
185
240

364
416
472
552

308
352
399
466

--

.
-

i) For single-core cables, the sheaths of the circuit are assumed to be connected together at both ends.
_

_;_;_LJ:"o1O._bM"~le...~ch..the.iahu1ate,Lv:atues....shollld.htunultinliedJ)JlJl9.~

56

77

331

377
426
496

)i

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

c) rigid metal conduit, except where used underground or in any location where material
having a deteriorating effect may come into contact with the metal, or in any exposed
raceway installed outdoors where it may be subject to mechanical damage from vehicular
traffic, in which case a separate conductor as required in (a) above shall be installed
within the conduit;
d) electrical metallic tubing, except where used in concrete or masonry slabs in contact with
the ground or in any location where material having a deteriorating effect may come into
contact with the metal, or in any exposed raceway installed outdoors where it may be
subject to mechanical damage from vehicular traffic, in which case, separate conductor
as required in (a) above shall be installed within-the tubing;
e) the sheath of mineral-insulated cable, except when it is stainless steel, or any conductor
of a mineral-insulated cable if it is permanently marked at the time of installation 80 that
it can be readily distinguished from conductors that are not used as bonding conductors,
except that if the sheath is of aluminium in an underground run or in a location where
materials having a deteriorating effect may come in contact with the metal, corrosion
resistant protection suitable for the corrosive condition encountered shall be provided;
f) the sheath of aluminium-sheathed cable, but if used for underground runs or in locations
where materials having a deteriorating effect may come in contact with the metal,
corrosion-resistant protection suitable for the corrosive conditions encountered shall be
provided; or
g) . other metal raceways or cable armour as provided for in Clause 7.6.6.

7.9.2

Installation of Earthing Conductors for a System

(l) The earthing conductor for a system shall be without joint or splice throughout its length,
except in the case of bus bars, thermit welded joints, compression connectors applied with a
compression tool compatible with the particular connector, or devices acceptable for connection
in series with the earthing conductor.
(2) 16.0mm 2 or larger copper earthiIig conductor which is free from exposure to mechanical
injury may be run along the surface of the building construction without metal covering or
protection, if it is rigidly stapled to the construction; o.therwise, it shall be in conduit, electrical
metallic tubing or cable armour.

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7.8.3.7

Connection of electrodes

(l) Where separation of the different system electrodes is not possible, the electrodes shall be
connected together, at or below ground level, with a copper conductor of a size not less than that
of the earthing conductor for the electrical system and in no case shall the conductor be smaller
than 16.0mm2 copper.

7.8.3.8

Bonding

(l) Where any or all of the separate earthing electrodes are bonded together the bonding .
conductor shall be:

a) a copper conductor not smaller than 16.0mm2 ;


b) installed so as not to be subjected to mechanical damage; and
c) connected to electrodes for power systems by means of a bolted clamp or soldered joints
and preferably be connected to other electrodes in the same manner.

7.9

EARTHING AND BONDING CONDUCTORS

7.9.1

General

7.9.1.1

Continuity of earthing and bonding conductors

(l) No automatic cutout or switch shall be placed in the earthing or bonding conductor of a
wiring system unless the opening of the cutout or switch disconnects all sources of energy.

7.9.1.2

Material for system earthing

(l) The eartliing conductor of a wiring system, whether also used for earthing electrical
equipment or not, may be insulated or bare, and shall be of copper.

7.9.1.3

Material for bonding conductors

(1) The earthing conductor of a wiring system, whether also used for earthing electrical
equipment or not, may be insulated or bare, and shall be:
~

a) a conductor of copper or other corrosion-resistant material, insulated or bare;

b) a bus bar or steel pipe; _

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--_._ ..

_.----"

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, 7.8.3.2

Rod electrode

(1) A rod electrode shall:

'.

a) be not less than I6.0mm in diameter if of iron or steel, or I2.7mm if non-ferrous metal
or ferrous metal clad with a non-ferrous metal;
b) be not less than 3.0m in length; .
c) have a' clean metal surface which is not covered with paint, enamel, or other poor
conducting material; and

d) be spaced not less than 3.0m apart (if more than two rods are required).

7.8.3.3

Plate electrode .

(1) Plate electrode shall present not, less than O.2m2 of surface to exterior soil and be not less
than 6.35mm in thickness if of iron or steel, or I.5mm if of ferrous metal.

7.8.3.4

Laying

(1) An artificial earthing electrode shall be buried: , .


a) at least 250.0mm below permanent moisture level as far as practical;
b) in a horizo,ntal trench where rock bottom is encountered at depth less than 102m.

7.8.3.5

Driving rod electrode

(1) A rod electrode shall be driven to a depth of no less than 3.0m regardless of the size or
number used, except that:

. a) where rock bottom is encountered at a depth of I.2m or more, it shall be driven to rock
bottom; or
b) where rock bottom is encountered at a depth of less than 1.2m, it shall be buried in a
horizontal trench and be not less 3.0m long.

7.8.3.6

Spacing

(1) Each electrode shall be separated at least 2.0m from any other electrode including an
electrode used for signal circuits, radio, lightning, or any other purpose.

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---

~------_._-----

-"

._-----------------~------------

--

--"

._-_.,-.--_._----_.- --'------"

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.8.2.3

Metal casing of a pump

(1) Where a metal casing of a pump system is used as earthing electrode, it shall not be less than
75.0mm in diameter and shall extend at least 15.0m below the well-head.

7.8.2.4

Bonding

(1) Where more than one of the earthing means listed under Clause 7.8.2 exist at a building,
they shall be bonded together with a conductor complying with Clause 7.5.4(3).

7.8.3

Artificial Earthing Electrodes

7.8.3.1

Concrete-Encased Electrode

(1) A concrete-encased electrode shall be encased within the bottom 50.0mm of a concrete
foundation footing that is in direct contact with the ground and shall be:
a) a bare copper conductor not less than 6.0m in length and of size specified in Table 7.2,
or
b) a plate electrode that shall:
i) present not less 0.4m2 of surface to the concrete encasing the plate;
ii) be not less than 6.0mm in thickness if of iron or steel; or i .5mm in thickness if
non-ferrous metal; and
iii) have a means of attachment for' the system earthing conductor that shall be
accessible after the concrete is poured.

Table 7.2 Minimum size for concrete encased electrodes

169

Ampacity of largest associated


circuit conductor
[A]

Size of copper conductor


[(mm 2]

160 or less
161 - 250
251 - 335
356 - 500
above 500

25
35
50
70
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---- . - .. _-------

-------~-----------------_._-----

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

a) They shall be copper or other corrosion-resistant material.


b) They shall be of sufficient size to have an ampacity not less than that required for the
corresponding earthing conductor.
c) They shall be attached to cabinets and similar equipment in a manner specified in
Clause 7.10.4.
d) They shall be straps when used for bonding non-current-carrying metal parts; shall not
be less than 19.0mm in width and not less than.:
i) 1.rlmm in thickness if of steel; or
ii) 1.2mm in thickness if of aluminium or copper.

7.8

EARTIDNG ELECTRODES

7.8.1

General

(I) The type and embedded depth of an earth electrode shall be such that the drying and
freezing of soil will not increase its resistance above the required value.
(2) The design used in and the construction of an earth electrode shall be such as-to withstand
damage and to take account of possible increase in resistance due to corrosion.

7.8.2

Service Pipe Electrode

7.8.2.1

Public water pipe

(1) Where a service water pipe from a public water main to a building is used as earthing
electrode, it shall be:

a) continuously conductive;
b) located or placed underground not less than 250.0mm below the normal pennanent
moisture level; and
c) the underground portion extends not less than 3.0m beyond the extremities of the
building served.

7.8.2.2 Independent metal water pipes


(I) Where a conductive independent metal water piping system is used as earthing electrode, it
shall be placed underground not less than 250.0mm below the normal permanent moisture level
and the underground portion extend not less 3.0m beyond extremities of the building served.

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b) the use of threadless couplings made up tight where electrical metallic tubing is used;
or
c) the use of bonding jumpers meeting the requirements of Clauses 7.7.7 and 7.9, or
d) other devices (not standard locknuts and bushings) such as earthing bushings equipped
with bonding jumpers meeting the requirements of Clause 7.7.7 below,

7.7.4

Metal Armour or Tape of Service Cable

(l) Where service cable has an uninsulated earthed service conductor in continuous electrical
contact with its metal armour or tape, the metal covering shall be considered to be adequately
earthed.

7.7.5

Bonding at Other-Than-Service Equipment

(l) The electrical continuity of metal raceway, metal sheathed, or armoured cable shall be
assured by one of the methods specified in Clauses 7.7.3 or by the use of:
a) threadless fittings, made up tight with conduit or armoured cable;
b) two locknuts, one inside and one outside of boxes and cabinets; or
c) one locknut and a metal conduit bushing provided the bushing cable installed so that it
is mechanically secure and makes positive contact with the inside surface of the box or
cabinet.

7.7.6

Loosely Jointed Metal Raceways

(1) Expansion joints and telescoping sections of raceways shall be made electrically continuous
by bonding jumpers or other acceptable means.
(2) Metal through raceways used in connection with sound recording and reproducting equipment
made up in sections shall contain an earthing conductor to which each section shall be bonded.

7.7.7

Bonding Jumpers'

(l) Bonding jumpers shall satisfy the following:

t A bonding jumper is a reliable conductor to assure the required electrical conductivity between metal

parts required to be electrically connected.

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(2) The annour of armoured cables incorporating a bonding conductor shali not be considered
as fulfilling the requirements of a bonding conductor for the purpose of this Clause, and the
bonding conductor provided in these cables shall comply with (lb) above.
(3) The armour of flexible metal conduit and liquid-tight flexible metal conduit shall not be
considered as fulfilling the requirements of bonding conductor for the purposes of this Clause,
and a separate bonding conductor shall be run within the conduit.
(4) The sheath of mineral-insulated cable having a stainless steel shall not be considered as
fulfilling the requirements of a bonding conductor for the purposes of this Clause and bonding
shall be by one of the methods specified in (l b) or (I d) above.

7.7

BONDING METHODS

7.7.1

Clean Surface

(l) Where a non-conductive protective coating such as paint or enamel is used on the equipment,

conduit, couplings or fittings, such coating shall be removed from threads and other contact
surfaces in order to ensure a good electrical connection.

7.7.2

Bonding at Service Equipment

(1) The electrical continuity of the earthing circuit at the service equipment shall be assured by
one of the means given in Clause 7.7.3 for the following equipment and enclosures if of metal:
a) Service raceways or service armour or sheaths.
b) All service equipment enclosures containing service entrance conductors including meter
fittings, boxes or the like, interposed in the service raceway or armour.
c) Any conduit or armour which forms part of the earthing conductor to the service
raceway.

7.7.3

Means of Assuring Continuity at Service Equipment

(l) Electrical continuity at service equipment shall be assured by:

a) the use of threaded couplings and threaded bosses on enclosures with joints made up
tight rigid metal conduit is used; or

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---------------_._----~-------_.----_._.

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND L1GHTENIN.G PROTECTION

7.6.4

Underground Service

(1) Where an underground service cable is served from a continuous underground metal sheathed
cable system and the sheath or armour of the service cable is connected to the underground
system, the sheath or armour of the service cable shall not be required to be bonded to earth at
the building' if it is insulated from the interior conduit or piping.

(2) Where a metal-sheathed service cable served from a continuous underground metal sheathed
cable system is bonded to the underground system and is contained in an underground service
conduit, the conduit shall not be required to be bonded to earth at the building if it is insulated
from the interior conduit or piping.

7.6.5

Short Section of Raceway

(1) Isolated section of metal raceway or cable armour, if required to be bonded to earth, shall
preferably be bonded so by connecting to other earthed raceway or armour.

7.6.6

Fixed Equipment

(1) Fixed equipment shall be bonded to earth in one of the following ways:

a) An effective metallic connection to earthed metal raceways, metal sheath, or cable


armour except:
~

i) Armour as specified in Clauses in '(2) and (3) below; and/or


ii) sheath of mineral-insulated cable when of stainless steel as specified in (4) below;
and/or
iii) where the raceway or cables are run underground, in locations subject to corrosion.
b) A bonding conductor which is run with circuit conductors as a part of a cable assembly
and which may be uninsulated; but, if provided with an individual covering, the covering
shall be finished to show a green colour or a green/yellow combination.
c) A separate bonding conductor installed the same as a bonding conductor for conduit and
the like.
d) Other acceptable means.

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__.._.

---~---------

----

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS


7.5.5 Extraneous Fixed Metalwork
(I) The exposed metal parts of all equipment which is required by this part of the Code to be
earthed, which might otherwise come into fortuitous contact 'with extraneous fixed metalwork,
shall be either effectively segregated therefrom, or effectually bonded thereto, so as to prevent
appreciable voltage differences at such possible points of contact.
(2) For sizes of bonding conductors, refer to Table 7.1.
Note:

The extraneous fixed metalwork required to be bonded and earthed in these circumstances includes the
following:
i) Baths and exposed metal pipes, sinks and tanks, in the absence of metal-to-metal joints of negligible
electrical resistances.
ii) Where practicable, accessible structural steelwork.
iii) Framework of mobile equipment, such as cranes and lifts, on which an electrical apparatus is
mounted.

7.6

METHOD OF EARTHING

7.6.1

Effective Earthing

(I) The path to earth from circuits, equipment, or conductor enclosures shall be permanent and
continuous and shall have:
a) sufficient ampacity to conduct safely any current liable to be imposed on it; and
b) impedance sufficiently low to limit the voltage above earth, and to facilitate the operation
of overcurrent devices in the circuit.

7.6.2 Common Earthing Conductor


(I) The earthing conductor for circuits shall be permitted to be used as a bonding conductor for
equipment, conduit, and other metal raceways, or enclosure for conductors, including service
conduit or cable sheath and service equipment.

7.6.3 Common Earthing Electrode


(I) Where the alternating-current system is connected to an earthing electrode in or at building
as specified in Clauses 7.4.2, the same electrode may be used to earth conductor enclosures and
equipment in or on that building.

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SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

Table 7.1 Minimum sizes of copper-earthing and copper-bonding conductors not


contained in a composite cable, flexible cable, or flexible cord

Nominal cross-sectional
area of largest associated
copper circuit conductor

Nominal cross-sectional
area of earthing conductor

Nominal cross-sectional
area of bonding coductor

mm"

mm 2

mm"

1.0
1.5
2.5

6
6
6

1.0 t
1.0t
1.0t

6
10

6
6
6

1.0t
1.0t
2.5t

16
25
35

6
16
16

2.5
6
6

50
70
95

16
50
50

6
16
16

120
150
185

50
50
70

16
16
50

240
300
400

70
70
70

50
50
50

500
600

70
70

50'
50

t .2.5mm2 for bonding metal workof other services at points of entry to premises.

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(2) The bonding conductor shall be attached to the water supply service or gas service:
a) at a location as near to consumer's electrical service entrance as is practicable; and
b) at a Iocation where a sub-feeder enters a building.
(3) The water supply service or the gas service shall be bonded by means of a copper bonding
conductor not less than the appropriate value shown in Table 7.1 subject to a minimum size of
2.5mm2
Note:-

i) For the purpose of Clause 7.,5 the associated circuit conductor is the largest conductor connected into
the input side of the consumer's switchgear.
ii) Conductor of material other than copper shall have a resistance not exceeding that of the prescribed
._
copper .conductor.
iii) Connection to the. pipes of the services shall be made by means of a clamp.

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SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

c): Interrupt the continuity of the conductors between the earthing connections..

d) Take other suitable remedialaction to limit the current.

Note:

The temporary currents which are set up under accidental conditions while the earth conductors are
performing their intended protective functions are not considered objectionable.

7.5

BONDING

7.5.1

Non-Current-Carrying Metal Parts

(1) A~I non-current-carrying metal work of wiring systems including cable sheaths and armour.:
conduit, ducts, trucking boxes, and catenary wires, shall be bonded to earth.
(2) Where isolation of metal is adopted as a protective measure (prevention of dangerous earth
leakage current), it shall he confined to the following items:
a) . Short isolated lengths of metal used 'for the mechanical protection of cables having a
non-metallic sheath.

b) Metal clips used for fixing cables.

c) Small metal parts such as screws, 't"r name-plates isolated by isolating material.

7.5.2 Exposed Non-Current-Carrying Metal Parts of Equipment


(1) Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment shall be bonded to earth; however
this does not apply to double-insulated equipment or isolated metal parts referred to in Clause
7.5.1(2).

7.5.3 Non-Metallic Wiring Systems


(1) Where nonmetallic wiring systems are used:
a) anearth connection shall be provided at all outlets; and
b) metal boxes shall be earthed.

'.5.4 .Non-Electrical Services


(1) Metal parts of water supply services and gas services which may become enorgized shall be
bonded to earth.

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a) The earthing conductor shall not be smaller than that specified in Table 7.1.
b) Tftwo or more systems are employed, a common system earthing conductor shall be
installed unless separate earthing is supplied tor each such system, in which case the
earthing rot' the individual systems shall be interconnected.

7.4.4

Single Service Supply to Two or More Buildings or Structures

(1) Where to or more buildings or structures are supplied from a single service:
a) the earthed circuit conductor at each of the buildings or structures shall be connected to
an earthing electrode and bonded to the non-current-carrying metal parts of the electrical
equipment; or
b) except for buildings housing livestock, the non-current-carrying metal parts of the
electrical equipment in or on the building or structure shall be permitted to be bonded
to earth by a bonding conductor run with the feeder or branch circuit conductors.

7.4.5

Conductors to be Earthed.

(1) For a.c, wiring systems, the conductors to be earthed shall be as follows:
a) Single-phase, 2-wire, the identified conductor;
b) Single-phase, J-wire, the identified neutral conductor;
c) Multi-phase systems having one wire common to all phases, the identified neutral
conductor;
'd) Multi-phase systems having one earthed phase, the identified conductor;
e) Multi-phase systems in which one phase is used as in (b) above, the identified conductor,

7.4.6

Current Over Earthing Conductor


''P'

(1) Where wiring systems, circuits, electrical equipment, cable armour, conduit and other metal
. raceways are earthed as a protective measure, the earthing shall be arranged so that there is no
objectionable passage of current over the earthing conductor or earthing path.

(2) If the use of multiple earthing connections results in an objectionable flow of current, one
or more of the following alterations shall be made:
a) Abandon one or more of the earthes,

b) Change the locations of the earthing connections.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDiNGS

a) The earthing conductor shall not be smaller than that specified in Table 7.1.
b) Tftwo or more systems are employed, a common system earthing conductor shall be
installed unless separate earthing is supplied tor each such system, in which case the
earthing rot' the individual systems shall be interconnected.

7.4.4

Single Service Supply to Two or More Buildings or Structures

(1) Where to or more buildings or structures are supplied from a single service:
a) the earthed circuit conductor at each of the buildings or structures shall be connected to
an earthing electrode and bonded to the non-current-carrying metal parts of the electrical
equipment; or
b) except for buildings housing livestock, the non-current-carrying metal parts of the
electrical equipment in or on the building or structure shall be permitted to be bonded
to earth by a bonding conductor run with the feeder or branch circuit conductors.

7.4.5

Conductors to be Earthed.

(1) For a.c, wiring systems, the conductors to be earthed shall be as follows:
a) Single-phase, 2-wire, the identified conductor;
b) Single-phase, J-wire, the identified neutral conductor;
c) Multi-phase systems having one wire common to all phases, the identified neutral
conductor;
'd) Multi-phase systems having one earthed phase, the identified conductor;
e) Multi-phase systems in which one phase is used as in (b) above, the identified conductor,

7.4.6

Current Over Earthing Conductor


''P'

(1) Where wiring systems, circuits, electrical equipment, cable armour, conduit and other metal
. raceways are earthed as a protective measure, the earthing shall be arranged so that there is no
objectionable passage of current over the earthing conductor or earthing path.

(2) If the use of multiple earthing connections results in an objectionable flow of current, one
or more of the following alterations shall be made:
a) Abandon one or more of the earthes,

b) Change the locations of the earthing connections.

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SECTION 7: . EARTH!NG, BONDING AND LIGHTENING P~OTECTION

7.4

LOCATION OF SYSTEM EARTIllNG CONNECTIONS

7.4.1

D.C. Systems

(1) D.C. systems to be earthed shall have the earthing connection made at one or more supply
stations; but not at individual services nor elsewhere on interior wiring.

7.4.2

A.C. Systems

(1) An internal wiring system that is supplied by an a.c. service and which is to be earthed shall
have at each service, an earthing conductor connected to an earth electrode which complies with
Clause 7.8 below.
(2) TIle earthing conductor shall be connected to the earthed service conductor at any accessible
point from the load end of service drop or service lateral.
(3) Where the transformer supplying the services is located outside the building, at least one
additional earthing connection shall be made from the earthed service conductor to an .earth
electrode, either .at the transformer or elsewhere.(. outside the building.
(4) An earthing connection shall not be made to any earthed circuit conductor on theload side
of the service disconnecting means.
\

.(5) For circuits that are supplied from two sources in a common enclosure or grouped together
in separate enclosure and employing a tie, a single earthing electrode connection to the tie point
of the earthed circuit conductors from each power-supply source shall be permitted.
(6) Where the system is earthed at any point, the earthed conductor shall be run to each
individual service and not be smaller than the required earthing conductor specified in Table 7.1,
and where the earthed circuit conductor also serves as the neutral, the requirements of the
relevant Clauses of Section 4 shall be met.
7.4.3

Isolated Systems

(I) For a wiring system or circuit which is required to be earthed, and which is not conductively
connected to a. distribution system, the earthing connection shall be made at the transformer, or
other source of supply, or on the supply side of the first switch controlling the system, and
satisfying both the following conditions:

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j
I

I
i

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.3

SYSTEM AND CIRCUITS EARTHING

7.3.1

Direct Current Systems

;1

(l) A two-wire direct-current system supplying interior wiring and operating at not more than
300.0V or not less than 50.0V between conductors shall be earthed, unless such system is used.
for supplying industrial equipment in limited areas and the circuit is equipped with an earth
detector.

(2) The neutral conductor of all 3-wire direct-current systems supplying interior wiring shall be
earthed.
7.3.2

Alternating Current Systems

(1) Except as otherwise provided for in this Code, alternating-current systems shall be earthed

if:
a) by so doing, their maximum voltage-to-earth does not exceed 230.0V; or
b) the system incorporates a neutral conductor.
~2) Wiring systems supplied by an unearthed supply shall be equipped with a suitable earth
'detection device to indicate the presence of an earth fault.

(3) Circuits of less than 50.0V shall be earthed under any of the following conditions:
a) Where supplied by transformers that are energized from:
i) systems of more than 230.0V-to-earth; or
ii) unearthed system.

b) Where installed as overhead outside of buildings.

(4) Where primary windings of current. and voltage instrument transformers are connected to
circuits of 230.0V-or-more-to-earth, the secondary circuits of the transformer shall be earthed.
(5) Where the transformers are on switchboards, the secondary circuits shall be earthed
irrespective of the voltage of the circuits.

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_." - -----_.-..........:.----------_.

-_._-'--~-.---_.

. - - - - " " . _ - - -"-------'---.

.--

- --_.....:.- --_ ..._~_.~---_.- _ . _ - ' .. -_._-------'----------:...---_._-

,
!

I
(

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

I
7.3

SYSTEM AND CIRCUITS EARTHING

7.3.1

Direct Current Systems

(1) A two-wire direct-current system supplying interior wiring and operating at not more than
300.0V or not less than 50.0V between conductors shall be earthed, unless such system is used
for supplying industrial equipment in limited areas and the circuit is equipped with an earth
detector.

(2) The neutral conductor of all 3-wire direct-current systems supplying interior wiring shall be
earthed.
7.3.2

Alternating Current Systems

(1) Except as otherwise provided for in this Code, alternating-current systems shall be earthed
if:

a) by so doing, their maximum voltage-to-earth does not exceed 230.0V; or


b) the system incorporates a neutral conductor.
(2) Wiring systems supplied by an unearthed supply shall be equipped with a. suitable earth
.'detection device to indicate the presence of an earth fault.
(

(3) Circuits of less than 50.0V shall be earthed under any of the following conditions:
a) Where supplied by transformers that are energized from:
i) systems of more than 230.0V-to-earth; or
ii) unearthed system.

b) Where installed as overhead outside of buildings.

(4) Where primary windings of current and voltage instrument transformers are connected to
circuits of 230.0V-or-rnore-to-earth, the secondary circuits of the transformer shall be earthed.
(5) Where the transformers are on switchboards, the secondary circuits shall be earthed
irrespective of the voltage of the circuits.

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- "-

- - " - - '- - - - - - - - - - - - _ . : . - _ - - - - - - " - - - " - - '

----.-

.---_._.-'-------

...:_------

SECTION

EARTIllNG, BONDING, AND LIGHTNING


PROTECTION"

PART I - EARTHING AND BONDING


7.1

SCOPE

(1) Part I of this Section covers the protection of electrical installation by earthing and bonding.
(2) This part also covers provisions for insulating and guarding as suitable alternatives to
earthing where permitted by this Code.

7.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.
(a) C22.1:1992

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for


Electrical Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

(b) NFPA 70/NEC:1987

An American National Electrical Code.

(c) IEE:1970

The Institute of Electrical Engineers, Regulations for the


Electrical Equipment of Buildings, Fourteenth Edition,
Incorporating Amendments.

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I
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..

_0

-----

---_._--_._-,---~~-

ELECTRICAL INSTALu\TION OF BUIL.DINGS

, Table 6.1 Demand factor for service and feeders and watts per square meter-for
various types of occupancy

Demand factor [%]


Watts per m

Type of Occupancy

Service
conductor

Feeders
100

Store, Restaurant

30

100

Office

50

70-90

Industrial and Commercial

25

100

I Mosque

10

100

Church

qO
100
100

Garage

10

100

Storage warehouse

70

90

Theatre

30

75

95

Armouries arid Auditoriums

1Q

80

100

Banks

50

100

100

Barber shops and beauty


parlors

30

90

100

Clubs

20

80

100

Court houses

20

70

90

Loadges

15

80

100

100.

Table 6.2 Feeder demand factors for lifts

Number of lifts on
a single feeder
1

Demand factors
(OF)

Number of lifts on
a single feeder

1.00

Demand factors
(OF)
0.79
I

0.95

O.T!

0.90

0.75

0.85

0.73

0.82

10 or more

0.72

Note: Demand factors (DF) are based on 50% duty (i.e, half-time load, half-time no load).

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SECTION 6: CIRCUIT LOADING AND DEMAND FACTOR

6.5.6 Other Types of Occupancy


(1) The minimum ampacity of service of feeder conductors for the types of occupancies
specified in Table 6.1 shall be based on the following:

(a) a basic load to be calculated on the basis of watts per square meter required by Table
6.1 for the area served based on the outside dimensions, with application of demand
factors as indicated therein; plus
(b) special loads such as air conditioning, power loads, show window lighting, stage lighting,
etc, based on the rating of the equipment installed with such demand factors as are
permitted by this Code.
6.5.7 Branch Circuits
(1) Conductors of a branch circuit supplying "Injera Mitad" and/or cooking stove in a dwelling
unit shall be considered as having a demand of

(a) 3.5kW for "Injera Mitad";


(b) 8.0kW where the rating of the cooking stove does not exceed 12.0kW; or
(c) 8.0kW plus 40% of the amount that the rating of the cooking stove exceeds 12.0kW.
Note:

For the purpose of Clause 6.5.7(1), two or more separate built-in cooking units may be considered as one
cooking

(2) For "Injera Mitad" and or a cooking stove installed in commercial, industrial, and
institutional establishments, the demand shall be considered as not being less than the rating.
(3) The demand loads given in (I) above shall not apply to cord-connected hotplates or other
appliances.
6.5.8 Feeder Demand Factors for Lifts
(1) Feeder demand factors for lifts shall be as shown in Table 6.2.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(2) Demand factors may be applied as follows:


(a) 80% for abuilding with an area upto and including 900.0m 2 based on the outside
dimensions;
(b) For a building with an area exceeding 900.0m based on the outside dimensions, the .
balance of the load may be divided by the number of square meters to obtain a load-per
square-meter rating and the demand load may be considered to be the sum of:
i) 80% of the load per square meter multiplied by 900; and
ii) .65% of the load per square meter multiplied by the area of the building in excess of
. 900.0m 2

6.5.5

Hotels, Motels, Dormitories, and Buildings of Similar Occupancy

(1) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors shall be based on the following:
(a) a basic load of 20.0W/m 2 of the area of the building based on the outside dimensions;
plus
(b) lighting loads for special areas such as ballrooms, based on the rating of the equipment
installed; plus
(c) air conditioning and power loads based on the rating of the equipment installed.
(2) Demand factors may be applied as follows:
a) 80% for a building with an area upto and including 900.0m 2 based on the outside
dimensions;
b) For a building with an area exceeding 900.Om2 based on the outside dimensions, the
balance of the load may be divided by the number of square meters to obtain a load-per
square meter rating and the demand load may be considered to be the sum of:
i) 80% of the load per square meter multiplied by 900; and
ii) 65% of the load per square meter multiplied by the area of the building in excess of
900.0m 2

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SECTION 6: CIRC.UIT LOADING AND DEMAND FACTOR

(b) If air-conditioning is used, the amount by which the sum of all the air-conditioning loads
exceeds 1500.0VA shall be added, With a demand factor of 100%, to the load determined :
in accordance with (a) above.
(0) In addition, any lighting, heating, and power loads not located in dwelling units shall be

added with a demand factor of 75%.


Note:

The livingarea designated in Clause 6.5.1 and6.5.2shall be determined from the outside dimensions of the
group floor of the dwelling plus 75% of the basement area basedon the inside dimensions, plus any area
which might nonnaUy be used for living purposes on the upper floors,

6.5.3 Schools
(1) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors shall be based on the following:
a) a basic load of 50.0W/m2 of classroom area; plus
b) 10.OW/m2 of the remaining area of the building based on the outside dimensions; plus
c) air conditioning, and power loads based on the rating of the installed equipment.
(2) Demand factors may be applied as follows:
(a) 75% for abuilding with an area upto and including 900.0m2 based on the outside
dimensions.
(b) For a building with an area exceeding 900.0m 2based on the outside dimensions, the load
may.be divided by the number of square meters to obtain a load-pre-square-meter rating
and the! demand load may be considered to be the surri of:
i) 75% of the load per square meter multiplied by 900; and
ii) 50% of the load per square meter multiplied by the area of the building in excess of
900.0m 2

6.5.4 Hospitals
(I) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors shall be based on the following:

(a) a basic load of 20.0W/m 2 of the area of the'.building based on the outside dimensions;
plus
.
(b) 100.OW/m2 for high intensity area such as operating rooms; plus
(c) air conditioning, and power loads based on the rating of the installed equipment

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..

-.--------_._--'--~
_--~-----_._--------~._-----_

.._~--_.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS


(a) a basic load of 2500.0W for the first 70.0m 2 of living area; plus
(b) an additionallOOO.OW for each 70.0m 2or portion thereof in excess of 70.0m 2; plus
(c) 3500.0W for any electric "Injera Mitad"; plus
(d) 6000.0W for a single cooking stove having a rating of 12.0kW or less, plus 40% of the
amount by which the rating of the cooking stove exceeds 12.0kW; plus
(e) any electric water heater with a demand factor of 100%.

6.5.2 Apartment and Similar Multi-Family Buildings


(1) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors from a main service supplying-loads
in dwelling units shall be based on the following:

(a) a basic load of 2500.0W for the first 45.0m 2 of living area; plus
(b) an additional 1500.0W for the second 45.0m 2 or portion thereof; plus
(c) an additional lOOO.OW for each additional 90.0m 2 or portion thereof in excess of the
initial 90.0m 2; plus
(d) 3500.0W for any electric "Injera Mitad"; plus
(e) 6000.0W for a single cooking stove having a rating of 12.0kW or less, plus 40% of the
amount by which the rating of the cooking store exceeds 12.0kW; plus
(f) any electric water heaters with a demand of 100%
(2) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors from a main service supplying two
or more dwelling units shall be based on the calculated load obtained from Clause 6.5.2(1) and
the following:
(a) Excluding any air-conditioning loads, the load shall be considered to be:
100% of the calculated load in the unit having the heaviest load; plus
65% of the sum of the calculated loads in the next 2 units having the same or next
smaller load to those specified in (i) above; plus
iii) 40% of the sum of the calculated loads in the next 2 units having the same or next
smaller loads to those specified in (i) above; plus
iv) 25% of the sum of the calculated loads in the next 15 units having the same or next
smaller loads to those specified in (i) above; plus
v) 10% of the sum of the calculated loads in the remaining units;

i)
ii)

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_._'-----

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SECTION 6: CIRCUIT LOADING AND DEMAND FACTOR

6.4 .

GENERAL

6.4.1

Current Calculation

(1) When calculating the currents from loads expressed in watts or volt-amperes, to be supplied
by a low voltage a.c. system, the voltage divisor to be used shall be 230.0V or 380.0V as
applicable.

6.4.2

Voltage Drop

(1) Voltage drop in an installation shall be based upon the calculated demand load of the branch
circuits and shall satisfy the requirements of Clause 4.5.4.

6.4.3

Maximum Circuit Loading

For loads other than motors, the total load on consumer's service, feeder or a branch circuit shall
be 80% of the circuit rating when the load is a continuous one-,

6.4.4

Use of Demand Factor

(1) Where two or more loads are so installed that only one can be used at anyone time, the one
providing the greatest demand shall be used in determining the calculated demand.

(2) Where a feeder supplies loads of a cyclic or similar nature such that the maximum connected
.load will not be supplied at the same time, the ampacity of the feeder conductors shall be based
'on the maximum load that may be connected at anyone time.
.(3) The ampacity of conductors of a feeder or branch circuit shall not exceed the ampacity of
the .conductors ofthe service or of the feeder from which they are supplied.

6.5

SERVICES AND FEEDERS

6.5.1

Single-Family Dwellings

(1) The minimum ampacity of service or feeder conductors supplying a single-family dwelling
shall be based on the following:

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I

I
\
i

SECTION

6:

CIRCUIT LOADING AND DEMAND FACTOR

6.1

SCOPE

(1) This _section covers conductor ampacities and equipment ratings required for consumer's
services, feeders and branch circuits.

6.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.:
(a) C22.1: 1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Safety Standard for Electrical Installations


Sixteenth Edition.

(b) NEC Hand book 1981

6.3

National Electrical Code Handbook Based on the 1981


(NEC), Seventeenth Edition.

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section, the followingdefmitions shall apply in addition to the terms
defined in Section 1.

demand factor

it is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system or part of a


system, to the total connected load on the system, to the maximum
demand of the whole system,or part of a system, under
consideration.

diversity factor

the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the


various subdivisions of a system, or part of a system, to the
maximum demand of the whole system, or part of a-system, und~r
consideration.

continuous load

any condition in which the maximum load current in a circuit flows


without interruption for a period of not less than 3.0hrs.

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__. ----

SECTION 5: SERVICE AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT

(f) Any other suitable type cable


(g) Service entrance cable, provided.that:

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

it is protected by an acceptable means if within 2.0m of the ground;


the voltage does not exceed 230.0V to earth;
it is supported at intervals not more than l.Om; and
it is mounted on insulating supports which hold it not less than 500.0mm from a
conductirig surface, if adjacent to such a surface.

(2) Bare overhead supply conductors running on the outside walls of a building may be run as
exposed wiring using types of conductor suitable for exposure to the weather.
.(3) The length of consumer's service conductors beyond the service head shall be adequate to

enable connection to the supply service conductors or to the conductors referred to in5.6.2. with
a minimum length of 750.0mm.
(4) Consumer's service conductors shall be provided with drip loops.

(5) Consumer's service conductors shall be suitable for the temperature which can be
experienced in the particular locality.
5.7

METERING EQUIPMENT

5.7.1

Connection

(1) Metering
equipment shall be connected on the load side of the service box except that it may
.
. be connected on the supply where:
,

(a) no live parts or wiring are exposed;


(b) the voltage does not exceed 380.0V between conductors; and
(c) the rating of the consumer's service does not exceed:
i) 200.0A for a meter mounting device, or'

ii) 600.0A for transformer rated meter mounting device located outdoors.

Notei-

149

Transfonnerrated meter mounting device means a meter mounting device with current transformers and with
or without test switches mounted in the same enclosure:

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

5.6

WIRING METHODS

5.6.1

Underground Consumer's Service Conductors

5.6.1.1

Installation and type

(1) A consumer's service conductors running underground to a building from an underground


supply system or from a pole line shall be:
(a) installed in rigid conduit and be of a type suitable for use in wet locations;
(b) a single or multiple conductor cable for service entrance use below ground provided that:
i)
ii)

The installation is in accordance with Section 8;


Rigid conduit is used for mechanical protection where portions are exposed to
injury; and
iii) The cable is without splice or joint from a point of connection at the supply service
to the consumer's service equipment in the building.

5.6.1.2

Conduit to drain

(1) Consumer's service conduit entering a building underground shall be suitably drained.

5.6.1.3

Conduit seal

(1) Consumer's service conduit connected to an underground system shall be sealed with a
suitable compound to prevent the entrance of moisture or gases.

5.6.2

Overhead Consumer's Service Conductors

(1) Conductors of a consumer's service which is connected to an overhead supply service at any
point above ground on a building. or other structure shall be installed in a rigid metal conduit
or in one of the following ways, if acceptable:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Other type' of rigid conduit,


Busway
Flexible metal conduit, the conductors being lead-sheathed cable
Mineral-insulated cable other than the lightweight type
Aluminium sheathed cable

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SECTION 5: SERVICE AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT

5.5.2.5

Sequence of control

(1) The sequence of the equipment forming the switchgear required by 5.5.2.1 shall be such that
the means of disconnect follows the consumer's terminal without the intervention of any other
apparatus (see Figure 5.1).

~~;Db

. III

~Lr-G

f~

[Db
I
I II I

p'a1rams lIIullrallnl seq... nce or protecll"" devices In IY~ical dOmeolle


nltallaUonL ("Tha IUPPIY undertaklnl" equip-At and I
'
'wltehFu , .. lneluded,)
..-.
a conlumar,
FLI ServIc:e ruse and ..... t..lllnk. Jrany.

Wh WaUIhour meter and/or time switch where requIred ror olr-k IariIr

IUppy.
~
S Consumer', linked 'wllch.
FI.Z CoNumcr', main r...,:
CB ~:,uma., linked Clltal<urrent drcultbreak... with or without earth
Db Co":~":'.distribution board;

Figure 5.1 .Sequence of control


Note:

5.5.2.6.

The consumer's linked switch and the consumer's main fuse maybe combined in a switch and fuse unit

Detached building

(1) Where .~ consumer's installation comprises installation in two or more buildings, separate
means of disconnect complying with the requirements of 5.5.2.2 shall be provided in each
building.

5.5.2.7

Capacity ofprotective gear

(l) Every means ofovercurrent protection shall be suitable for the maximum short-circuit current
attainable or available.

5.5.2.8

Discrimination

(1) The characteristics and settings of overcurrent protective gear, including fuses, and the
arrangement of the installation shall be such that discrimination in the operation of the
overcurrent protective gear is ensured.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(c) means of earth-leakage protection (if necessary),


Note:

5.5.2.2

Where the Supply Authority provides switchgear and permits part of it.to be used by the consumer, the
consumer need not then duplicate that part.

Means 0/ disconnect

(1) The means of disconnect required by 5.5.2.1 shall comprise a linked switch suitable for
operation on load or a linked circuit breaker, arranged to disconnect all circuit.

(2) Alternatively, for systems where one conductor is connected with earth, the linked switch
or circuit-breaker may be arranged to disconnect the live conductors only and an isolating link
may be inserted in the earthed conductor; such an isolating link shall be so arranged that it is
in contact before the linked switch can be closed, or shall be securely fixed.by bolts or screws.

5.5.2.3

Overcurrentprotection

(1) The means of overcurrent protection referred to in 5.5.2.1 shall comprise either a fuse
inserted in each live conductor of the supply or a circuit-breaker having an overcurrent release
fitted in each live conductor of the supply.
Exemption: The means of overcurrent protection may be omitted provided that

i) the rating of all cables connected between the Supply Authority's fuse or circuit-breaker and the consumer's
sub-circuit fuse or circuit breakers is not less than the rating of the Supply Authority's fuse or circuit
breaker; and
ii) the overcurrent device protecting all circuits controlled by the switchgear are located within the same
enclosure as the switchgear or, alternatively, are fixed immediately adjacent to it.

5.5.2.4

Earth-leakage protection

(1) Means for earth-leakage protection shall .be provided for service equipment in accordance
with Clause 9.4.2, Section 9.
Note: When an installation is being planned, it is desirable to consult the Supply Authority, or a competent person
having knowledge of local conditions, to ascertain whether satisfactory protection against earth leakage will be
obtained by the use of the fuses or circuit breakers provided.for overcurrent protection or by the use of earth-leakage
circuit breaker.

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I
I

I
-1.

SECTION 5: SERVICE AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT

5.5.1.3

Available short-circuit current

(1) Service equipment shall be suitable for the short-circuit current available at its supply
terminal.
5.5.1.4

Working space

(1) Sufficient working space shall be provided to the vicinity of the service equipment to permit
safe operation, inspection, and repairs.

5.5.1.5

Location

(1) Service boxes or other consumer's service equipment shall be installed in an acceptable
location and in compliance with applicable Codes or Standards or by-laws of the Supply
Authority concerning the location of service boxes or other equipment and shall be:
(a) readily accessible or have the means of operation readily accessible;
(b) not located in coal bine, clothes closets, bathrooms, stairways, rooms in which the
temperature normally exceeds 30C, dangerous or hazardous locations, in locations where
the headroom clearance is less than 2.0m, nor in any similar undesirable locations; and
(c) placed within the building being served, unless environmental conditions within the
structure are unsuitable, in which case the service box or other consumer's service
equipment may be placed on the outside of the building or on a pole and shall be:
i) protected from the weather, or be weatherproof;
ii) protected from mechanical injury if less than 2.0m above ground;
iii) placed as close as practical to the point where the consumer's service conductors
enter the building.
5.5.2

5.5.2.1

Control

<Teneral

(1) Every consumer's installation shall be adequately controlled by switchgear readily accessible
.to the consumer and which shall incorporate:
(a) means of disconnect,
(b) means of overcurrent protection,

145

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5.4.4

Other Conductors in Raceway or Cable

.(1) Conductors other than service conductors shall not be installed in the same service'way or
service-entrance cable.

Exemption:

5.4.5

Earthing conductors and load management control conductor having overcurrent protection.

Clearance from Building Openings

(1) Service conductors installed as open conductors or multi conductor cable without an overall
outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 925.0mm from windows, doors, porches, fire
escape, or similar locations.
(2) Service conductors shall not be installed beneath openings through which materials may be
moved, such as openings in farm and commercial buildings.
(3) Overhead wire shall not be run such that they obstruct entrance to these building openings.
Exemption: Conductors running above the top level of a window shall be permitted for a clearance of requirements
of less than 925.0mm as in (1) above.

5.5

SERVICE EQUIPMENT

5.5.1

General

5.5.1.1

Enclosed or guarded live parts

(1) Service equipment's live parts shall be enclosed or guarded as specified below:
(a) They shall be enclosed so that theywill not be exposed to accidental contact; or
(b) If not enclosed they shall be installed on a switch board, panel board, or control board
and guarded by providing a means for locking or sealing doors giving access to them.

5.5.1.2

Earthing and bonding

(1) Service equipment, raceway, cable armour, cable sheaths, panel boards, etc and any service
conductors that are to be earthed shall be done in accordance with the relevant Parts of
Section 7.

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144

SECTION 5: SERVICE AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT

. i)
ii)

the load requirements are in excess of 3000.0A at a voltage supply of 600.0V or


less;
the load requirements of a single-phase installation are greater than that normally
supplied through one service.

(c) For fire pumps where a separate service is required.


(d) For emergency, legally required standby, optional standby, or parallel power production
systems where a separate service is required.
.

(e) For different characteristics, such as for different voltage, frequencies or phase, or for
different uses, such as different rate schedules.

5.4.1.3

~arking

(l) Where more than one service is permitted or provided, a penn anent plaque or directory shall
be installed adjacent each service equipment location denoting all other services on or in the
consumers' installation and the area served by each.

5.4.1.4

Grouping

(1) When two or more supply services are installed to a building, all service boxes associated
with the various consumer's services shall be grouped, where practicable.

5.4.2

Consumer's Installation Not to be Supplied Through Another Building

(1) Service conductors supplying a consumer's installation shall not pass through the interior of
another building or other structure.

5.4.3

Conductors Considered Outside of a Building

(1) Conductors shall be considered outside of building or other structure under any of the
following conditions;
(a) Where installed under not less than 50.0mm of concrete beneath a building or other
structure; and
(b) Where installed within a building or other structure in a raceway that is enclosed by
concrete or brick not less than 50.0mm thick.

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service drop

the overhead service conductors from the last pole or other aerial
support to and including the splice, if any, connecting to the
service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.

service-entrance conductors, overhead system


the service conductors between the
terminals of the service equipment and a point usually outside the building, clear of building
walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop.
service-entrance conductors, underground system
the underground service conductors
between the terminals of the service equipment and the last point of connection to the service
entrance conductors.
Note:

Where service equipment is located outside the building walls, there may be no service-entrance conductors,
or they may be entirely outside the building.

consumer's installations wiring and apparatus situated upon the consumer's premises installed
and controlled by him, excluding any switchgear of the Supply Authority which the consumer
may be permitted' to use.
5.4

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5.4.1

Number of Services Permitted

5.4.1.1

Single service

(1) Except as provided in 5.4.1.2..each consumer's installation shall be supplied with a single
service.

5.4.1.2

Multiple services

Unless prohibited by Code or Standard or by regulations of the Supply Authority concerning


the number of services, additional services shall be permitted in the following cases:
(a) In multiple-occupancy building, by special permission, where there is no available space
. for service equipment accessible to all the occupants.
(b) Due to capacity requirements, two or more services shall be permitted where:

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SECTION

SERVICE AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT

5.1

SCOPE

(1) This, Section covers services, service equipment, and metering equipment and their
installation requirements for systems operating at 1000.0V or less.

5.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.
(a) C22.l:1992

Canadian Electrical Code Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition

(b) NFPA 701NEC: 1986 National Fire Protection Association!AmericanNationalElectrical


Code, 1987 Edition
(c) IEE:1970

5.3

The Institute of Electrical Engineers, Regulations for the


Electrical Requirements of Buildings, Fourteenth Edition
Incorporating Amendments

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section, in addition to the terms defined in Section 1, the following
defmitions shall apply.

service conductors / cable

141

EBCS-10 1995

the supply conductors/cable that extend from the street main or


from transformers to the service equipment of the consumer's
installation.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.46 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


Conductor operating temperature: 90C
Conduct
or crosssectional
area

Two-core
cable d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

mm"

mV

mV

mV

16

4.8

4.8

4.2

140

25
35
50
70
95

3.1
2.2
1.60
1.10
0.82

120
150
185
240
300

;,

.-

EBCS-10 1995

Three or four-core cable, .


three-phase a.c.

3.1
2.2
1.65
1.10
0.82

.
.
.

0.165
0.160
9.160
0.155
0.150

z
3.10
2.20
1.65
1.15
0.84

.
.

.
.

2..7
1.90
1.40
0.96
0.71

0.140
0.140
0.135
0.135
0.130

2.7
1.95
1.45
0.97
0.72

0.56
0.45
0.37
0.28
0.23

0.130
0.130
0.130
0.125
0.125

0.58'
0.47
0.39
0.31
0.26

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.45 Multicore armoured cables having thermosetting insulation


(aluminium conductor)

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Conducto
r crosssectional
area

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 900C

Reference Method 1 (clipped direct)

Reference Method 11 (on a perforated


cable tray) or Reference Method 13
(free air)

1 two-core cable
single-phase a.c.
or d.c.

1 three- or four
cor.e cable,
three-phase a.c.

1 two-core cable,
single-phase a.c.

1 three- or four
core cable three
phase a.c,

16

82

71

85

74

25
35

50
70
95

1'08
132
159
201
242

92
113
137
174
214

112
138
166
211
254

98

120
145
185
224

120
150

185

240

300

249
284
328
386
441

.
-

264

305

356

418

488

mm

Note: i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this
Annex.
ii) Where a 'conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7(J'C, it shall be ascertained that the

equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating temperature.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

139

Table B.44 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperature: 9()Oc
2 Cables - single-phase a.c.
Conductor
crosssectional area

2 cables
d.c.

mm 2

mV

3 or 4 cablea- three-phase a.c.

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Touching)

Reference Method 12
(Spaced t )

Reference Methods 1,
- ,11 and 12 (In trefoil
touching)

Reference Methods 1
and 11 (Flat touching)

Reference Method 12
(Flat spaced')

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

50
70
95

1.60
1.10
0.82

1.60
1.10
0.83

0.22
0.21
0.20

1.60
0.15
0.85

1.60
1.10
0.85

0.30
0.29
0.29

1.60
1.15
0.90

1.40
0.96
0.71

0.185
0.180
0.175

1.40
0.98
0.74

1.40
0.97
0.74

0.26
0.25
0.25

1.40
1.00
0.78

1.35
0.99
0.76

0.34
0.33
0.32

1.40
1.05
0.83

120
150
185 .
240
300

0.66
0.52
0.42
0.32
0.26

0.66
0.53
0.43
0.34
0.27

0.20
0.195
0.190
0.185
0.185

0.69
0.57
0.47
0.39
0.33

0.69
0.56
0.46
0.37
0.30

0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27
0.26

0.74
0.62
0.54
0.45
0.40

0.57
0.46
0.38
0.29
0.24

0.170
0.170
0.165
.0.160
0.160

0.60
0.49
0.41
0.34
0.29

0.60
0.49
0.40
0.32
0.26

0.24
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23

0.64
0.54
0.47
0.39
0.34

0.63
0.52
0.44
0.35
0.29

0.31
0.30
0.29
0.29

0.70
0.60
0.53
0.46
0.41

0.180
0.175
0.175
0.170
0.160

0.29
0.25
0.24
0.22
0.20

0.26
0.23
0.20
0.190
0.170

0.25
0.25
0.24
0.22
0.21

0.36
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27

0.195
0.160
0.135
0.120
0.105

0.155
0.155
0.150
0.145
0.140

0.25
0.22
0.20
0.190
0.175

0.23
0.20
0.175
0.165
0.150

0.22
0.21
0.21
0.195
0.180

0.32
0.29
0.27
0.26
0.24

0.27
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.195

0.27
0.26
0.25
0.22
0.195

0.38
0.35
0.33
0.30
0.28

0.190

0.155

0~20

0.25

0.093

0.135

0.165

0.140

0.175

0.22

0.180

0.185

0.26

380
480
600
740
960

0.21
0.160
.0.130
0.105
0.0-80

0.23
0.185
0.160
0.140
0.120

1200

0.064

0.105

0.160

t .: Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A, Section 8) will result larger voltage drop.

O.SO

Table B.43 Single-core cables having thermosetting insulation, non-magnetic armour


(aluminium conductors)
Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):
Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)

2~ab~30r4

Conduct
or cross
sectional
area

slngle-.
phase a.c.
or d.c., flat
and
touching

cables,
three-phase
a.c., flat
and
touching

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 900C
Reference Method 11 (on
a perforated cable tray)
2 cables,
single
phase a.c.
or d.c., flat
and
touching
-

rnm"

3 or 4
cables
three-phase
a.c., flat
and
touching

Reference method 12 (tree air)

2 cables single-phase a,c.

flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

Horizontal

179
228
276

165
209
252

192
244
294

120
150
185
240
300

320
368
419
494
568

291
333
378
443
508

380
480
600
740
960

655
747
836
934
1056

1200

1163

3 or 4 cables, three-phase a.c.

Horizontal
spaced

Vertical
spaced

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

216
275
332

197
253
307

215
270
324

192
244
296

162
207
252

357
411

372
424

480

4n

572
666

554
626

343
394
447
523
595

292
337
391
465
540

649
717
780
835
911

625
714
801
897
1014

980

1118

f-----

50
70
95

2 cables d.c.

f--.

176
222
267

212
269
328

199

340
390
444
521
597

308
352
400
468
536

378
429
490
576
654

358
409
467
549
624

384

573
642
706
764
838

688
786
880
988
1121

608
685
757
824
911

735
825
909

812
942
1076
1250
1488

780
906
1036

1094

704
790
872
950
1052

1435

639
765
832
890
970

903

1236

990

1187

1141

1715

1658

1043

969

254 .
310

441
511

605
701

120~

Note: i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
ii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7rJlc. it shaD be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the

conductor operating temperature.

-..J

3 cables
trefoil

ELECTA1CALINSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.42 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)

Conductor operating temperature: 90C

Conductor
crosssectional
area

Two-core cable
d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

mm 2

mV

mV

mV

18

4.8

4.8

4.2

136

25

35

50

70

95

3.,1
2.2
1.80
1.10
0.82

120

150

185

240

300

EBCS-10 1995

X'

3.10
2.20
1.85
1.10
0.82

0.185
0.180
0.180
0.155
0.150

Three or four-core cable,


three-phase a.c.

3.10 2.7
2.20 1.90
1.85 1.40
1.15 0.98
0.84 0.71

0.58
0.45
0.37
0.28
0.23

0.140
0.140
0.135
0.135 '
0.130

2.7
1.95
1.45
0.97
0.72

0.13'0
0.130
0.130
0.125
0.125

0.58
0.47
0.39
0.31
0.28

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

Table UAt Multicorethennosetting insulated- cables,non~JlImoured


(aluminium conductors)
Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 90"C

Reference Method 4 (enclosed


in an insulated wall, etc.)
Conductor
cross
sectional area

Note:

1 two-core
cable,single
phase a.c. or
d.c.

~ Reference

Method 3 ( enclosed
in conduit -on a wall or ceiling,
or in trunking)

Reference Method 1 (clipped


direct)

1 three- or
four-core
cable, threephase a.c.

1 two-core
cable, singlephase a.c. or
d.c:

1 three- or
four-core
cable, threephase a.c.

1 two-core
cable,single
phase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three- or
four-corecable,
tbree-pbase
a.c.

1 two-core
cable, singlephase a,c, or
d.c.

1 thee- or fourcore cable,


three-phase a.c.

mm2

-A

16

60

55

72

64

84

76

91

77

25
35
50
70
95

78
96
115
145
175

71
87
104
131
157

94
115
138
175
210

84
103
124
156
188

101
126
154
198
241

90
112
136
174
211

108
135
164
211
257

97
120
146
187
227

120
1,50
185
240
300

180
206
233
273
313

216
240
272
318
364

245
283
323
382
440

263
304
347
409
471

~
----

~-

"--_.

i) Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A62 of the Preface to this Annex.
ii) Where a conductor operates at -a temperature exceeding 700C, it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating
temperature.

J-J.

-.

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforated cable tray), or Reference
Method 13 (free air)

------------

, IN

Table :8.40 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor operating temperature: 900C

,
2 cables - single-phase a.c.

Conductor

scrosssectiOnal

Reference
Methods 3 and 4
(enclosed in
conduit etc. in or
on awall

Reference
Methods 1 and
11 (clipped direct
or on trays,
touching)

mV

tnV

2 cables
d.c.

area

mm

' ,3 or 4 cables - three-phase a.c.

Reference Method
12 (Spaced t)

Reference
Methods 3 and 4
(enclosed in
conduit, etc or on
a wall)

Reference
Methods 1, 11
and 12 (in trefoil)

Reference
Methods 1 and 11
(flat and touching)

Reference Method
12 (flat speced')

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

mV

1.60
1.13
0.82

1.70 0.30
1.17 0.30
0.86 0.29

1.72
1.21
0.91

1.65 0.190 1.66


1.12 0.185 1.14
0.82 0.185 0.84

1.65
1.12
0.82

0.65
0.53
0.42
0.32
0.26

0.68
0.54
0.45
0.34
0.28

0.74
0.61
0.53
0.43
0.38

0.65
0.52
0.43
0.32
0.26

50
70
95
120
150
r85
240
300
380
480
600
740
960
1200

0.29
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27

0.20
0.160
0.130
0.105
0.080

- - - - - - - - -

0.064

x
0.28
0.27
0.27

0.26 1.46
0.26 1.04
0.25 0.79

1.44
0.97
0.71

0.25 0.64
0.24 0.54
0.24 ' 0.45
0.24 0.38
0.23 0.34

0.57 0.155
0.45 0,155
0:36 0.150
0.28 0.150
0.22 0.145

0.67
0.55
0.46
0.36
0.31

0.65 0.27
0.52 0.26
0.42 0.26
0.32 0.26
0.26 0.26

0;70
0.58
0.49
0.41
0.36

0.59
0.48
0.38
0.30
0.25

0.21 0.165
0.170 0.165
0.140 0.160
0.115 0.160
0.092 0.155

0.27
0.23
021
0.19
0.18

0.25
0.21
0.165 0.25
0.135 0.25
0.110 0.25
0.087 0.24

0.33
0.30
0.28
027
0.26

0.20 0.23
0.165 0.23
0.135 0.22

3.24

0.25

0.07

1.68 ' 1.44


1.15 1.00
0.94 0.75

0.180
0.175
0.175
0.170
0.170

0.079 0.155 0.17

0.31
0.28
0.26

0.165 1.45 1.44


0.160 0.98 0.97
0.160 0.73 0.71
0.59
0.47
0.39
0.32
0.27

0.180
0.150
0.120
0.100
0.082

0.070 0.135 0.150

0.145 0.23
0.140 0.20
0.140 0.185
0.1350.170
0.135 0.160

0.24 1.46
0.24 1.00
0.23 '0.57

1.44
0.97
0.71

0.32 1.48
0.31 1.08
0.31 0.78

0.57
0.45
0.36
0.28
0.22

0.23
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.22

0.61
0.57
0.50 0.45
0.43
0.36
0.35
0.28
0.31 ,0.22

0.180
0.150
0.120
0.100
0.082

0.22
0.22
0.22
0.21'
0.21

0.28
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.23

0.180 0.29 0.34


0.145 0.29 0.32
0.120 0.29 0.31
0.095 0.29 0.30
0.076 0.29 0.30

0.22

0.063

0.070 0.21
~

t Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A of Section 8) 'Will result in a larger voltage drop.

0.31
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

0.64
0.54
0 ..4 7
0.41
0.37

0.28 0.29

1--

Table B.39 Single-core thermosetting insulated cables, non-armoured

(aluminium conductors)

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

conductor
crosssectional
area

I!

Note:

,...

IN
IN

Reference Method 4
(enclosed in conduit in
thermally inSUlating wall
etc.)

Ambient temperature: 30C


Conductor operating temperature: 9()OC
Reference Method 3
(enclosed in conduit on, a
wall or in trunking etc.)

Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)

Reference Method 1t
(on a perforated cabletray
horizontal or vertical

Reference Method 12 (free air)


Horizontal
f1atspaced

Vertical flat
spaced
2 cables,

Trefoil

3 or 4
cables,
three-phase
a.c.

2 cables,
singlephase
a.c. or d.c.
flat and
touchinq

3 or
4cables,
three-phBfe
a.c. flat and
touching or
trefoil

2 cables,
singlephase
a.c. or d.c.
flat &
touching

3 or 4
cables,
three-phase
a.c. flat and
touching or
trefoil

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c., or 3
three-phase
a.c.

phase a.c.
or d.c. or 3
three-phase
a.c.

10

11

125
158
191

113
142
171

157
200
242

140
179
217

169
215
265

.149.
189
234

180
231
281

165
211
258

210
271
332

188
244
300

159
206
253 .

120
150
185
240
300

220
253
288
338
387

197
226
256
300
344

281

251

308
353
410
489
564

273
314
366
438
507

326
376
430
509
586

300
346
396
469
541

387
448
515
611
708

351
408
470
561
652

296
343
395
471
544

380
480
600
740
960

658
765
871
1001
1176

594
692
791
911
1072

679
786
903
1025
1191

628
728
836
951
1108

798
927
1058
1218
1440

742
865
990
1143
1355

638
743
849
979
1151

1200

1333

1217

1341

1249

1643

1550

1307

2 cables,
single
phase a.c.
or.d.c,

3 or 4
cables
three-phase
a.c.

mm"

50
70
95

2 cables,
singlephase
a.c. or d.c.

singl~

i. Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
ii .Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7IYC, it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suittable for the
conductor operating temperature

3 cables
'Irefal,
three-phase.
a.c,

,I

']2

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.38 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)

Conductor operating temperature: 70C

Conductor
crosssectional
area1

Two-core cable
d.c.

Two-core cable singlephase a.c.

Three- or four-core cable,


three-phase a.c.

mrn"

mV

mV

mV

16

4.5

4.5

3.9

25
35
50
70
95

2.9
2.1
1.55
1.05
0.77

120
150
185
240
300

132

EBCS-10 1995

2.90
2.10
1.55
1.05
0.77

0.175
0.170
0.170
0.165
0.160

'

2.90
2.10
1.55
1.05
0.79

2.5
1.80
1.35
0.90
0.67

0.150
0.150
0.145
0.140
0.140

' 2.5
1.80
1.35
0.92
0.68

0.53
0.42
0.3i
0.26
0.21

0.135
0.135
6.135
0.130
0.130

0.55
0.44
0.37
0.30
0.25

" ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

I,

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.37 Multicore armoured P.V.C.-insulated cables


(aluminium conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30C
Conductor operating temperature:7O"C

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Conductor
cross-sectional
area

Reference Method 11
(on a perforated cable tray)
or Reference Method 13 (free air)

Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)

1 tWo-core
cable; singlephase a.c. or
d.c.

1 three- or
four-core
cable, threephase a.c,

mm 2

1 two-core cable,
single-phase a.c.
or d.c.

1 three- or fourcore cable, threephase a.c.

16

68

58

71

61

25
35.
50
70
95

89
109
131
165
199

76
94
113
143
174

94
115
139
175
211

80
99
119
151
t86

120
150
185
240
300

202
232
265
312
360

216
250
287
342
399

Note: Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this

Annex.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

\,0.)
o"""'"

Table B.36 Voltage drop (per ampere per metre)


Conductor operating temperature: 70C
. Conductor
cross
sectional area

2 cables, single-phase a.c,


2 cables d.c.

Reference Methods
1 and 11 (Touching)

3 or 4 cables, three-phase a.c.

Reference Method
12 (Spaced")

Reference Methods
1,11 and 12 (In
trefoil touching)

Reference Methods
1 and 11 (Flat
touching)

Reference Method
12 (Flat spaced')

mV

mV

mV

mV

mm"

mV

rrJV
r

._

50
70
95

1.55
1.05
0.77

1.55
1.05
0.78

0.23
0.22
0.21

1.55
1.10
0.81

1.55
1.05
0.81

0.31
0.30
0.29

1.55
1.10
0.86

1.35
0.92
0.68

0.195
0.190
0.185

1.35
0.93
0.70

1.35
0.93
0.70

0.27
0.26
0.25

1.35 . 1.30
0.96 0.95
0.75 0.73

0.34
0.33
0.32

1.35
1.00
0.80

120
150
185
240
300

0.61
0.49
0.39
0.30
0.24

0.62
0.50
0.41
0.26

0.21 0.66
0.20 0.54
0.195 0.45
0.190 0.37
0.185 0.32

0.65
0.53
0.44
0.34
0.28

0.29
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.26

0.71
0.60
0.52
0.44
0.39

0.54
0.44
0.35
0.28
0.22

0.180
0.175
0.170
0.165
0.160

0.57
0.47
0.39
0.32
0.27

0.57
0.46
0.38
0.30
'0.24

0.25
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23

0.62
0.52
0.45
0.38
0.34

0.60
0.50
0.42
0.33
0.28

0.32
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.29

0.68
0.58
0.51
0.44
0.40

380
480
600
740
960

0.190
0.150
0.120
0.097
0.075

0.22
0.180
0.15
0.135
0.115

0.185 0.28
0.18
0.25
0.175 0.23
0.170 0.22
0.160 0.200

0.26
0.22
0.195
0.180
0.165

0.25
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.21

0.36
0.33,
,0.31
0.29
0.27

0.185 0.155 0.24


0.155 0.155 0.22
0..1,30 0.150 0.200
0.115 0.145 0.185
0.100 0.140 0.175

0.22
0.195
0.170
0.160
0.150

0.22
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.185

0.32
0.29
0.27
0.26
0.24

0.27
0.26
0.24
0.25
0.21
0.24
0.200 0.22
0.190 0.195

0.38
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.27

1200

0.060

0.110

0.155 0.190

0.160

0.180

0.094

0.145

0.160

0.22

0.185 0.165

0;25

0.3~

0.24

0.140

t Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex A, Section 8 ) will result in, a larger voltage drop.

0.170

Table B.35 Single-core armoured P.V.C.-Insulated cable, Non-magnetic armour.


(aluminum conductors)

Current-carrying.capacity (Amperes):

Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)
Conductor
cross
sectional
area

tv
\0

'

Ambient temperature: 30"C

Conductor operating temperature : 70C


Reference Method 11
(on a perforated cable
tray)

2 cables
singlephase a.c.
or d.c. flat
and
touching

3 or 4
cables
three-phase
a.c. fiat and
touching

2 cables
singlephase a.c.
or d.c. flat
and
touching

rnm"

50
70
95

143
183
221

133
168
202

152
194
234

120
150
185
240
300

255
294
334
393
452

233
267
303
354
405

270
310
352
413.
474

380
480
600
740
960

518
586
658
728
819

452
501
550
596
651

543
616
692
769
868

479
534
589
642
706

1200

893

S92

952

756

3 or 4
cables
three-phase
a.c. flat and
-tQuching

Reference Method 12 (free air)

2 cables single-phase a.c.

2 cables d.c. spaced

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical
f1atspaced

Horizontal

5'

141
178
214

168
212
259

246
282
319
374
427

299
340
389
457
520 .

3 or 4 cables, three-phase a.c.

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

3 cables
trefoil

10

11

12

159
200
245

167
214
261

157
202
247

169
213
255

155
196
236

131
168
205

285
323
371
437
498

303
349
400
472
545

288
333
382
452
523

293
335
379
443
505

272
312
354
415
475

238
275
315
372
430

583
655
724
802
866

559
629
696
770
832

638
742
859
986
1171

613
715
828
952
1133

551
604
656
707
770

518
568
618
666
726

497
568
642
715
808

938

902

1360

1317

822

774

880

- Vertical

Note: Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse. see A,6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.34 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)

Conductor operating temperature: 70C


Conductor
crosssectional
area

Two-core
cable d.c.

Two-core cable singephase a.c,

Three-or four-core cable,


three-phase a.c.

mV

mV

mV

4.5

4.5

3.9

mm

16

25
35
50
70
95

2.9
2.1
1.55
1.05
0.77

120
150
185
240
300

128

EBCS-10 1995

2.9
2.1
1.55
1.05
0.77

0.175
0.170
0.170
0.165
0.160

z
2.9
2.1
1.55
1.05

0.79

2.5
1.80
1.35
0.90
0.67

0.150
0.150
0.145
0.140
0.140

2.5
1.80
1.35
0.92
0.68

0.53
0.42
0.34
0.26
0.21

0.135
0.135
0.135
0.130
0.130

0.55
0.44
0.37
0.30
0.25

ETHIOPIAN BUILDiNG CODE STANDARD

Table B.33 Multicore P.V.C,-insulated cables, non-armoured


(aluminium conductors)
Ambient temperature: 30C
Conductor operating temperature: 70C

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):

Reference Method 4 {enclosed in


an insulating waU, etc.)
Conductor
cross- sectional
area

Reference Method 3 {enclosed in


conduit on a wall or ceiling, or in
trunking)
1 two-core
cable, singlephase a.c. or
d.c.

.1 three- or four
core cable
threephase a.c,

1 two-core
cable, singlephase a.c. or
d.c,

1 three- or four
core
cable,three
phase a.c.

mm2

16

44

41

54

25
35
50
70
95

58
71
86
108
130

53
65
78
98
118

71
86
104
131
157

120
150
185
240
300

135
155
176
207
237

1 two-core,
cable, singlephase a.c.or
d.c.

1 two-core
cable, singlephase a.c.
or d.c .

1 three- or fourcore cable,


three-phase
a.c.

48

66

59

73

61

62
92
116
139

83
103
125
160
195

73
90
110
140
170

89
111
135
173
210

78
96
117
150
183

160
184
210
248
285

197
227
259
305
351

212
245
280
330
381

Note: Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A.6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.
io-'

tv

.",:I

Reference Method 11 (on a


perforated cable tray), or
Reference Method 13 (free air)

1 three- or four
core cable,
three-phase
. a.c.

Reference Method 1 {clipped


direct)

------'-----'--------'----------~-----'-_._.-.-.------~-_.

Table B.32 Voltage drop (per ampere per meter)


Conductor Operating TemperaturetXl "C
2 ubIBs - sing/efJIIISB

Conduttu,
ctrlss-Sltoolllll

2 ub/es d.t.

'TU

R,frJnJnte M,thfJds 3
,nd 4 (EndtJsed in
ttIIIIftitetc., in /If ,n ,

tnIJ

R,frrBnte M,thfJds 3
'lid 4 flllldosed in
condtit my in II' on ,

WBIJ

R,fIfIfIf:, MlItltfJds 1,
11 'lid 12 (Tn trefoi
tuudIingJ

n,ftJnJnc, Mirthods 1
'nd 11(Flat tDBd*gJ

R,fIfIfIf:, MBthfJd 12
(Flat $psc,,/)

mY

mY

mY

mY

mY

illY

ow

mY

,
9.77

120
150

0.61

9.49

est

185

0.39
9.30

0.42
0.32

al4

al6
0.22
9.180
9.150

960

al9fJ
9.150
9.120
0.099
0.075

1200

a06/)

600
740

R,fBnJnc, MIItltfJd 12
f$p,ut/)

95

48f)

R,ftJnJnc, M,tIIfJds 1
'lid 11 fdippstl dirltt or
on lmyS, toudlingJ

1.05

380

3 or 4 ulJllJS - tJuee.,/IISB'.c.

50
70

240
300

'.e.

1.55

1.60
1.10
0.81

9.64

x
0.30
9.30

1.60

1.55

1.55

1.05
0.77

0.190
0.185
0.185

1.55

1.15
9.86

1.05
0.79

1.05
0.77

0.70
0.59
0.50
0.42
0.37

0.61
0.49
0.40
0.30
0.24

0.180
0.175
0.175
0.170
0.170

0.64
0.52
0.43
0.35
9.30

0.49
0.39
030

al7

0.35

0.195

9.32

9.155

9.165
9.165

0.26

0.26
0.27

0.31

0.130
0.105
9.086

9.160
o.f6O 0.1!JD
0.155 0.180

9.125

al5

al8

0.100
0.062

0.25

al4

0.27
0.26

9.074

0.155 0.170

9.068

0.24

0.25

al9
al9
al8
al8
0.27
0.27

al3
all

9.61

0.28
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.26

al6

al4

0.26
0.26

0.195
0.155

0.25

0.25

.A.55 1.35
"1.10 0.94
0.82 0.70
0.67
0.55
0.47
0.40
0.35

0.55
0.45
0.36

0.32
0.29

0.26
0.26
0.25

1.40
0.97
0.74

0.25

al8

al4
al4
al4

0.23

0.23

0.61
0.51
0.44
0.37
0.32

0.190
0.23
9.155'/0.23
0.125
0.22

0.30
0.27
0.26

0.91
0.67

0.165
0.160
0.160

al2
0.69

0.53

9.155

1.35

1.35 1.35
9.91

0.24

9.24

1.3$ 1.35
9.94 0.91

0.67

0.23

0.71

0.53
0.42

0.55
0.45
0.37
0.30
0.26

0.67

0.32
0.31
0.31

1.40
0.96
0.74

0.31
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

0.61
0.52
0.46
0.40
0.36

0.29
0.29
0.29
0.29

9.34

0.23
0.23
0.23

0.26
0.21

al2
0.22

0.22
0.195
0.180
0.165
0.155

8.170
0.140
0.110
0.094
0.077

0.22
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.21

0.28

0.23
0.22

0.170
0.135
0.110
0.089
0.071

al9

0.34
0.32
0.31
0.30
0.29

0.0660.135 0.150

0.066

0.21.

0.22

0.059 0.28

alB

9.42

0.155
0.34 0.150
0.26 0.150
0.21
0.145
0.170
0.140
0.110
0.094
0.077

0.145
0.140
0.140
0.135
0.135

t Spacings larger than those specified in Method 12 (see Annex Annex A of Section 8) will result in larger voltage drop.

9.58 0.53
0.48
0.41
fJ.35
0.31

alB
al4

9.42

9.34
0.26
0.21

Table B.3! Single-core P.V.C.-insulated cables, non-armoured, with or without sheath


(aluminium conductors)
Current-carrying capadty (Amperes):
Ambient temperature: 30DC
Conductor operating temperature: 70DC
Reference Method 4 .
(enclosed in conduit in
thermally insulating wall
etc.)
Conductor
cross
sectional
area

Reference Method 3
(enclosed in conduit on
a wall or in trunking etc.)

Reference Method 1
(clipped direct)

Reference Method 11
(on a perforated cabl
tray, horizontal or
vertical)

Horizontal
flat spaced

Vertical flat
spaced

Trefoil

3 or 4
cables,
threephase a.c.
flat and
touchingor
trefoil

2 cables,
single
phase a.c.
or d.c. flat
and
touching

3 or 4
cables,thre
e-phase
a.c. flat
and
touching or
trefoil

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c. or 3
cables
threephase a.c.

2 cables
single
phase a.c.
or d.c. or 3
cables
threephase a.c.

3 cables
trefoil
threephase a.c.

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c.

3 or 4
cables
threephase a.c.

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c.

3 or 4
cables
threephase a.c.

2 cables,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c. flat
and
touching

10

11

12

rnrn"

50
70
95

93
118
142

84
107
129

11 B
150
181

104
133
161

134
172
210

123
159
194

144
185
225

132
169
206

163
210
256

148
191
234

128
165
203

120
150
185
240
300

164
189
215
252
289

149
170
194
227
261

210
234
266
312
358

186
204
230
269
306

245
283
324
384
444

226
261
299
354
410

261
301
344
407
469

240
277
317
375
433

298
344
394
466
538

273
317
364
432
501

237
274
316
375
435

352
405
462

472
546
626
709
823

543
629
722
820
953

502
582
669
761
886

625
726
837
956
1125

584
680
787
902
1066

507
590
680
776
907

926

1073

999

1293

1229

1026

380
480
600
740
960

413
477
545

511
591
679
771
900

1200

1022

Note: Where the conductor is to be protected by a semi-enclosed fuse, see A,6.2 of the Preface to this Annex.

""""
~

Reference Method 12 (free air)

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.30 Mineral insulated cables, bare and neither exposed to touch nor in contact with

combustible materials (conte'd)

(copper conductors and sheath)

Voltage drop (per ampere per metre) for single-phase operation:

Sheath operating temperature: 105C

Three single-core cables

Conductor
cross-sectional
area

Multicore
cables

Rat formation

Touching

Spaced 1 cable
diameter apart

mV

mV

mV

mV

1.0
1.5

40

27

40

27

40

27

40

27

2.5

16

10

6.8
'4.1
2.6

16

10

6.8
4.1

16

10

6.8
4.1
2.6

16

10

6.8

4.1

2.6

10

16

124

~T

Trefoil
touching

2.6
z

25

35

50

70

95

1.600.1601.65
1.150.1551.20
0.87 0.150 0.88
0.60 0.145 0.62
0.450.1400,47

. 1.60
1.15
0.88
0.61
0,46

120

150

185

240

0.36 0.135 0.38


0.29 0.135 0.32
0.23 0.130 0.27
0.1800.1300.22

0.37
0.31
0.26
0.22

EBCS-10 1995

---------~----------

0.23 1.65
0.23 1.20
0.22 0.91
0.22 0.65
0.21 0.50
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.195

0.42
0.37
0.33
0.29

1.600.1251.60

1.60
1 .20
0.90
0.63
0,48

0.31
0.30
0.29
0.29
0.28

1.65
1.25

0.95

0.70

0.56

0.39
0.34
0.29
0.26

0.28
0.27
0.26
0.25

0.48

0.43

0.39

0.36

z.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.30 Mineral insulated cables, bare and neither exposed to touch nor in contact with

combustible materials

(copper conductors and sheath)

Voltage drop (per ampere per metre) for single-phase operation Sheath Operating Temperature:

lOSC
Conductor
cross-sectional
area

Two single-core cables


Touching

Multicore cables

1.0
1.5

47
31

47
31

2.5
4
6
10
16

19
12
7.8
4.7
3.0

19
12
7.8
4.7
3.0

mm

i.

25
35
50
70
95

1.85
1.35
1.00
0.69
0.51

0.180
0.175
0.170
0.165
0.160

120
150
185
240

0.41
0.33
0.27
0.21

0.160
0.155
0.150
0.150

z
.\

1.85
1.35
1.00
0.71
0.54

1.85

0.44
0.36
0.31
0.26

0.145

1.85

.'

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-----.---

.. _------._-~~~~--

EBCS-10 1995

123

Table :8.29 Mineral insulated cables bare and neither exposed to touch nor in contact with combustible materials
(copper conductors and sheath) (conte'd)

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Methods 12 and 13 (Free air)

Conductor
crosssectional
area

rnrn"

Ambient temperature: 30"C


Sheath operating temperature: 105'?C

2 single
core
cables or 1
two-core
cable,
singlephase a.c.
or d.c.

3 singlecore
cables in
trefoil or 1
three-core
cable,
threephase a.c.

10

11

12

13

24
31
41
54

21
26
35
46

20
26
35

1 four-core
cable 3
1 four-core
cores
cable all
loaded
cores
threeloaded
phase a.c. .r

1 seven
core cable
all cores
loaded

1 twelve
core cable
all cores
loaded

1 nineteencore cable
all cores
loaded

14

15

18
22
30

14
18
24

3 single-core cables three-phase


a.c.

Vertical
spaced

Horizontal
spaced

Touching

16

17

18

19

26
33
43
56

29
37
49
64

23
29
39
51

Light duty. 500V

1.0
1.5
2.5
4.0

Heavy duty, 750V

Note:

1
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240

n
ii)
iii)

26
22
22
19
15
13
11
28
32
25
33
28
28
24
19
16.5
14
35
32
40
37
45
38
32
26
22
47
43
54
60
50
49
43
34
61
70
56
63
76
64
54
78
89
71
.
87
104
85
73
105
120
96
137
115
112
97
127
137
157
179
150
146
126
164
178
204
220
184
216
200
248
228
272
266
247
304
279
333
323
370
300
359"
335
400
441
385
385
460
411
441
505
526
441
498
565
469
557
629
530
596
500
584
697
624
704
617
i-or smzre-core caoies, the sheaths 0 the circurt are assumed to be connected tozetl er at both enos.
No correction factor for grouping need be applied.
Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7ffC, it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor

operating temperature.

Table B.29 Mineral insulated cables bare and neither exposed to touch nor in contact with combustible materials
(copper conductors and sheath)

Current-carrying capacity (Amperes):


Reference Method 1 (Clipped Direct)
Conductor
crosssectional
area

2 single core
cables or 1

Ambient temperature: 30"C


Sheath operating temperature: 105C

3 single-core

two-core
cable, single
phase a.c. or
d.c.

cables in
trefoil or 1
three-core
cable, threephase a.c.

mm"

3 single-core
.cables in flat
formation,
three-phase
a.c.

1 four-core
cable 3 cores,
loaded threephase a.c.

cable, all .
cores loaded

1 seven-core
cable all cores
loaded

1 twelve-core
cable all cores
loaded

1 nlneteen-:
core cable all
cores loaded

22
.38
51

19
24
33
44.

21
27
36
47

18.5
24

16.5
21
28

13
16.5
22

24
31
42
55
70
127
166
203
251
307
369
424
485
550
643

20
26
35
47
59
107
140
171
212
260
312
359
410
465
544

24
30
41

20
26
35
46
58
103
134

1 four-core

Light duty, 500V

1.0
1.5
2.5
4.0
H~vy

50

70
95
120
150
185
240

,.....
N
,.....

33

duty, 750V

1.0
1.5
2.5
4
6
16
25
35

Note:

28

53

67
119
154
187
230
280
334
383
435
492
572

17.5
-22
30
40
50
90
117

14
17.5
24
32

12
15.5
20

10.5
13

For smzie-core caoies, the sheaths ot the circuit are assumed to he c.onnp.ctf~d tOlJP.thP.T "t hnth p.nc1"
ii) No correction factor for grouping need be applied.
iii) Where a conductor operates at a temperature exceeding 7rfJC it shall be ascertained that the equipment connected to the conductor is suitable for the conductor operating
temperature.
j)

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table B.28 Mineral insulated cables bare and exposed to touch or having an overall covering

of p.v,c

(copper conductors and sheath) (conte'd)

Voltage drop (per ampere per meter) for single-phase operation Sheath operating temperature: 70C

Conductor
crosssectional

area

Three single-core cables


Multicore
cables

Flat formation

Trefoil, touching
Touching_

Spaced 1 cable
diameter apart

mrn"

mV

mV

mV

mV

1.0
1.5

36
24

36
24

36
24

36
24

2.5
4
6
10
16

14
9.1
6.0
3.6
2.3

14
9.1
6.0
3.6
2.3

14
9.1
6.0
3.6
2.3

14
9.1
6.0
3.6
2.3

r
25
35
50
7,'0
95
120
150
185
240

120

1.45
1.05
0.78
0.54
0.40

x
0.170
0.165
0.160
0.155
0.150

z
1.45
1.05
0.80
0.56
0.43

0.32 0.150 0.36


0.26 0.145 0.30
0.21 0.140 0.26
0.1650.1400.22

EBCS-10 1995

-------------------

1.45
1.05
0.79
0.55
0.41

0.25
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.22

1.45
1.10
0.83
0.60
0.47

1.45
1.05
0.82
0.58
0.44

0.32
0.31
0.31
0.30
0.29

1.50
1.10
0.87
0.65
0.53

0.33 0.220.40
0.29 0.21 0.36
0.25 0.21 0.32
0.21 0.200.29

0.36
0.32
0.28
0.26

0.28
0.27
0.26
0.25

0.46
0.42
0.39
0.36

1.60 0.125 1.60

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

, - - - - - - - - - - - - - .- - - - - .- - - - , - - - - - - .- .- - - '

--.-. - - - - . - - ; - - - -- . --- -".

SECTION 4: CONDUCTORS

Table B.28 Mineral insulated cables bare and exposed to touch or having an overall covering
of p.v,c

(copper conductors and sheath)

Voltage drop (per ampere per meter) for single-phase operation sheath operating temperature: 70C

Conductor cross-sectional
area

Two single-core cables,


Touching

Multicore cables

mrn"

mV

mV

1
1.5

42
28

42
28

2.5
4
6
10
16

17
10
7
4.2
2.6

17
10
7
4.2
2.6

25
35
50
70
95

1.65
1.20
0.89
0.62
0.46

0.200
0.195
0.185
0.180
0.175

1.65
1.20
0.91
0.64
0.49

1.65

120
150
186
240

0.37
0.30
0.25
0.190

0.170
0.170
0.165
0.160

0.41
0.34
0.29
0.25

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE SfANDARD

0.145

EBCS-10 1995

-----~._----~-.--.-----.-----

z
1.65

-119

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

(3) A copper earthing conductor of IO.Omm 2 shall be in conduit, electrical metallic tubing or
cable armour.
(4) Metal enclosures for earthing conductors shall be continuous from the point of attachment
to cabinets or equipment to the earthing electrode and shall be securely fastened to the earthing
clamp or fitting.
(S) Where an earthing conductor is run in the same racewaywith other conductors ofthe system
to which it is connected, it shall be insulated, except that where the length of the raceway does
not exceed IS.Om between pull points and does not contain more than the equivalent of two
quarter bends between pull points, an uninsulatedearthing conductor may be used.
( 6) Notwithstanding the requirements of (2) above, earthing conductor of Ie.Omnr' or larger may
be embedded in concrete provided that the points of emergency are so located or guarded as not
to constitute exposure to mechanical injury..

7.9.3

Installation of Bonding Conductors for Equipment

(l) The bonding conductor for equipment shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped; but such
splices or taps shall be made only within boxes except that, in the case of open wiring, they shall
be permitted to be -made externally from boxes and shall be covered with insulation.

(2) .Where more than one bonding conductor enters a box, all such conductors shall be in good
. electrical contact with each other by securing all bonding conductors under bonding screws, or
by connecting them. together with an acceptable solderless connector and connecting one
conductor only to the box by a bonding screw or a bonding device, and the arrangement shall
be such that the disconnection or removal of a receptacle, fixture, or other device fed from the
box, will not interfere with or interrupt the bonding continuity.
(3) Where a bonding conductor is run in the same raceway with other conductors of the system
to which it is connected, it shall be insulated, except that where the length of the raceway does
not exceed 15.0m and does not contain more than the equivalent of two quarter bends, an
uninsulated bonding conductor shall be permitted to be used.
(4) Where a rigid metal conduit or steel pipe is used as a bonding conductor, the installation
shall comply with Section 8 of this Code.

. 173

EBCS10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(5) A copper bonding conductor shall:


a) if Ie.Omrrr' or larger and attached securely to the surface on which it is carried, be
protected where exposed to mechanical injury; and
b) if smaller than l e.Omrrr' or if the installation does not come within the provision in (a)
above, be installed and protected in the same manner as the circuit conductor for a given
installation.
(6) An aluminium bonding conductor shall:
a) if 25.0mm2 or larger and attached securely to the surface on which it is carried, be
protected where exposed to mechanical injury; or
b) if smaller than 25.0mm 2 or if the installation does not come within the provisions in (a)
above, be installed and protected in the same manner as the circuit conductor for a given
installation.
(7) Where a separate bonding conductor supplements the bonding afforded by a ferrous metal
raceway, it shall be installed in the same raceway as the circuit conductor.

7.9.4

Earthing Conductor Size for D.C. Circuits

(1) The ampacity of the earthing conductor for a direct-current supply system or generator shall
be not less than that of the largest conductor supplied by the system, except where the earthing
circuit conductor is a neutral derived from a balancer winding or a balancer set, the size or the
earthing conductor shall be not less than that of the neutral conductor.

(2) The system earthing conductor shall be copper and in no case smaller than 10.0m~.

7.9.5

Eathing Conductor Size for A.C. System

(1) The size of the earthing conductor shall not be less than those given in Table 7.1

7.9.6

Bonding Conductor Size

(1) The size of a bonding conductor shall be not less than that given in Table 7.1; but in no case
does it need to be larger than the largest unearthed conductor in the circuit.">

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-101995

174

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.10

EARTHING AND BONDING CONDUCTOR CONNECTIONS

7.10.1 Bonding Conductor Connection to Raceways


(1) The point of connection of the boriding conductor to interior metal raceways, cable armour
and the like shall be as near as practicable -to the source of supply and shall be chosen so that
no raceway or cable armour is bonded through a run of smaller size that is called for in
Clause 7.9.6.

7.10.2 Earthing Conductor Connection to Water Pipe Electrodes


(1) Where the earth electrode is a metal water-piping system to which a common earthing
conductor or the earthing conductor of a system is attached, the point of attachment shall be
a) on the street side of the water meter; or
b) on a cold-water pipe of adequate ampacity and as near as practicable to the point of
entrance of the water service in the building.
(2) Where practicable, the point of attachment shall be accessible.
(3) The metal cold water system shall be made electrically continuous from the point of
attachment of the earthing conductor to the water service entrance by bonding together all parts
thereof if these parts contain insulating section or may become disconnected at meters, valves
and unions.
(4) Equipment may be earthed to a cold-water pipe which is near the equipment.

7.10.3 Eathlng Conductor Connections to Other-Than-Water-Pipe Electrodes


I

(l) Where a! metal water-piping system is not available, the earthing conductor shall be attached
to other electrodes at a point which will assure a permanent earth.

(2) Where practicable, the point of attachment in (l) above shall be accessible.

175

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.10.4 Bonding Conductor Connection to Circuits and Equipment


(1) The bonding conductor or bonding jumper shall be attached to circuits, conduits cabinets
equipment and the like, which are to be bonded, by means of lugs, pressure wire connector
clamps, or other acceptable means.
(2) Connections which depend on soldering shall not be used.
(3) The bonding conductor shall be secured to every metal box by means of a bonding screw
which shall be used for no other purpose.
(4) The bonding conductor shall be brought into every nonmetallic outlet box in such a manner
than it can be connected to any fitting or device which may require bonding to earth.
(5) Equipment shall be so installed that, if the connections between the branch circuit and the
. internal conductors pass through an access cover, the bonding connection shall remain
continuous when the cover is removed.
(6) A bonding jumper shall be installed to connect the bonding conductor to the earthing
terminal of a socket outlet and in such a manner that disconnection or removal of the socket
outlet will not interfere with or interrupt earthing continuity.
(7) In the case of metal-enclosed systems where the earthing path is provided by the metal
enclosure, a bonding jumper shall be installed to bond the earthing terminal of the socket outlet
to the enclosure.
(8) Notwithstanding the Provisions of (6) and (7) above, the bonding jumper, in the case of
socket outlets having earthing terminals isolated from the mounting strap required for special
equipment, may be extended directly back to the distribution panel.

7.10.5 Earthing Conductor Connection to Electrodes


(1) The earthing conductor shall be attached to the earthing electrode by means of:
a)
b)
c)
d)

a bolted clamp,

a pipe fitting plug or other device screwed into the pipe or into the fitting,

copper welding by the thermit process brazing or silver solder, or

ether equally substantial means.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

----_._-----_.~--

EBCS-10 1995

176

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

(2) Where a bolted clamp is used for a wet location or for direct earth burial, the clamp shall
be of copper, bronze or brass, and the bolts shall be of a similar material or of stainless steel.
(3) The earthing conductor shall be attached to the earthing fitting as required by
Clause 7.10.4(1).
(4) Connections which depend on solder shall not be used except for connections utilizing silver
solder.
(5) Not more than one conductor shall be connected to the earthing electrode by a single clamp
or fitting unless the clamp or fitting is specifically designed for multiple conductor connection.

177

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILD~G CODE STANDARD

~-~---

--

--,---

---------~

..__

._---------~----~-----.--------,

..._-

SECTION

EARTHING, BONDING, AND LIGHTNING


PROTECTION

PART II - LIGHTNING PROTECTION

7.11 . SCOPE
(1) This Part of the Code covers the installation of lightning protection requirements for all types
of structures with the exception of those structures used for manufacturing explosives.
(2) Electric generation, transmission and distribution systems, overhead telephone lines, and
radar stations are not covered by this Code.

7.12

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in thistext, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

(a) BS 6651:1986

. (b) NSIINFPA78:1986
(c) UL 96A:1983

British Standard Code of Practice for Protection of Structures against


Lightning, 1990
An American National Standard), Lightning Protection Code.
Underwriters Laboratories Standard for Installation Requirements for
Lighting Protection systems, Ninth Edition.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

178

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.13

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section, in addition to the terms defmed in Section 1, the following
definitions shall apply:

lightning flash

an electrical discharge between cloud and earth, of atmospheric


origin, comprising one or more impulse of many kiloamps.

lightning strike

a lightning flash attaching to a structure.

lightning stroke

one of the single distinguishable current impulses of a lightning


flash.

lightning protection system a complete system of air termination, conductors, earth termination;
interconnection conductors, and other connectors and fittings
required to protect a structure from the effect of.lightning,
air termination

that component of a lightning protection system that is intended to


intercept lightning flushes.

down conductor

a conductor intended to be used to carry lightning currents between


air termination and earth termination.

bond

a conductor intended to provide electrical connection between the


lightning protection system and other metal-works and between
various portions of the latter.

joint

a mechanical and/or electrical junction between two or more


portions of a lightning protection system.

test joint

a joint designed and situated so as to enable resistance or continuity


measurement to be made.

earth termination

that part of a lightning protection system which is intended to


discharge lightning currents into the general mass of earth.

179

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

ring (loop) earth electrode an earth electrode forming a closed loop round the structure below
or on the surface of the earth, or within or under the foundations.
It may be lJsed for interconnecting other earth electrodes.
side flash

an electrical spark, caused by differences of potential, occurring


between conductive metal bodies and component of lightning
protection system or earth.

zone ofprotection

that space adjacent to a protection system which is substantially


immune to direct lightning flashes (see Figure 7.2).

7.14

MATERIALS

7.14.1 General
(1) A lightning protection system t shall be made of materials that are resistant to corrosion or
shall be acceptably protected against corrosion.
(2) No combination of materials that forms an electrolytic-couple of such nature that, in the
presence of moisture, corrosion is accelerated shall be used.
Note:

One or more of the following materials are acceptable:


i)
ii)
iii)
IV)

Copper of the grade ordinarily required for commercial electrical work, generally designated as being of
98% conductivity when annealed.
A copper alloy as resistant to corrosion as copper under similar condition.
Aluminium conductors of electrical grade aluminium.
Galvanized steel with cross-sectional area equivalent to that of copper.

7.14.2 Galvanic Compatibility


(1) Metals shall be used in combination that are galvanically compatible.

t The principal parts of a lightning protection system are air termination, down conductors, joints and bonds, test
joints, earth termination, and earth electrode.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD


-----------------

EBCS-10 1995

180

SECTION?: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.14.3 Corrosion Protection


(1) Components shall be protected against corrosion; any part of a copper system that is
exposed to direct action or chimney gases or other similar corrosive gases shall be protected by
a continuous hot-dipped coating of lead.

(2) All components located within 610.0tnm of the chimney top shall be so protected.
(3) Aluminium components are not required to have a coating of lead.

7.14.4 Mechanical Protection


(1) Any part of a lightning protection system that is subject to mechanical damage or
displacement shall be protected with a protective moulding or tubing.

(2) Metal pipe or tubing shall be bonded to the conduit at both ends of the tubing.
(3) Conductors shall be securely attached to objects upon which they are placed (see Figure 7.1
and Table 7.5).

7.14.5 Use of Aluminium


(1) Aluminium systems shall be installed in accordance with other applicable clauses and subject
to the following conditions:

a) Aluminium lightnin~-protection components shall not be installed directly on copper


roofing materials or other copper surfaces where exposed to the run off from copper
surfaces.
b) (i) Aluminium components shall not be used where they corne into direct contract with

earth.
(ii) Fittings used for the connection of aluminium earthing equipment shall be of the
bimetallic type; such bimetallic connectors shall be installed not less than 460.0mm

above ground level.

181

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-----.- ... _----._---~~~._--_._._---

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUlLDINGS

c) Aluminium conductors and components shall not be


i)

embedded in concrete or masonry;

ii) in direct contact with a surface coated with an alkaline base paint; or

iii) installed in a location subject to excessive moisture.

Note:

Copper lightning~pwtection components shall'not be installed directly on aluminium roofing, siding or other
aluminium surfaces.

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

.Table 7.3 Minimum dimensions of component parts

Component

Air terminations:
aluminium, copper

and galvanized steel

strip.

aluminium, aluminium
alloy, copper,
phosphor, bronze and
galvanized steel rods
Suspended conductors:
stranded aluminium

stranded copper

stranded aluminium
(steel reinforced)
stranded galvanized
steel
Down conductors:
aluminium, copper
and galvanized

steel strip

aluminium, aluminium
alloy, copper and

galVanized steel rods

Earth terminations:
austenitic iron
copper and galvanized
steel strip
copper and galVanized
steel reids
hard drawn copper
rods for direct driving

into soft ground


hard drawn or
annealed copper rods
or solid wires for

indirect driving or
laying in ground
rods for hard ground

copper-clad or
galvanized steel rods
(flee notes to table) for

harder ground

Dlmenslo
ns

Area

mm

mm

20 x 2.5

50.0

8.0 dia.

7{3.0

Area

mm

mtn 2

Fixed connecltions(bonds) In

aluminium, aluminium alloy, copper

and galvanized ste6l:

extemal strip
external rods
internal strip
intemal rods

20 x 2.5
8.0 diil.
20 x 1.5
6:5 dia.

50.0
50.0
30.0

Flexible or lam[nated connections

(bonds):

external, aluminium
external, annealed copper
intemal, aluminium
intemal, annealed copper

20 x 2.5
20 x 2.5
20x 1.5
20x 1.5

Component
2

50.0

713.0

50.0
50.0
50.0

7/3.0

50.0

19/1.8

Dknenslo
ns

20x 25

50.0

8.0 dia.

50.0

Note

14.Odia.

153.0

20 x 2.5

50.0

8.0 dia.

50.0

8.0 dia.

50,0

8.0 dia.

50.0

12.Odia.

113.0

Iv)

14.OdIa.

153.0

v)

ii)

i1~

vi)

183

EBCS-10 1995

3~.{)

50.0

15M
30.0
30.0

For copper"Clad steel rods, the core should be of loW


catbon steel with a tensile strength of approximately
800.0Nlmm2 and of a qUality not less than grade
43.OA of as 4380. The cladding should bEt of 99.9%
pure electrolytic cooper molecUlarly bonded to the
steel core. Theradilll thickness of the copper should
be not less than O.25mm.

Couplings tOr copper"Clad steel rods should be


made from copper-silicon alloy, grade C9101 or BS
2874, or aluminium bronze alloy, grade CA102 of BS
2871.

The use of intemal phosphor bronze dowels may


give a lower resistance than the extemal couplings of
diameter greater than the rod.

For galvanized steel rods, steel of grade 43.OA


specified in BS 4380 should be used, the threads
being cut before hot~ip galvanizing to BS 729.

Stranded conductors are not normally used for down


conductors or earths.
Greater dimensions are reqUired for the following:.
structureS exceeding 2O.0m In height.
Special classes of structure.
Mechanical or corrosive rellllOl1s.

ETHIOPIAN aUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table 7.4 Minimum thicknesses of sheet metal used for roofing and forming Part of the
air termination net work

Minimum thickness
[mm]

Material

Galvanized steel
Stainless steel
Copper

Material

Minimum thickness
[mm]

Aluminium nd
Zinc
Lead

0.5
0.4
0.3

0.7
2.0

Note: The figures in this table are based on contemporary building practice and will be satisfactory where the

roofs form part of the lightning protection system. However, damage by way of puncturing may occur with a direct
arc-connected strike.

Table 7.5 Recommended fixing centres for conductors

Arrangemen~

c~'

Horizontal conductors on horizontal surfaces


Horizontal conductors on vertical surfaces
\
Vertical conductors
Vertical conductors over 20.0m
Vertical conductors over 25.0m

Fixing centres [mm]

1000
500
1000
750
500

Note: This table does not apply to built-in type fixings which may require special consideration.

7.15

FORM AND SIZE

7.15.1 Air Termination


(1) Vertical air terminations shall be made of solid or tubular rods.

(2) Horizontal air terminations shall be made of solid conductor, strips or cables.

. ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

184

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.15.2 Conductors
(1) Conductors shall be in the form of multiple strand cables, single wires, rods, or flat strips.
. 7.15.3 Earth Termination
(1) Earth termination shall be made of rods plates or stranded cables.
7.15.4 Minimum Dimension
(1) The component part of lightning protection system shall have dimensions not less than those
given in Tables 7.3 and 7.4.

7.16

AIR TERMINATION

7.16.1 General
(1) Air termination networks shall be provided for all parts of a structure that are likely to be
damaged by direct lightning Flashes.
Note:

Air networks may consist of vertical or horizontal conductors or combination or both. Various forms of air
terminations are shown in Figures 7.7 through 7JS.

7.16.2 Support
(1) Vertical air terminals shall be secured against overturning either by attachment to the object
to be protected or by means of braces which shall be permanently and rigidly attached to the
building.

7.16.3 Metallic Projections


(1) All metallic projections on or above the main surface of the roof which are connected,
intentionally or fortuitously, to the general mass of the earth shall be bonded to and form part
of the air termination network (see Figures 7.4 and 7.5).

185

- - - - - - -... - - - -

EBCS-10 1995

------

ETHIOPIAN BUILplNG CODE STANDARD

-------_._~----------.-_._-_._---

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.16.4 Metallic Materials


(1) Metallic coping, roof coverings, hand rails, window washing equipment and metallic screens
around play areas shall be considered for inclusion as part of the air termination network (see
Figures 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6).

7.16.5 Structure within Zone of Protection


(1) Air termination shall not be required fot those parts of a structure located within a zone of
protection.
(2) If portions of a structure vary considerably in height, any necessary air termination or air
termination network for the lower portions shall be joined to the down conductors of the taller
portions in addition 1;f;) being joined to their own down conductor.

7.16.6 Air Termination on Roof


(1) One roof air termination 'shall be placed or. ridges of a roof and around the perimeter of the
roof.

7.16.7 Air Termination on Reinforced Concrete Structure


(1) If the reinforcing bars are used as down conductors, the air termination shall be connected
to the reinforced bars in the number of positions required for down conductors.

7.17

DOWNCONDUCTOR

7.17.1 General
(1) A down conductor shall provide a low impedance path from air termination to earth
termination so that the lightning current can be safely conducted to earth.
Note:

In addition to the various types of down conductors; i.e., strips, rods, reinforcing bars and structural steel
stanchions, etc any good conductor which may form part of the building structure can be included provided
that it is appropriately jointed to the air and earth terminations.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

186

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.17.2 Routing
Down conductors shall follow the most direct path possible between air and earth termination
networks. The conductors shall be arranged as evenly as practicable around the outside walls
of.the structure (see Figure 7.17).

7.17.3 Recommended Number


(1) At least two down conductors shall be provided on any kind of structure.

7.17.4 Mechanical Protection


(1) Each down conductor located in a runway, school play ground, or other similarlocation shall
be guarded against mechanical damage or displacement.

(2) The down conductor shall be protected for a minimum distance of 1.8m above grade level.

7.17.5 Corrosive Soil


(1) A down conductor entering corrosive soil shall be protected against corrosion for not less
. than 915.0mm above grade level and for entire length below grade level.

7.17.6 External Routes Not Available


(1) When the provision of suitable routes for down conductors is impossible, ego buildings of
cantilever construction from first floor upwards (see Figure 7.18), down conductors shall not
follow the outside contours of the buildings.
(2) In cases such as (1) above, down conductors may be housed in an air space provided by
non-metallic, non-combustible internal duct and taken straight down to ground.
Note:

Any suitable covered recess not smaller than 76.0mm x 13.0mm or any suitable service duct running the full
height of the building may be used for this purpose provided it does not contain an unarmored or non-metal
sheathed service cable.

(3) In case where an unrestricted duct is used, seals at each floor level may be required for fire
protection.
(4) Where possible, access to the interior of the duct shall be available.

187

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

----~-----~----~

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.17.7 Lift Shafts


(l) Lift shafts shall not be used for fixing down conductor.

7.17.8 Re-entrant Loops


(1) When a large re-entrant loops [see Figure 7.18 (b)] cannot be avoided, the conductor shall
pass through holes as shown in Figure 7.18 (c).

7.17.9 Sharp Bends


(1) No bend of a conductor shall form an included angle of le~s than 90 or have a radius of
bend less tharr203.0mm (see Figure 7.16).

7.17.10

Bonding to Prevent Side Flashing

(1) Any metal in or forming part of the structure or any building services having metallic parts
by design or fortuitously and in contact with general mass of the earth shall be either isolated
from or bonded to the down conductor.
"
Note:

7.17.11

Unless extra bonding is required,items already in metallic contact with the lightning protection system,
directly or indirectly, through permanent and reliable metal-to-metal joints do not require additional bonding
conductors ..

Bonds

7.17.11.1 General
(l) Since bonds have to join a variety of metallic parts of different shapes and composition,
careful attention shall be given to .the metals involved; i.e, that of the bond and of the items
being bonded.

7.17.11.2 Mechanical and electrical requirements


(1) A bond shall be mechanically and electrically effective and protected from corrosion and
erosion by the operating environment.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

188

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7~17.11.3

External metal

(l) External metal on or forming part of a structure shall be bonded to the lightning protection
system with a main-sized conductor.

7.17.11.4 Internal metal


(1) Internal metal bonds may be reduced in size; but shall not be smaller than 35.0mm2 copper
or its equivalent.

7.17.11.5 Provision for bonding offuture equipment


(l) In all buildings, at each floor level, provision shall be made for bonding future machinery
or equipment to the lightning protection system; i.e, by connection to metallic gas, water,
drainage or similar services.

7.17.11.6 Joints
(l) Joints shall:
a)
b)
c)
d)

be as few as possible;

be mechanically and electrically effective;.

be protected against corrosion or erosion from the elements of the environment; and

present an adequate contact area.

Note:

Contact surface shall first be cleaned and then inhibited from oxidation with a suitable non-corrosive
compound.

(2) With overlap joints, the overlap shall not be less than 20.0mm for all types of conductors.

7.17.12

Test Points

(1) Earth down conductor shall be provided with a test joint in such a position that, whilst not
inviting unauthorized interference, jt is convenient for test (see Figure 7.25 for typical test
joints),
Note:

189

Plates indicating the position, number and type of earth electrodes should be fitted above each test point

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

:eLECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.18

EARm TERMINATION

7.18.1 Termination
(I) Each down conductor shall terminate at -an earth electrode.

7.18.2 -Resistance to Earth


(1) Each earth electrode shall have a resistance (in ohm) not exceeding the product given by 10
times the nuinber of earth electrodes to be provided.

(2) The whole of the earth termination network shall have a combined resistance to earth 'not
exceeding 10 ohm without taking account of any bonding to other services.

7.18.3 Earth Electrodes

7.18.3.1 General
(I) Earth electrodes shall consist of metal rods, tubes or strips' or' a combination of these or

natural earths such as piles and foundations (see Figure 7.20).


7.18~3.2

Earth rod connection

(I) Earth rod connections shall be made by welding, bracing or clamping.


(2) Clamps shall be secured with at least two bolts or screw caps and shall make contact with

the earth rod for at least 380.0mm.

7.18.4 Connection Point


(I) The point of connection of the earth termination network shall be removable and easily

accessible from above-earth to facilitate inspection, testing and maintenance of the lightning

protection system.

(2).If below ground, the point of connection shall preferably be housed in a purpose-built
-inspection pit or chamber.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

--------------------------

EBCS-10 1995

190

c---------------

SECTION 7: EARTHING J BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

7.18A.l

Deep moist clay soil

(1) Earthing rod shall extend vertically not less than 3.Om into the earth.

(2) The ground shall be compacted and made tight against the full length of the conductor or
earth rod (see Figure 7.19).

7.18.4.2 Sandy or gravely soil


(1) In sand or gravel, two or more earth rods at not less than 3.Om spacings shall be driven
vertically to a minimum depth of 3.0m below grade (see Figure 7.21).

7.18.4.3 Shallow top soil


(I) If bedrock is near the surface, the conductor shall be laid in trenches extending away from

the building at each down conductor.


(2} Trenches in O} above shall at least be:

a} 3.1m long and 610.0mm deep in clay soil;

o} 13m long,and 616.0mm deep in sandy or gravely soil,

(3) If these.. methods should prove impracticable, the lightning protection cable may be laid
directly on the bedrock with. a minimum distance of 610.0mm from the foundation or exterior
footing and terminate by attachment to' a buried copper earth plate at least O.8mm thick and
heving a minimum surface area of O..18mz .
7a8~4.4

Soilless: than fl3m deep

(1). If soil is less than 03m in depth, down conductors shall be connected to a loop conductor
in8tal1ed in. a trench or in rock crevices around the structure.
J

(2) til The loop conductor shall not be less than the equivalent of a main size lightning
conductor.

ETHl'OPfAN BUU_DING CODE STANDARD

,ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDlNGS


(ii)

-,

Optional earth plates may be attached to the loop conductor to enhance its earth
contact, where the measured earthing resistance is found to be high to provide
effective earthing (see Figure 7.22).

7.18.4.5 Barth electrode seal for use within a tanked structure

(1 ) When earth terminations in built-up areas pass through a tanked structure, a seal similar to
that shown in Figure 7.23 shall be used.
7.18.4.6 Corrosion

(1) Because of the harmful corrosion which is likely to result, coke breeze shall not be allowed
to be in contact with'copper electrodes and salting of the ground in the vicinity of any earth
electrode is not recommended.
7.19' COMMON EARTHING
7.19.1 CommoQ Earth Potential

(1) All earthing mediums in or on a structure shall be interconnected to provide a common earth
potential.
(2) The Provision in 0) above shall include lightning protection, electric service, telephone and
antenna.system earths as, well as underground metallic piping systemsj main size lightning
conductors shall be used for interconnecting these earthing systems to the lightning protection
system.
7.19.2 ,Common Earth Bonding
(1) If electric, telephone, or other systems are earthed to a common earthing terminal (see

Figure 7.24), one connection from the lightning protection system to the terminal is required.
(2) If the service systems are earthed to a metallic water pipe, only one connection to the
lightning systemis required provided that the water pipe is electrically continuous between all
systems.

/'

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD


\

EBCS-10 1995

192

SEC"nON 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

(3) If the water pipe in (2) above is not continuous, the non-conductive sections shall be bridged
with main size conductors, or the connection shall be made at a point where electrical continuity
is assured.

7.20

USE OF REINFORCING BARSFOR EARTHING IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

7.20.1 General
(1) Detail on how to use concrete reinforcing bars shall be worked out at the design stage before
building construction begins (see Clause B.6, Annex B).

7.10.2 Electrical C::ontinuity


(1) Electrical continuity of the reinforcement shall be ensured.
(2) The following precautions are, however, recommended:
a) Good contact between reinforcing bars should be ensured; i.e, by fixing bars with tying
wires.
b) Ties shall be provided for both vertical to vertical and horizontal to vertical bars.

7.20.3 Prestressed Concrete Members


(1) Lightning protection conductors shall not be connected to prestressed concrete columns,
beams or braces where the wires or strands. are. not linked and, therefore, not electrically
continuous.

7.20.4 Precast Concrete Members


(1) In the case of precast reinforced concrete columns, beams or braces, the reinforcement may
be used as a conductor if the individual elements of reinforcement are bonded together and i
electrical continuity is ensured.
"

193

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

7.21

STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION

7.21.1 General
(1) The structural steel framework of abuilding may be used as the main conductor of a
lightning protection system if it is either electrically continuous or made so.

1.21.2 Air Termination


(1) Air.termination shall be bonded directly to the steel framework or by conductors leading
through the ridges, roof, or coping walls, or connected together with a conductor on the exterior
of the building that is bonded to the steel framework.
(2) If such a conductor in (l) above is employed, it shall be bonded to the framework at
intervals not more than 3.0m.

7.21.3 Connection
(1) Connection shall be made on cleaned areas of the steel work by use of bonding plates with
pressure cable connectors having a surface contact area of not less than 5200.0mm?; bolted,
welded, or brazed securely to the steel so as to maintain electrical continuity.

7.21.4 Earthing
(1) Earthing connections shall be made at approximately every other steel column around the
perimeter and shall not average more than 18.0m apart.
(2) The earthing conductor shall be connected to steel columns using bonding plates (see 7.21.3).
(3) The bonding plate shall be bolted or welded securely to a cleaned area of.the column at the
lowest available point (see Figure 7.26).

7.21.5 Interconnection
(1) Metal bodies that are required to be bonded need not be-separately bonded if they
electrically continuous with the lightning protection system/through the steel framework.:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODe STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

ar~

194

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

lal

Ibl

fcJ

1
Strip

.Iel

Idl

Iql

Note:

i)

Lightning conductor fixings shouldbepurpose-made for each size of strip; dimension a ,in Figure (e)
should be equal to the thickness of the strip and should be equal to the width ,plus '1)mm .R for
expansion. Conductors of circularsection should be similarly treated.

ii) All fixings should be securely attached to the structure; mortar joints should notbeused.

.F igure7.1 Typical design for lightning conductor fixings

195

-----~.-

EBCS-10 1995

----

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

--~------------.-.-_.-.

------_._-

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

He

GL

GL
/

Pion view
01 zono 01
protection
It ground
Ilvll

<,

,/'

-,

ve

--Zp

<,

,I
./

/1' One verticil conductor

!
(

....

~-"

-,

Zp - \

veo

veo

-,

Zp

-,

<,

--_/

,
J

rlBn vlo.. \
01 zono 01
prOlltCtlon
It ground _
lew'

>

<

VC

ZP
"

-........:.

vC

\
\

Pion vlo..
01 zonl 01
protlctlon
It ground
Ilvll

(bl HorlzontBI IJr tlrmlnBtlon

....'- --....-.

Zp

<,

He

\
l-

---

/'

.....-...

--

/
Zp /

Icl Four vlrtlcl' conducto.. 'howlng protlctlvo Inglll


Ind l ..ocl"ld zonn 01 protletlon .
-

/'

Figure 7.2 Protective angles and zones of protection for various forms of air termination-

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

196

------------

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

."-

f = - - ..

...
.'
"

II_,....

Figure 7.3 Typical forms of vertical air termit;1ations

197

EBCS-10 1995

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDINQCODE S!ANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATiON OF BUILDINGS

.~

KIY .

I Air I"mlnl'

==::=

2 Rod "oldll'u,

3 Rod coupling

4 D_n conductor

a Horizon"l conduclor

-$

6 TOInoln,
7 Earl" IllCIrodo

8 El<lhtod'A'cl.mp

I~J

9 Rod hOUilng
1.1 CIlI.......... lesllhan 1.5 m dlama,..
allap. and 20 m "IP

10 Cond"clor clip
1t COrolll!band

12 Sond 10 _I Iron cap II .

".rn.lI.. '0 COton.' band lUI.

13 Juncllonclamp'

Nole This figure does not apply to reinforced concrete chimneys where the reinforcing bars can be used as do~

conductors

Figure 7A Examples of lightning proteetiollsystems for briek chimneys

ETHIOPIAN BUILD'tNG CODE STANDARD

EBCS- to 1995

19.
i

i
i
I

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

, Bimetallic joint

Galvanized
steal roof

. Reinforced concrete
structure with parapet,
stone coping and
. non-eonducting roof

Bonds to
steelwork

Reinforced
concrete structure,
PVC coping with
conducting roof

Bond to metal
IUlpended ceiling
II

I"I

4
One reinforcing bar Ihown for clarltv

'I

"

4~'''~~1J

"
'I
4 ".....

--1""....

Key

Detail
Ihowlng
item 4

I
2
3
4

Handrail bond
Reinforcing bond
Coping bond

Non-ferrous bonding point (built-in)

Figure 7.5 Examples of air terminations and down conductors using handrails, metal copings and
reinforcing bars.

199

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

.....- Bolted joint

connection 2.. M8
Conductor
strip

BeQm-_-+__

Note:

Minimum dimensions when a metallic roof covering is used as part of the air termination network are as
follows:
galvanized steel
copper
aluminium

IO.5mm
O.3mm
O.7mm

zinc
lead

O.7mm
2.0mm

Figure 7.6 Air termination for flat roof showing connection to standing seamjoint when
a metallic roof is used as part of the air termination network

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

200

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

(II Elevation Ihowlng protective engle

,,;--------
/

I
I

HC

HC

I
I

1
I
I

'Oml max,)

HC

./

-,
<,

HC

I.

20m

_ _ _ZP_

fbI Plln Ihowlng zone of prot'!Ctlon It ground leVlI

---

I
I
/

HC
.......

<,

<,
.\

,,'

".

"

<, _

""
""
""

",

""

-Zp--, ..

Ic) Generll Irrlngement

F.'igure 7.7 Air terminations for a flat roof

201

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

~H

Note:

i)

If S> 10 I 2H, additional longitudinal conductors are required so that the distance between conductors
does not exceed IO:Om.
ii) If the length of the, roof exceeds 20.0~, additional transverse conductors are required.
iii) Down conductors are omitted for clarity.

Figure 7.8 Air terminations for large areas of roof various profiles

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-1 0

19~5

202

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

Test

Test

joint~

joint .......
-"-

DC

DC

I
I

I
I
I

:-r-

DC

20 m

"'16:'=m-:::'_..-1.1 DC

111

L....:

DtoJ
I..

10 m IDC

M,tolU'

D
C

Test

joint

DC

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

16 m

I
I

,ut"'h"~I_..

IDC

,----,=,--_....
16 m

121

131

Note: The protective angle provided by the ridge conductor in each case is as follows:
(i) protective angle up to 45 : ridge conductor is sufficient with connection to metallic gutters; number of
down conductors=72/20=3.6 (say4).
(ii) protective angle over 45~: air termination mesh (maximum 1O.0m x (10+2H)); ridge and eaves
conductors provide approximate roof mesh 6.0m x IQ.Om; number of down condl.lctors=40/20=2.
(iii) situation as for (ii) but metallic gutters used in lieu of eaves conductor; number of down conductors
=64/20=3.2 (say4).

(a) Air terminations 'and. down conductors


Vertical air
terminati:m
. Conductor for
strip rod or.
metallic gulter

Ri'dge ccmductor
fixed belov tile
",leyel (see detail J

Det.1I

Key:Conceald conductors-s- O.3m high bar vertical rods.

(b) Air terminations below roof covering

Figure 7.9 Air terminations and concealed conductors for buildings less 20.0m high witb
stopping roofs

203

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING QODE STANDARD

------.------

....... _----

- - - -

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

......

,
'...",.

,/
,/

,/

View from B

-Join down conductorland horizontal


conductorl on lower parapet.
Section AA

DC

...

HC

DC

0
tB

aDC
HC

_.

12

DC

12m

Note:

Perimeter 24 + 24 + 12 + 12 72 m
Number of down conduclon reqt,llred
72/204.
.

i)

An.air termination along the outer perimeter of the roof is required and no part should be more than
5.0m from the nearest horizontal conductor,. except that an additional l.Om may be allowed for each
metre by which the part to be protected is below the nearest conductor.

ii)

Horizontal conductors are not necessary on the parapets of the light well; a zone of protection of 60 is
provided by the two adjacent horizontal conductors for structures less than 20.0m high. This principle
does not apply to taller structures.

Figure 7.10 Air terminations for flat roofs at different levels

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING .CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

204

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BOND1NG AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

:1'
I.

Note:

D
..

.
DC 60 m

DC

.1

i) Horizontal air termination conductors should be jointed at the interconnections.


ii) Where PVC covered horizontal air termination conductors are used, bare vertical rods O.3m high should
be fixed at each intersection and at intermediate positions along the horizontal conductors spaced no
more than 10 apart.

Figure 7.11 Air terminations and down conductors for flat roof buildings where the air
termination conductors have a PVC oversheath

Note:

The air termination network for a tall reinforced concrete or steel framed structure should be as follows:
(a) Horizontal conductors on roofs from a IO.Om x 20.0m network.
(b) There are bonds to steelwork at comers, at 20.0m intervals around the periphery and on the tower O.5m
above the lower roof level.
(c) Key bonding to the building steelwork.

Figure 7.12 Air terminations for tall conducting structures

205

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Suspended air termination

See note 2

Mast

See"note 2

See note 2
Protected building

~Earth e l e c t r o d e - - - - - :
(al Elevotlon

Suspended air termination

Proted.ed building

Suspended air termination

lbl Plan
Kay

. - - X -

+ \
.........J

Zones of protection et m.,t\


Zon". of protee:t1on .,
mlxlmum 18g of
eerial conductor

r--+------jf---,

Protected
building

.,.\

\
\
\

leI End elevation .nowlng zone. of protection

Note:

i)
ii)

Where two or more suspended horizontal conductors are employed, a protective angle of 45 may be
used in the space bounded by the conductors. Elsewhere, the protective angle is limited to 30.
To prevent flashover between mast/conductor and protected building, the minimum clearance distance
has to be 2.0m or as under above governed by whichever is the greater. This clearance has to be .as
above under maximum sag conditions

Figure 7.15 Air termination with twin suspended horizontal conductors & zone of
protection for structure with explosive or highly flammable contents

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

----------

EBCS-10 1995

--~------------~--------.

208

~---_i

SEGTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION


I

A ..

Radius of b'lnd

8 inchus (203

~ml minimum.

Figure 7.16 Sharp bends

209

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Nate:'

i)
ii)

The down conductors may be natural port of the building framework or added strips or rods on external
faces.
On structures exceeding 20.0min height, down conductors should be spaced at not more 'than IO.Om .
apart.

Figure 7.17 Pattern of down conductors for variousforrnsoftalI building

ETHIOPfANBUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

.210

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

ad maximum

Exceeding

ad

'

.~

Ib) Arrengement ,{heUs nOLpermissible

lal Perm'issible errangement

Nnt
permisstble

t--Permissibte

1
J

/:

l~~ij&

/c;)permissiblemethod ofteking 'conductor


through eparllpet ,wlill

IdlROQtll.for,'down.tonductQQlin......tding.
with .centilevlfrlld. up par floora

Figure 7.18 Re-entrant loops

21'1

EBCS-1'O 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUJUDINGCODE STANO!ARC

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

A= O:6~ m mini~um
t

B=

3.ob

m minitqUm.

Figure 7.19 Earthtng in ftoist


Clay

-~oi1.

Figure 7.19 Earthing in moist clay soil

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

212

Air ter mination bonded


to steel reinforcing or
steel frame of building

Air termination on roof.

D.own conductor~
I In these cases ~
steel reinforcing
or steel friune
of building)

hk-ri

cs
-c,

.....

Ring earth eleetrod~ ....... J


below ground level
<,
to improve earthing

<,

<,

.....,

Bonds to lift installations


ot top and bottom of
continuous rigid metal
structure only

......_>00 ....' "

~ Earth

Ground level

electrode

NOTE. Air termiNltion mesh should bo not groeter thon 10 m X 20 m. Down conducton should be not mora than 10 m apart..

Figure 7.20 Lightning protection system for tall buildings (over 20.0m high) showing air terminations, down conductors, bonds to projections above roof

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

;[1
~l

A =to.610
a

=: 13.00

ternate cC)D:figtiration

mminimum

mminimum .

Figure 7.21 Earthing in sandy er gravely soil

ETHIOPIAN BUILD1NG CODE STANDARD

EBCS~10

1995

214

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

.....,/1 /.
~--~,
~ . . ~ ':--,

Eartb plate

"
Loop conductor

Figure 7.22 Earthing in soilless than O.3m deep

215

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

'0

,d .
~.

. D'

, 0

,0

., ,

>

=
r :

Concre te

.0:,

o..o
, '.
Il

"

o .

.
o

1. 0"

'.0

..

b "

. :~.

"

. I>

'

,.0:':, .

.' 0

',~

"

4'

~'::;~.'<::~".:

:.' :.~ "';~


g\~h)'i?Z'~~
,'.:'. :.:.': t::'iit:(s:,/{if,ur=t~,

.~i.n;UZ"i;~

iJ'

((:~'-:( .'\':J :~::Z;:(;:<,: ~':.J~:;;:'~: ~~':

..,,~ . ::9. :'1'. '0


'0. ""."
:.:.~::': 0: .'N.C'
..~/:. ...
'~':,

Asphalt

Asphalt

Concrete
.

v- ..

',~ .0 .. '

6 ~. :. .'

~"

.0'

~.

Figure 7.23 Example of an earth electrode seal for use within a tanked structure

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

216

SECTION 7: 'EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

,Externlll! down

.7:)\Sl.\C4W

,condjctO~~I'

For cavity a11s


provi"de sea ed tu e

~ ~

j]l_

I. . ~
[J Lf--''--~

Test Jo n t - - -
rr----1~I.."..=~~~mlll-:::=~:r.::I11--

.-,. .,.
""
,

Gas

"t _ ...
~

.,

"

;, ....... t ... ..I "


~/,

...r

'~

... "

",.
\ , ".../'}"'
",,1
" , "" "I.....' ,,--.....
.,

-.- .. -,." .... -:\J.

...

':"-J

"""

'

\I ...

-=--1ler+i~e_p~pell.

....

Figure 7.24 Diagram showing bonding to services(gas, water and electricity)

..; '-'::::"'L......L

NOTE.

Corrosion inhibitor to be, used

o~

all

Figure 7.25 Testing joints

217

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS'

1401+-+--H---

Bonding plate with a


minimum contact area
'of 52 sq. mm

A ::: O.6lm rrum mum


B= 3.00 m minimum

Figure 7.26 Earthing connection on structural framing

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

218

I
I

~~~~~~-

ANNEX

(INFORMATIVE)

SYSTEM DESIGN

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The structure or, if it has not been built, the drawings and specifications should be examined
taking into account the recommendations of this Section.
In the case of structures having no suitable metallic members, it is important to consider th~
positioning of all the component parts of a ligh~ing protection system so that they perform their
function without detracting from the appearance of the structure.
Modern buildings use metal extensively in their structure and there is considerable benefit in
utilizing such metal parts to maximize the number of parallel conducting paths. Often the
lightning protection will be improved, worthwhile cost savings may result and the aesthetic
appearance of the structure preserved. However, it 'should be borne in mind that a lightning
strike to such a metal part, especially if it is beneath the surface, may damage the covering and
cause masonry to fall. This' risk can be reduced, but not eliminated, by a surface-mounted
lightning protection system.
Examples of metal parts which should be incorporated into lightning protection systems are steel
frames, concrete reinforcing bars, metal in or on a roof, window rails and handrails. Some metal
within a structure may be used as a component of the lightning protection system; for example, _
sheet piling being in contact with the general mass of earth, may be used as an earth electrode
and is unlikely to be improved, upon by the addition of rods or tapes.
The whole structure should be provided with a fully interconnected lightening protection system;
i.e., no part of the structure should be protected in isolation.

219

EBCS-10 1995

.-.-.-.-_._-----------~-

.-_.

..

ETHIOPIAN

__ .. ..
~

~_._-------_

__._-_._._-..-

.._---_ ..

---

BUI'~DING

CODE STANDARD

-- - - - - - - - -

ANNEX

B.1

B (CONSULTATION)

GENERAL

Consultation should take place between the designer of the lightning protection system and the
interested parties indicated in Clauses B.2 through B.6 before and during all stages of design.

B.2

ARCIllTECT / ENGINEER

As far as practicable, the following should be determined:


a)

Routing of all conductors.


~

b) General areas available for earth termination networks and reference earth electrodes.

c)

Materials(s) for conductor.

d) Extent of the work and the division of responsibility for primary fixings to the

structure, especially those affecting the water-tightness of the fabric, chiefly roofing.
e)

Materials(s) to be used in the structure, especially for any continuous metal, e.g.
stanchions or reinforcing.

f)

Use to which the structure is to be put.

g) Details of all metallic service pipes, rain-water system, rails and the like entering or
leaving the structure or with the structure which may require bonding to the lightning
protection system.
h) Extent of any buried services which could affect the siting of the earth termination
network(s).
i)

Details of any equipment, apparatus, plant or the like to be installed within or near
the building and which require bonding to the lightning protection system.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

220

-----------

SECTION 7: EARTHING, BONDING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION

B.3 PUBLIC UTILITIES


Agreement should be reached on the bonding of services to the lightning protection system.
Because of the introduction of new materials and practices, reliance should not be placed on
agreements reached for other structures.

B.4 FIRE AND SAFETY OFFICERS


Agreement should be reached on:
a)

the need for a lightning protection system on structures containing flammable or


explosive materials;

b)

routes and materials( s) for construction of ducts and sealing at floors if internal
conductor are being considered;

c)

the method of lightning protection to be adopted in the unlikely event of a structure


having a flammable roof.

B.5 TELEVISION AND RADIO INSTALI,ERS


Agreement should be reached on the need to bond antenna supports and screens of cables to the
lightning protection system.

B.6 BUILDER
Agreement should be reached on: .
a)

the form, positions and numbers of primary fixings to be provided by the builder;

b)

any fixings provided by the lightning protection system contractor to be installed by


the builder;

c)

the positions of conductor to be placed beneath the structure;

d)

whether any components of the lightning protection system are to be used during the
construction phase, e.g. the permanent earth termination network could be used for
earthing cranes, railway line, scaffolding, hoists and the like during construction;

221

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

e)

for steel framed structures, the numbers and positions of stanchions and the form of
fixing to be made for the connection of earth terminations;

f)

whether metallic roof covering, where used, are suitable as part of the lightning
protection system and the method of attachment of conductor to earth;

g)

the nature and location of services entering the structure above and below ground
including railway lines, crane rails, wire ropeways, conveyor systems, television and
radio antennas and their metal supports, metal flues, and flue-liners;

h)

the position and number of flag-masts, roof level plant rooms (i.e., lift motor rooms,
ventilating, tanks and other salient features;

i)

the construction to be employed for roofs and walls in order to determine appropriate
methods of fixing conductor, specifically with a view to maintaining the
weather-tightness of the structure;

j)

possible penetration of a waterproofing membrane where earth terminations have to


be sited beneath the structure, especially in 'urban' situations and in confined spaces
on industrial sites;
Note: The same general consideration applies to the reference earth electrode for use in initial and.

periodic testing.

k)

the provision of holes through the structures, parapets, cornices, etc to allow for the
free passage of the down conductor;

l)

the provision of bonding connections to a steel frame, reinforcement bars and other
metal;

m)

the most suitable choice of metal for the conductor taking account of corrosion,
especially at bimetallic contacts;

n)

. the accessibility of test joints, protection by non-metallic casings from mechanical


damage or pilferage, lowering of flag-masts or other removable objects, facilities for
periodic inspection, especially on chimneys;

0)

the preparation of a drawing incorporating the above details and showing the positions
of all conductors and of the main components.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

222

SECTION

WIRING METHODS

8.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to all wiring installation operating at 0.6/1.0kV or less except for:

conductors which form an integral part of factory built equipment;


communication circuit, unless otherwise specified in Section 23;
Class 2 circuits, unless otherwise specified in Section 10;
community antenna distribution; radio and television installations, unless otherwise
specified in Section 24;
(e) optical fiber cables.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

8.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCE

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

8.3

(a) C22.l:1992

Canadian Electrical Code Part I, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installation, Sixteenth Edition

(b) BS 767:1992

The electricians Guide to the 16th Edition of the IEE Wiring


Regulations, Second Edition, 1993

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

8.3.1 Methods of Installation


(1) The methods of installation of wiring systems shall be as shown in Annex A.

ETHIOPlANBUILDING GODE STANDARD

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223

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(2) The Provisions in (1) above notwithstanding, the use of another method is not precluded,
provided that compliance with this Code is maintained
(3) A bare live conductor shall be installed on insulators.
(4) Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring shall be enclosed in conduits, ducting or trunking;
however, this provision does not apply to a protective conductor.

8.3.2

Wiring in Ducts and Plenum Chambers

(1) No electrical equipment, unless specifically approved for the purpose, shall be installed in
ducts used to transport dust, loose stock, or flammable vapours.

(2) No electrical equipment, unless specifically approved for the purpose, shall be installed in
any duct used for vapour removal or for ventilation of commercial-type cooking equipment.

8.3.3

Underground Installations

(1) Direct buried conductors, cables, or raceways shall be installed to meet the minimum cover
requirements shown in Table 8.1.

Table 8.1 Minimum cover requirements' for direct buried


conductors, cables or raceways

Minimum cover [mm]


Non~v8hlcular ars

WIring method

Conductors or cables

Over 750.0V

600

750

900

1000

750

600

1000

750

600

1000

._-

less

Over 750.0V

450

having " metal sheath or

.rmQur

Raolway

750.0Vor

750.0Vor

less
Conduotors or cables
not having a metal

sheath or armour

Vehicular areas

450

Minimum Clover means the distancebetweenthe top surfaceof the conductor, cable, or raceway andthe finished
grade.

224

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

--~----

SECTION 8: WIRING METHODS

(2) The minimum cover requirements shall be permitted to be reduced by l50.0mm where
mechanical protection is placed in t~e trench over the underground installation.
(3)
Mechanical protection shall consist of one of the following and, when in flat form, shall
be wide enough to extend at least 50.0mm beyond the conductor, cables, or raceways on each
side:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Treated planking at least 38.0mm thick.


Poured concrete at least 50.0mm thick.
Concrete slabs at least 50.0mm thick.
Concrete encasement at least 50.0mm thick.
Other acceptable material.

(4) Raceways or cables, if located in rock, may be installed at a shallower depth entrenched into
the rock in a trench not less than l50.0mm deep and grouted with concrete to the level of the
rock surface.
(5) Raceways may be installed directly beneath a concrete slab at grade level provided the
concrete slab is not less than a nominal IOO.Omm in thickness, the location is adequately marked,
and the raceway will not be subject to damage during or after installations.
(6) Anyform of mechanical protection which may adversely affect the conductors or cable
assemblies shall not be used.
(7) Backfill containing large rock, paving materials, cinders, large or sharply angular substances,
or corrosive material shall not be placed in an excavation where such materials may damage
cables, raceways, or other substructures prevent adequate compaction of fill, or contribute to
corrosion of cables, raceways, or other substructures.

8.3.4

Conductors in Holstways

(1) Where conductors other than those used to furnish energy to the lift or dumbwaiter are
installed in hoistways, they shall be from mineral-insulated cable or armoured cables or be run
in .rigid or flexible metal conduit or electrical metallic tubing.
. (2) The cable, conduit, or tubing referred to in (1) above shall be:
(a) securely fastened to the hoistway construction;

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

225

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(b) arranged so that terminal-outlets or junction boxes open outside the hoistway except that
pull boxes may be installed in long runs for the purpose of supporting or pulling in
conductors.
(3) (a) Main feeders for supplying power to elevators and dumbwaiters shall be instaIled outside
the hoistway.
(b) Only such electric wiring, raceways, and cables used directly in connection with the
elevator or dumbwaiter, including wiring for signals, for communication with the car,
for lighting, heating, air conditioning and ventilating the car, shall be permitted inside
the hoistway.

8.4

CONDUCTORS

8.4.1

Types of Conductors

(1) Conductors installed in any location shall be suitable for the condition of use as indicated
in Annex B of Section 4 for the particular location involved and with particular respect to the
fol1wing
(a) moisture

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

corrosive action
temperature
degree of inclosure
mechanical protection.

8.4.2 Radii of Bends in Conductors


(1) The minimum internal radii of bends in conductors shall be as indicated in Table 8.2

226

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

~---_._----_.

I
__

SECTION 8: WIRING METHODS

Table 8.2 Minimum internal radii of bends in cables for fixed wiring

Type of Insulation

Overall diameter

Bending factor

PVC
PVC
PVC
Mineral

up to 10.0mm
10.0m to 25.0mm
over 25.0mm
any diametre

3 (2)
4 (3)

a
at

Mineral-insulated cables may be bent at a minimum radius of three times the cable diameter provided that they
will only be bent once.

Note:

8.4.3

i) The factor shown in the table is that by which the overall cable diameter must be multiplied to give the
minimum inside' radius of the bend.
ii) The figutes in brackets apply to unsheathed single-core stranded PVC cables when.installed in conduit,
trunking or ducting.

Conductor Joints and Splices

(1) Unless made with solderless wire connectors, joints or splices in insulated conductors shall
be soldered, but they shall first be made mechanically secured.
(2) Joints or splices shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that on the conductors
being joined.
(3) Joints or splices in wires and cables shall be accessible.
(4) Splices in underground runs of cable, if required due to damage to the original installation,
may be made:
(a) in junction boxeswhich are located at least l.Om above grade and secured to buildings
or to stub poles and suitably protected from mechanical damage;
(b) notwithstanding the requirements in (3) above, by means of splicing devices or materials
(kits) acceptable for direct earth burial.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

22'1

-------.-------~._------------~-

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

8.4.4 Supporting of Conductors


(l) Conductors shall be supported so that no injurious strain is imposed on the terminals of any
electrical apparatus or devices or on joints or taps. Table 8.3 shows guidance on methods of
support.

Table 8.3 Spacing of supports for cables in accessible position

Msximum spscing of clips [mmJ


DV'lslI dismst'l of
csbl, [mmJ

SlllBtll,d csbl"
Horizontll

VertiCIl

Horizontll

VertiCIl

250
300
350
400

400
400
450
550

600
900
1500

800
1200
2000

:s:9
>9 s 15
> 15 s 20
>20 :s: 40
Note:

8.5

Min'lslinsulst,d csbl"

For the spacing of supports for cables of overall diameter exceeding 40.0mm. andfor single-core cables
having conductors of cross-sectional area 300.0mm2 and larger, the manufacturer's recommendations
should be observed.

OPEN WIRING

8.5.1 Open and Clipped Direct


(1) Sheathed cables clipped direct to or lying on non-metallic surface shall be installed in
accordance with Installation Method 1 (see Annex A).

8.5.2 Spacing of Conductors


(1) Spacing between conductors and adjacent surfaces shall be as indicated in Installation

Methods 12 and 13 (see Annex A).


(2) In all locations, a separation of at least 25.0mm shall be maintained between conductors and
adjacent metal piping or conducting materials.

228

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE: STANDARD

SECTION 8: WIRING METHODS

8.5.3

Conductor Supports

(l) Conductors shall be supported rigidly on noncombustible, absorption resisting insulators.

(2) Conductors supported on solid knobs shall be securely tied thereto by tie wires having
insulation of the same type as that on the conductors which they secure.

8.5.4

Spacing of Supports

(l) Sheathed and / or armoured cables installed in accessible positions and supported by clips
shall not exceed the appropriate spacing value stated in Table 8.3.

8.6

EXPOSED WIRING ON EXTERIOR OF BUILDINGS AND BETWEEN


BUILDINGS ON THE SAME PREMISES

8.6.1

Location of Conductors

(1) Where conductors are supported on or in close proximity to the exterior surfaces of
buildings, they shall be installed and protected so that they shall not be hazardous to persons or
be exposed to mechanical injury and they shall not, without special permission, be located at a
height less than 4.5m from the ground.

8.6.2

Clearance of Conductors

(1) Conductors which pass over roofs shall be located or guarded so that they cannot be reached
by a person standing on a fire escape, flat roof, or other portion of a building.
(2) Such conductors in (1) above shall at least be 2.5m above the highest point of a flat roof or
a roof that can be readily walked upon and at least 1.0m above peaked roofs or the highest point
of such roofs that can be readily walked upon; however, by special permission; they may be
located less than 2.5m, but not less than 2.0m, above the highest point of a flat roof or roofs so
that the latter can be readily walked upon.

8.6.3

Power Supply Conductors

(1) The conductors of a power supply system attached to the exterior surfaces of buildings shall
be at least 300.0mm from the conductors of a communication' system unless one system is in
conduit or is permanently separated from other systems.

"

"

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

.......

'

EBCS-10 1995

229

~~~

--_._---

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

8.7

BARE BUS BARS AND RISERS

(1) Bare conductors shall not be used as main risers or feeders in buildings unless, special
permission is obtained.
(2) Special permission shall not be granted unless:
(a) the building is of noncombustible construction;
(b) the conductors are placed in a chase, channel, or shaft located or guarded so that the
conductors are inaccessible;
(c) the premises do not constitute a hazardous location;
(d) suitable cut-offs to protect against the vertical spread of fire are provided where floors
are pierced;
(e) the mechanical and electrical features of the installation and the conductor supports are
appropriate to the operating and maintenance conditions likely to occur, the following
requirements being used in the case of bus bars rated 1200.0A or less:
Note:

i) Where flat bus bars 6.25mm or less in thickness are used, the continuous current rating shall not
exceed 1.6AJmm2 of cross-sectional area of copper bus bar or 1.12AJmm2 in the case of aluminium
bus bars.
ii) Bus bar supports shall be spaced not more than 750.0mm apart, with minimum clearance across
insulating surface between bars of opposites polarity of not less than 50.0mm, and 25.0mm between
bus bars and any earthed surface.

8.8

INSTALLATION OF BOXES, CABINETS, OUTLETS AND TERMINAL


FITTINGS

8.8.1 Number of Outlets per Circuit


(1) There shall be no more than 12 outlets on any 2-wire branch circuit except as permitted by
other Sections of this Code.
(2) Such outlets in (1) above shall be considered to be rated at not less than l.OA per outlet
except as permitted by (3) below.

(3) Where the connected load is known, the number of outlets may exceed 12 provided the load
current does not exceed 80% of the rating of the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.

230

EBCS-10 1995

-------_._._--------.-------

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-- ._._.__ .__

------~------,----~--~--_----------c----

~_.-

SECTiON 8: WIRING METHODS

8.8.2

Outlet Boxes

(l) A box or an equivalent device shall be installed at every point of outlet, switch or junction

of conduit and at every point of outlet and switch of concealed knob-and-tube work.
(2) Nonmetallic outlet boxes shall not be used in wiring methods using metal raceways,
armoured or metal sheathed cable, except where the boxes are provided with bonding connection
between all conductor entry openings.
(3) The box shall be provided with a cover or a fixture canopy.
(4) At least 150.0mm of free conductor shall be left at each outlet for making of joints 'or
connection of fixtures unless the conductors are intended to loop through lamp holders, socket
outlets, or similar devices without joints.
(5) Ceiling outlet boxes in concrete slab construction shall have knockouts spaced above the free
or lower edge of the boxes a distance of at least twice the diameter of the steel reinforcing bars
so that conduit entering the knockouts shall clear the bars without offsetting.
(6) Boxes and fittings shall be firmly secured to studs, joists or similar fixed structural units.

8.8.3

Conductors in Boxes

(1) Boxes shall be of sufficient size to provide usable space for all insulated conductors

contained in the box.


(2) Conductors which are connected to different power or distribution transformers or other
different sources uf voltage shall not be installed in the same box, cabinet or fitting.

8.8.4

Terminal Fittings

(1) Where conductors are run from the ends of conduit, armoured cable surface raceways or non
metallic sheathed cable to appliances or open wiring installation, an outlet fitting or terminal
fitting may be used instead of the box required in Clause 8.8.2, and the conductors shall be run
without splice, tap or joint within the fitting.
(2) The fittings in (1) above shall have a separately bushed hole for each conductor.
(3) The fittings ill (1) above shall not be used at outlets for fixtures.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

231
.-------'

----~~_.- .. - - _ . _ - - - - - - - - -

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

I,

8.9

CABLES, CONDUCTORS AND WIRING METHODS

(1) Every cable operating at low voltage shalf be selected in accordance with Section 4 of this

Code.
(2) The method of installation of cables and conductors shall be subject to the provision of
Clause 8.3.1.

1232

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

A (NORMATIVE)

ANNEX

SCHEDULE OF METHODS OF INSTALLATION OF


CABLES
Note:

i) The methods of installation distinguished by bold type are reference methods for which the current
carrying capacity given in Annex B, Tables B.I through BA5, Section 4, have been determined.
ii) For the other methods, an indication is given of the appropriate reference method having values of
current-carrying capacity which can safely be applied.

Installation method
Examples

Number

DescrlJ'tion

Open and clipped direct:

Appropriate
Reference Method
for determining
current-carrying
capacity

:'~'IJ,: ;~h~0
rii/Y.
, 8
/ .Tif)

Sheathed cables clipped direct to or lying

on a non-metallic surface
' :,'.~
,

'I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~...
_~-

:'j'

'.

.""

...

".'

('..

Method 1

-------

Cables embedded direct In building materials:


Sheathed cables embedded directly in
masonry, brickwork, concrete, plaster or
the like (other than thermally Insulating
materials)

Method 1

In conduit:

Single-core non-sheathed cables in


metallic or non-metallic conduit on 'a wall
or ceiling

Single-core non-sheathed cables in


metallic or non-metallic conduit in a
thermally insulating wall or above a
thermally insulating ceiling, the conduit
being in contact with a thermally
conductive surface on one sidet

Multicore cables having non-metallic


sheath, in metallic or non-metallic conduit
on a wall or ceiling.

_I~

Method 3

r':

Method 4

~'
~

~
~

em

Method 3
II

t The wall is assumed to consist of an outer weatherproof skin, thermal insulation and an inner skin of a plaster board
or a wood-like material having a thermal conductance not less than IOw/m2K. The conduit is flxed so as to be close
to, but not necessarily touching, the inner skin. Heat from the cables is assumed to escape through the inner skin
only.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

233

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Installation method
Number

Oescription

Sheathed cables in conduit in a


thermally insulating wall etc.
(otherwise as Reference Method
4)

Intrunking:
8

10

Cables in conduit embedded in


masonry, brickwork, concrete,
plaster or the like (other than
thermally insulating materials)

Examples

_.c:Q -j
;"//

/,//

;:~~;

.......

:~

/~--:.~ :::::;,.:~</

..

-~-

- - - , -_ _ [_

Method 4

~
.~_~_
Method 3

//

~...,.

Appropriate Reference
Method for determining
current-carrying capacity

..

"" ,]

1- Cables

in trunking on a wall or I
suspended in the air

Method 3

Cables in flush floor trunking

Method 3

Single-core cable in skirting


trunking

:~l

....

_.~._------

Method 3

On trays:

11

Sheathed cables on a perforated

cable tray, bunched and

unenclosed. A perforated cable

tray is considered as a tray in


Which the holes occupy at least
30% of the surface area

Method 11

In free air, on cleats, brackets or a ladder

12

Sh'b'athed single-core cables in


free air (any supporting
metalwork I nder the cables
occupying less than 10% of the
plan area): Two or thr~e cables
vertically one above the other,
minimum distance between
cable surfaces equal tc. the
overall cable diameter (OJ;
distance from the wall not less
than 0.50 .

Method 12

Two or three cables horizontally,


with spacings as above three
cables in trefoil, distance
between wall and surface of
nearest cable 0.50. or nearest
cables 0.750.

234

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 8: WIRING METHODS

Installation method
Number

Description

Examples

Appropriate Reference
Method for determining
current-carrying capacity

In free air, on cleats, brackets or a ladder


13

14

Sheathed multlcore cables on ladder


or brackets, separation greater than
20. Sheathed multicore cables in
free air distance between wall and
cable surface not less than 0.30. Any
supporting metalwork under the
cables occupying less than 10% the
plan area
Cables suspended from
incorporating a catenary wire

or

~
I

~
e
-- ...

Cables in building voids:

15

Sheathed cables installed directly in


a thermally insulating wall or above
a thermally insulating ceiling, the
cable being In contact with a
thermally conductive surface on one
side (otherwise as Ref Method No 4)
Sheathed cables In ducts or voids
formed by the building structure,
other than thermally Insulating
materials

..

-c
o.J0t' min

Method 13

o,

Method 12 or 13, as
appropriate

-_.~~

Method 4

Method 4
Where the cable has a
diameter D. or a
perimeter not greater
than 200.
Method 3
Where the duct has
either a diameter
greater than 50. or a
perimeter greater than
200.

16

Notes:
~Where the perimeter
is greater than 600.,
installation Methods
18 to 20, as
appropriate, should be
used.
ii) D. Is the overall
cable diameter; for
groups of cables D. is
the sum of the cable
diameters.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

235

---------_._--------

--------------

.~--

ELECTR,ICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDtNGS

Installation method
Examples
Number

Description

Appropriate Reference
Method for determining
current-carrying
capacity
4

Cable in trenches:

17

-c-ba-I e-s---supp-rt-~o
o-ed ---the-w-n -- -aII T===:::::::===============-T---------

Ii

of an open or ventilated trench,


with spacin~s Indicated for
Reference Method 12 or 13 as
appropriate

~~- n~nn~V~ ?7~


~
_:LZILfL'-

~
~ v

7?/7/,

;t--====t

~979/97~

Cables In enclosed trench


450.0mm wide by 600.0mm

deep (minimum dimensions)

including 100.0mm cover

19

Method 12 or 13, as
appropriate

_~///// <r c/.,,/,

Cables in enclosed trench


450.0mm wide by 300.0mm

deep (minimum dimensions)

including100.0mm cover

18

-i~~

Two single-core cables with

surfaces separated by a

minimum of one cable

diameter.

Three single-core cables in

trefoil and touching


throughout. .
Multlcore cables or groups
of single-core cables with
surfaces minimum of
50.0mm
Single-core cables arranged

in flat groups of two or three

on the vertical

trench wall with surfaces


separated by one diameter
with a minimum distance' of
50.0mm between groups.

Method 18. Use rating

factors in Table A.3,


Section 4.

Method 19. Use rating


factors in Table A.3,
Section 4~

Multicore cables Installed


with surfaces separated by a
mlnlmum' of 75.0mm. All
cables spaced at least
25.0mm from the trench wall
Cables in enclosed trench
600.0mm wide by 760.0mm

deep (minimum dimensions)

including 100.0mm cover

Single-core cables arranged

in groups of two or three in

flat formation with


the

surfaces separated by one


diameter or intrefoil
formation with cables
touching.

20
Groups separated by a
mlnlrnum! of 75.0mm either
horizontally or vertically.

Method 20. Use rating


factors in Table A.3,
Section 4.

All cables spaced at least


25.0mm from the trench wall.

Larger spacing to be used where practicable,

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.-.-

...

~--.----.----

SECTION

PROTECTION AND CONTROL

9.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section covers the protection and control of electrical circuits and apparatus installed
in accordance with the requirements of this Code.

9.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute

provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.


(a) C22.1: 1992

(b) BS 7671:1992

Canadian Electrical Code Part I, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installation, Sixteenth Edition.
Requirements for Electrical
Regulations, Sixteenth Edition.

9.3

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

9.3.1

Protective and Control Devices

Installation,IEE

Wiring

(1) Every electrical apparatus and unearthed conductors shall be protected by one or more
devices as may be necessary for automatic and/or manual interruption of the supply in the event
of any fault and shall be provided with:
(a) protection against fault current to break any fault current in a circuit before such current
causes danger due to thermal or mechanical effects produced in those conductors or the
associated connection;
(b) protection against overload current to break any such current flowing in the circuit
conductors before such a current causes a temperature rise detrimental to insulation,
joints, termination or the surroundings of the conductors;

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(c) protection against under-voltage which when necessary will open the circuit, where a
reduction in voltage, or loss and subsequent restoration of voltage could cause danger;
(d) manually-operable control device which will safely disconnect all unearthed conductors
of the circuit at the point of supply simultaneously; and
(e) protection against earth fault in accordance with Clause 9.4.2.
9.3.2

Types and Ratings of Protective and Control Devices

(1) Circuit breakers, fuses, and switches shall be of type and ratings acceptable to the department
in charge of inspection.

(2) Overcurrent protective devices shall ensure safe operation and shall have interrupting
capacity sufficient for the voltage employed and for the anticipated fault current which must be
interrupted.
9.4

PROTECTIVE DEVICES

9.4.1

Overcurrent Devices

(1) Each unearthed conductor shall be protected by an overcurrent device at the point where it

receives its supply of current and at each point where the size of conductor is decreased, except
that such protection may be omitted where:
(a) the overcurrent device in a larger conductor properly protects the smaller conductor;
(b) the smaller conductor is not over 3.0m long and does not extend beyond the switchboard,
panelboard, control device which it supplies; or
(c) the smaller conductor has an ampacity not less than one-third that ofthe larger conductor
from which it is supplied.
(2) The rating or setting of overcurrent devices shall not exceed the allowable ampacity of the
conductors which they protect except:
(a) where a fuse or circuit breaker having a rating or setting of the same value as the
ampacity of the conductor is not available, the ratings or settings given in Table 9.1 may
be used;
(b) in case of equipment wire, flexible cord, and tinsel cord, which will be considered as
being protected by 16.0A overcurrent devices; or
(c) as provided for by other Clauses of this Code.

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I"

SECTION 9: PROTECTION AND CONTROL

(3) Overcurrent devices shall be enclosed in cutout boxes or cabinets unless they form a part of
an approved assembly which affords equivalent protection, or unless mounted on switchboards,
paneboards, or controllers located in room or enclosures free from easily ignitible material and
dampness, and accessible only to authorized persons.
(4) Overcurrent devices shall not be connected in parallel in circuits of 1000.OV or less unless
otherwise they are factory-assembled in parallel as a single unit.
9.4.2

Earth-Fault Protection

(1) Earth-fault protection shall be provided to de-energize all normally earthed conductors of a
faulted circuit in the event of an earth fault in those conductors as follows:

(a) in solidly earthed circuits rated more than 230.0V-to-earth, less than 1000.0V phase-to
phase and 1000.OA or more; and
(b) in solidly earthed circuits rated 230.0V-to-earth or less and 2000.0A or more.
(2) The maximum setting of the earth-fault protection shall be 1200.0A and the maximum time
delay shall be 1.0s for earth fault currents equal to or greater than 3000.0A.
(3) The ampere rating of the circuits referred to in (1) above shall be considered to be:
(a) the rating of the largest fuse that can be installed in a fusible disconnecting device;
(b) the highest trip setting for which the actual overcurrent device installed in a circuit
breaker is rated or can he adjusted; or
(c) the ampacity of the main conductor feeding the devices in cases where no main
disconnecting device is provided.
(4) Earth-fault protection shall be provided by:
(a) an overcurrent device which incorporates earth-fault protection;
(b) earth-fault tripping system comprising a sensor or sensors, relay and auxiliary tripping
mechanism; or
(c) other appropriate means.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

9.S

FUSES

(1) Only fuses and fuse holders of proper rating shall be used, and no bridging or short
circuiting of either component shall be permitted.
(2) Where plug fuses are used in branch circuits, they shall be of such a type and so installed
that they are non-interchangeable with a fuse of larger rating.
(3) A fuse having a fuse link which is likely to be removed or replaced while the supply is
connected shall be of a type such that it can be removed or replaced without danger.

9.6

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

(1) Circuit breakers shall be of the trip-free type.


(2) Indication shall be provided at the circuit breaker and at the point of operation to show
whether the circuit breaker is open or closed.
(3) Circuit breakers shall open the circuit in all unearthed conductors by the manual operation
of a single handle and by the action of overcurrent.
(4) Circuit breakers shall be of such design that any alteration by the user of either the tripping
current or the time will be difficult.
(5) 'Circuit breakers shall be equipped with tripping elements as specified in Table 9.2.

9.7

CONTROL DEVICES

(1) Control devices shall haveratings suitable for the connected load of the circuits which they
control and, with the exception of isolating switches, shall be capable of safely establishing and
interrupting such loads.
(2) Control devices used in combination with overcurrent devices or overload devices for. the
control of circuits or apparatus shall be connected so that the overcurrent or overload devices
will be dead when the control device is in the open position, except where this is impracticable.
(3) Control devices, with the exception of isolating switches, shall be readily accessible.

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._._------------~~~-

SECTION 9: PROTECTION AND CONTROL

(4) Control devices, unless located or guarded so as to render them inaccessible to unauthorized
persons and to prevent fire hazards, shall have all current-carrying parts in enclosures of metal
01' other fire-resisting material.

(5) Where electrical equipment is supplied by two or more different transformers or other
sources of voltage, then:
(a) a single disconnecting means, which will effectively isolate all unearthed conductor
supplying the equipment, shall be provided integral with or adjacent to the equipment;
or
(b) each supply circuit shall be provided with a disconnecting means integral with or
adjacent to the equipment, and the disconnecting means shall be grouped together.

9.8

SWITCHES

(1) Single-throw knife switches shall be mounted with their bases in a vertical plane so that
gravitational force will not tend to close them.
(2) (a) Double-throw knife switches may be mounted so that the throw will be either vertical
or horizontal.
(b) If the throw in (1) above is vertical, a positive locking device or stop shall be provided
to ensure that the blades remain in the open position when so set unless it is not intended
that the switch be left in the open position.
(3) Manual single-throw switches, circuit breakers, or magnetic switches, shall be connected so
that the bases or moving contacts will be dead when the device is in the open position except
when other conditions make this requirement unnecessary.

9.9

PROTECTION AND CONTROL OF MISCELLANEOUS APPARATUS

(I) Socket outlets shall not be connected to a branch circuit having overcurrent protection rated
or set at more than the ampere rating of the socket outlets except as permitted by other Sections
of this Code.
(2) Portable appliances need not be equipped with additional control devices where the
appliances are:

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(a) rated at not more than 1500.0W; and


(b) provided with cord connectors, attachment plugs or other means by which they can be
disconnected readily from the circuits.
(3) Where switches are used to control an outlet or outlets from more than one point, the
switches shall be wired and connected so that the earthed conductor runs directly to the outlet
or outlets controlled by the switches.
(4) Except for panel boards where more than 90% of the overcurrent devices supply feeders or
motor branch circuits, every panel board shall be protected on the supply side by overcurrent
devices having a rating not greater than that of the panel board.
(5) Transfer equipment for standby power systems shall prevent the inadvertent interconnection
of normal and standby sources of supply in.any operation of the transfer equipment.

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SECTION 9: PROTECTION AND CONTROL

Table 9.1 Rating or setting of overcurrent devices protecting conductors


(For general use where not otherwise specifically provided for)

Ampacity of
conductors

Rating or setting permitted [A]


Fuse

Circuit breaker

0-16

16

16

17-20

20

20

21-25

25

32

26-32

32

32

33-40

40

40

41-50

50

50

51-63

63

63

64-80

80

100

91-100

100

100

101-110

110

125

111-125

125

125

126-150

150

150

151-175

175

175

176-200

200

200

201-225

225

225

226-250

250

250

251-275

300

300

276-300

300

300

301-325

350

350

326-350

350

350

351-400

400

400

401-450

450

450

451-500

500

500

501-525

600

600

526-550

600

600

551-600

600

600

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

243

tv
H:>o
H:>o
I

Table 9.2 Overcurrent trip coils for circuit breakers and overload devices for protecting motors

I,

For motor overload protection

For circuit protection t

Number and location of overload

Number and Iccation of


overcurrent devices (Trip Coils)

System

devices such

as

trip coils relays, or

Kind of motor

thermal ~ cutouts
3-trip coils, one in each conductor

3-trip coils, one in each phase

3-wire, 3-phase a.c., unearthed or with


earthed neutral

one in each phase not to be


cqpnected in any neutral conductor

3-phase a.c.

4-wire, 3-phase a.c.

2-trip coils, one each phase

4--wire, ~2-phase a.c., unearthed

2-trip coils, one in each outside


conductor

3-wire, 2-phase a.c.

4-trip coils, one in each unearthed


conductor

4-wire, 2-phase a.c., with earthed neutral

4-trip coils, one in each unearthed


conductor

5-wire, 2-phase a.c.

2-trip coils, one in each outside

3-wire, 1-phase a.c. or d.c.

t-trip coil in each unearthed


conductor

2-wire a.c. or d.c., unearthed or with one


conductor eerthedt t

2-trip coils, one in each unearthed


conductor

3-wire, 1-phase a.c. or d.c., with earthed


neutral

one in each phase, not to be


connected in any neutral or earthed
conductor

2-phase a.c.

in any conductor except a neutral or


earthed conductor

1-phase a.c. or d.c.

This will not preclude the use of other arangements which will provide equivalent protection.

tt This will not prevent the use of one single-pole circuit breaker in each conductor for the protection of an unearthed 2-wire circuit

SECTION

10

CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 CIRCUITS

10.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section covers remote-control, signalling and power-limited circuits that are not integral
parts of a device or lUI appliance.
(2) This Section does not apply to communication circuits that are dealt with in Section 23.
Note:

The circuits described in this Section are characterized by usage and power limitation which differentiate
themfrom electric lightand powercircuitsand,therefore, alternative requirements tothose of otherreievant
Sections ofthis Codewithregardto minimum wiresizes,de-rating factors, overcurrent protection, insulation
requirements, wiring method, and material are deemed necessary.

10.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.
(a) NFPA701NEC: 1986 National Fire Protection Association!American National Electrical
Code, 1987 Edition.
(b) C22.l:1992

10.3

Canadian Electrical Code Part I,Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

CLASSIFICATION

10.3.1 General
(io) Circuits covered by this Section are those portion of the wiring system between the load side
of the overcurrent device or the power-limited supply and all connected equipment, and shall be
Class 1 or Class 2 as defined below:
(a) Class 1 - Circuits which are supplied from sources having limitation in accordance
with Clause 1004.1.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(b) Class 2 -. Circuits which are supplied from sources having limitation in accordance
with Clause 10.5.1.

10.3.2 Class 1 Extra-Low-Voltage Power Circuits


(I) Circuits which are neither remote-control circuits nor signal circuits, but which operate at
not more than 30.0Y where the current is not limited in accordance with Clause 10.5.1 and
which are supplied from a transformer or other device restricted in its rated output to 1000.OYA
shall be clasefied as extra-low-voltage power circuits and shall be considered to be Class I
circuits.

10.3.3 Class 2 Low-Energy Power Circuits


(I) Circuits which are neither remote-control circuits nor signal circuits but in which the current
is limited in accordance with Clause 10.5.1 shall be clasified as low-energy power circuits and
shall be considered to be Class 2 circuits.

10.3.4 Hazardous Location


(I) Where the circuits or apparatus within the scope of this Section are installed in hazardous
locations, theyshall also comply with the applicable Clauses of Section 12.

10.3.5 Circuits to Safety Control Devices


(I) Where the failure to operate a remote-control circuit to a safety control device will introduce
a direct fire or life hazard, the remote-control circuits shall be deemed to be 'a Class I circuit.

10.3.6 Circuits in Communication Cables


(I) Class I circuits shall not be run in the same cable with communication circuits.
(2) Class 2 remote-control and Signal Circuits or parts thereof which use conductor in a cable
assembly with other conductors forming parts of communication circuits are, for the purpose of
this Code, deemed to be communication circuits and shall conform to the requirements of
applicable Clauses of Section 23.
.

246

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SECTION 10: CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 CIRCUITS_


"
10.4

CLASS, 1 CIRCUITS

10.4.1 Limitation of Class 1 Circuits


(1) Class 1 extra-low-voltage power circuits shall be supplied from a source having a rated
output of not more than"30.0V and 1OOO.OVA.
(2) Class 1 remote-control and signal

~ircuits

shall be supplied by a source not exceeding

600~OV.

10.4.2 Methods of Installation for Class 1 Circuits


(1) The equipment and conductor of Class 1 circuits shall be installed in accordance with the
requirements of other appropriate Sections of this Code, except as provided in Clauses 10.4.5
through ~0.4.10.

10.4.3 Overeurrent Protection of Class 1 Circuits


(1) Conductors of Class 1 circuits shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with

Section 9 of this Code, except:


(a) where other Clauses of this Code specifically permit or require other overcurrent
protection; or
.
2
(b) where the conductors are of 1.0mm copper and extend beyond the equipment enclosure,
they shall be protected by overcurrent devices rated at a maximum of 5.0A and 1O.0A,
respectively.
(2) Where overcurrent protection is installed at the secondary terminals of the transformer and
the transformer is suitably enclosed, no overcurrent protection is required on the primary side
other than the normal overcurrent protection of the branch circuit supplying the transformer,

10.4.4 Location of Overcurrent Devices in Clpss 1 Circuits


(1) In Class 1 circuits, the overcurrent devices shall be located at the point where the conductor
to be protected receives' its supply.
(2) The overcurrent device may be an.integralpart of the power supply.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS'

10.4.5 Class 1 Extra-Low-Voltage Power Orc.it Sources Including Transformers


(1) To comply with the lOOO.OVA limitation, Class 1 extra-low-voltage power circuit sources
including transformers shall not exceed-a maximum power output of 2500.0VA; and the product
ofthe maximum current and maximum voltage shall not exceedI OOOO.OVA with the overcurrent
protection by-passed.

10.4.6 Conductor Material and Sizes


(1) Copper conductors smaller than 2.5mm2 may be used in Class 1 circuits if:

(a) installed in a raceway;


(b) installed in a cable assembly; or
(c) within a flexible oord in accordance with Section 4.6.
(2) Subject to the conditions specified in (1) above, conductors shall not be smaller than:
a) 1.5mm2 for individual conductors pulled in raceways;
b) 1.0mm2 for individual conductors laid in raceways, and
c) 1.0mm2 for an integral assembly of two or more conductors.
10.4.7 Insulated Conductors for Class 1 Wiring
(1) Where conductors larger than I.5mm 2 copper are used in a Class 1 circuit, they shall be of
any type shown in Annex B of Section 4.

(2) Where conductor of l.Dmm! or l.5mm2 copper are used in a Class 1 circuit, they shall be
equipment wire of the type suitable for such use as shown in Annex B of Section 4.
10.4.8 Conductors of Different Circuits in the Same Enclosure, Cable, or Raceway
(1) Different Class 1 circuits shall be permitted to occupy the same enclosure, cable or raceway
without regard to whether the individual circuits are alternating current or direct current,
provided all conductors are insulated for the maximum voltage of any conductor in the
enclosure, cable or raceway.
(2) Power supply conductors and Class 1 circuit conductors shall not be permitted in the same
enclosure, cable, or raceway except when connected to the same equipment; and all conductors
are insulated for the maximum voltage of any conductor in the enclosure, cable, or raceway.

248

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SECTION 10: CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 CIRCUITS

10.4.9 Mechanical Protection of Remote-Control Circuits


(1) Where mechanical damage to a remote-control circuit would result in a hazardous condition
all conductors of such remote-control circuits shall be installed in conduits, electrical metallic
tubing, or be otherwise suitably protected from mechanical injury or other injurious condition
such as moisture, excessive heat or corrosive action.
~0.4.10

Class 1 Circuits Extending Aerially beyond a Building

(1) Class 1 circuits which extend aerially beyond a building shall comply with the requirement
of Section 8.6.

10.5

CLASS 2 CIRCUITS

10.5.1 Limitations of Class 2 Circuits


(1) Class 2 circuits, depending upon the voltage, shall have currents limited as follows:

a) 0 to 20. OV: Circuits in which the open-circuit voltage does not exceed 20.0V shall have
overcurrent protection rated at not more than 5.0A except that overcurrent protection
shall not be required where the current is supplied from:
i)

primary batteries which, under short circuit, will not supply a current exceeding
7.5A after l.Omin;
ii) a Class 2 circuit transformer;
iii) a device having characteristics which will limit the current under normal operating
conditions or under fault conditions to a value not exceeding 5.0A; or
iv) a device having a Class 2 output.
b) Over 20.0V but not exceeding 30.0V: Circuits in which the open-circuit voltage exceeds
20.0V, but does not exceed 30.0V, shall have an overcurrent protection rating not
exceeding lOON amperes, where V is the open-circuit voltage, except that the.
overcurrent protection shall not be required where the current is supplied from:
i) primary batteries which under short circuit will not supply a current exceeding 5.0A
after I.Omin;
ii) a Class 2 circuit transformer;
iii) a device having characteristics which will limit the current under normal operating
conditions or under fault conditions to a value not exceeding lOON amperes, where
V is the open-circuit voltage; or
iv) a device having a Class 2 output.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

c) Over 30. OJ' but not exceeding 60.0V: Circuits in which the open circuit voltage exceeds
30.0V, but does not exceed 60.0V, shall have an.. overeurrent protection rating not
exceeding lOON ampers, where V is the open-circuit voltage, except that the overcurrent
protection shall not be required where the current is supplied from:
i) a Class 2 circuit transformer; or
ii) a device having characteristics which will limit the current under normal operating
conditions or under fault conditions to a value not exceeding lOON amperes, where
V is the open-circuit voltage.
d) Over 60.0V but not exceeding 150.0V: Circuits in which the open-circuit voltage exceeds
60.0V, but does not exceed 150.0V, shall have an overcurrent protection rating not
exceeding lOON amperes, where V is the open-circuit voltage,and, in addition, shall be
equipped with current-limiting means other than overcurrent protection, which will limit
the current, either under normal operating conditions or under fault conditions, to a value
not exceeding lOON amperes, where V is the open-circuit voltage.
(2) Transformer devices supplying Class 2 circuits shall be restricted in their rated output to not
exceeding 1OO.OVA.
(3) A device having energy-limiting characteristics may consist of a series resistors of suitable
rating or other similar device.
(4) A Class 2 power supply shall not be connected in series or parallel with another Class 2
power source.

10.5.2 Methods ofInstallation on Supply Side of Overcurrent Protection or Transformers


or Other Devices for Class 2 Circuits
(1) In Class 2 circuits, the conductors and equipment on the supply side of overcurrent
protectidh, transformers, or current-limiting devices shall be installed in accordance with the
requirements of other appropriate Sections of this Code.

10.5.3 Marking
(1) A Class 2 power supply unit shall have permanent markings which shall be readily visible
after installation to indicate the class of supply and its electrical rating.

10.5.4 Overcurrent Protection for Class 2 Circuits


(1) Overcurrent protection of different ratings shall not be of an interchangeable type.

250

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 10: CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 CIRCUITS


(2) The overcurrent protection maybe an integral part of a transformer or other power-supply
device.

10.5.5 Location of Overcurrent Devices


(1) Overcurrent devices shall be located at the point where the conductor to be protected receives
its suppl;V'

10.5.6.tonductors for Class 2 Circuit Wiring


(1) Conductors for use in Class 2 circuits shall be of the type suitable for the application as
indicated in Annex B, Section 4.
(2) The maximum allowable current shall be as listed in Annex B, Section 4, for sizes 1.5~1n2
and smaller, but in no case shall it exceed the current limitations of Clause lO.5.1.

10.5.7 Separation of Class 2 Circuit Conductors from Other Circuits


(1) Conductors of Class 2 circuits shall be separated at least 50.0mm from insulated conductors
of electric lighting, power or Class 1 circuits operating at 380.0V or less, and shall be separated
at least 600.0mm from any insulated conductors of electric lighting, power or Class 1 circuits
operating at more than 380.0V unlessfor both conditions effective separation is afford by use
of:
a) metal raceways for the Class 2 circuits or for the electric lighting, power and Class 1
circuits subject to the metal raceway being bonded to earth;
b) metal sheathed or armoured cable for the electric lighting, power and Class 1 circuit
conductors subject to the sheath. or armour being bonded to earth;
c) nonmetallic sheathed cable for the electric lighting, power and Class 1 circuits operating
at 380.0V or less; or
d) nonmetallic conduit, electrical nonmetallic tubing, insulated tubing or equivalent, in
addition to the insulation on the Class 2 circuit conductors or the electric lighting, power
and Class 1 circuit conductors.
(2) Where the electric lighting or power conductors are bare, all Class 2 circuit conductors in
the same room or space shall be enclosed in a metal raceway that is bonded to earth and no
opening, such as an outlet box, may be located withinZflm of the bare conductors ifup to and
including l5.0kV or within 3.0m of bare conductors above l5.0kV.
(3) Unless the conductors of the Class 2 circuits are separated from the conductors of electric
, lighting, power and.Class 1 circuits by an acceptable barrier, the conductors in Class 2 circuits

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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251
.'

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

shall not be placed in any raceway, compartment, outlet box, junction box or similar fitting with
the conductor of electric lighting, power or Class 1 circuits.

10.5.8 Conductors of Different Class 2 Circuits in the Same Cable, Enclosure, or Raceway
0) Conductors of two or more Class 2 circuits shall be permitted within the same cable,
enclosure or raceway provided all conductors in the cable, enclosure, or raceway are insulated
for the maximum voltage of any conductor.

10.5.9 Penetration of a Fire Separation


(1) Conductors of a Class 2 circuit extending through a fire separation shall be so installed as
to limit fire spread.
10.5.10 Conductors in Vertical Shafts and Hoistways

(1) Class 2 conductors and cable installed in a vertical shaft or hoistway shall comply with the
requirements of Section 18.
10.5.11 Class 2 Conductors and Equipment in Ducts and Plenum Chambers

(1) Class 2 conductors and equipment shall not be placed in ducts or plenum chambers except
as permitted by Clause 8.3.2.
10.5.12 Equipment Located on the Load Siljte of Overcurrent Protection, Transformers, or

Current-Limiting Devices for Class 2 Circuits


(l) Equipment located on the load side of overcurrent protection, transformers, or current
limiting devices for Class 2 circuits shall comply with the following:

a) For Class 2 circuits operating at 30.0V or less, alternating current or direct current, it
shall be acceptable for the particular application.
b) For Class 2 circuits operating at more than 30.0V, alternating current or direct current,
it shall be arranged so that no live parts are accessible to unauthorized persons.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of (Ia) above, lighting fixtures and thermostats incorporating
heat anticipators, located on the load side of overcurrent protection, Class 2 transformers, or
current-limiting devices shall be approved when connected to Class 2 circuits operating at 30.0V
or less.

252

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1995

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SECTION 10: CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 CIRCUITS

. 10.5.13

Class 2 Circuits Extending Beyond a Building

(1) Where Class 2 circuits extend beyond a building and are run in such a manner as to be
subjected to accidental contact with lighting or power conductors operating at a voltage
exceeding 380.0V between conductors of the Class 2 circuits, they shall also meet the
requirements of Section 23.
10.5.14

Underground Installations

(1) Underground installations of Class 2 circuits shall be installed in accordance with


Clause 8.3.3.
(2) Direct buried Class 2 circuits shall maintain a minimum horizontal separation of 300.0mm
from other underground systems except when installed in accordance with (3) below.
(3) Direct buriedClass 2 circuits may be placed at random separation in a common trench with
power circuits which are for the sole purpose o~ supplying power to the Class 2 circuits provided
that the Class 2 circuit is in a metal sheathed cable, with sheath bonded to earth, the power
circuit operates at 750.0V or less, and all conductors are insulated for the maximum voltage of
any conductor in the trench.

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SECTION

11

INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT

11.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to the installation of the following electric equipment:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

11.2

Heating and cooking.


Submersible pump.
Motors and associated circuits.
Air conditioning.
Refrigerating.
Storage batteries.

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

(a)

NFPA 70/NEC:1986

(b)

C22.l: 1990

11.3

National Fire Protection Association/American National


Electrical Code, 1987 Edition.
Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical
Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

GENERAL

11.3.1 Fusible Equipment


(1) Fusible equipment shall employ low-melting-point fuses when connected to conductors
whose ampacity is based on Annex B of Section 4, unless equipment using other types of fuses
is marked as being suitable for such use.

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11.3.2 Connection to Identified Terminals or Leads


(1) Wherever a device having an identified terminal or leads is connected in a circuit having
identified conductors, the identified conductors shall be connected to the identified terminal or
lead.

11.3.3 Equipment over Combustible Surfaces


(1) Where there is a combustible surface directly under stationary or fixed electrical equipment,
that surface shall btl covered with a steel plate at least 1.6mm thick and which shall extend at
least IS0.0mm beyond the equipment on all sides, if:

a) the equipment is marked to require such protection; or

b) the equipment is open on the bottom.

11.3.4 Installation of Ventilated Enclosures


(1) Ventilated enclosures shall be installed in such a manner that ventilation is not restricted.

11.3.5 Outdoor Installations


(1) Outdoor installations of apparatus, unless-housed in suitable enclosures, shall be surrounded
by suitable fences.

(2) Outdoor equipment shall be bonded to earth in an acceptable manner.

11.4

ELECTRIC HEATING AND COOKING APPLIANCES

11.4.1 Location of Non-Portable Appliances


(1) Non-portable electric heating and cooking appliances shall be installed so that the danger
of igniting nearby combustible materials is reduced to a minimum.

11.4.2 Rating of Portable Appliances


(2) The input to portable electric heating and cooking appliance for use on nominal 230.0V
branch circuits protected by overcurrent devices rated or set at not more than I6.0A shall not.
exceed IS00.0W at 230.0V.

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11.4.3 Appliance Exceeding 1500.0W


(1) Every electric heating and cooking appliance rated at more than 1500.0W shall be supplied
from a branch circuit used solely for one appliance except that more than one appliance.may be
connected to a single-branch circuit provided that following is used:
a) A multiple-throw, manually-operated device that will permit only one such appliance to
be energized at one time; or
b) An automatic device that will limit the total load to a value that will not cause operation
of the overcurrent device protecting the branch circuit.
(2) Every electric heating and cooking appliance rated at more than 1500.0W shall be controlled
by an indicating switch which may be in the circuit or on the appliance except that:
a) if the rating of the appliance does not exceed 32.0A, an attachment plug and socket
outlet may be used instead of a switch; and
b) if the appliance has more than one individual heating element each controlled by a
switch, no main switch need be provided.
Note:

For the purposed of this Clause, two or more separate built-in cooking units, together with their overcurrent
devices, ars: considered as one appliance.

11.5 HEATING EQUIPMENT


(1) All electric power for heating and associated equipment operating in connection therewith
shall be obtained from a single-branch circuit which shall be used for no other purpose.
(2) A suitable disconnecting means shall be provided for the feeder or branch circuit.

11.6 SUBMERSmLE PUMPS


(1) Power supply conductors or cables run from well-head to the pump (deep well submersible
pump) shall be:
a) rubber (thermoset) insulated cable, thermoplastic-insulated cable, single conductors or
, twisted assemblies of this types; or
b) extra-hard usage type, or the equivalent portable cable.

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(2) The area around the submersible pump installed in lakes, rivers and streams shall be
protected from access by the public by fencing, cribbing or isolation and so marked.

11.7

MOTORS AND ASSOCIATED CIRCUITS

11.7.1

Wirin~

Methods and Conductors

11.7.1.1 Stationary motors


(1) The wiring method for stationary motors shall be in accordance with the applicable
requirements of Section 8.

11.7.1.2 Portable Motors


(1) Connections to portable motots shall be permitted with flexible cord which shall have a
serviceability not less than that of extra-hard usage cord unless the motor forms part of a
motor-operated device.

11.7.1.3 Motor supply conductor insulation, temperature rating, and ampacity


(1) Supply conductors to a motor connection box shall have an insulation temperature ratings
equivalent to or greater than those provided in Table 11.1 unless the motor is marked otherwise
and their ampacity based on a 7SoC conductor insulation rating when 90C wire is used as circuit
conductors to the motor.

(2) Where Table 11.1 requires insulation temperature ratings in excess of 7SoC, the motor
supply conductors shall not be less than 1.2m long and shall terminate in a location not less
than 600.0mm from any part of the motor except that, for motors rated IOO.Ohp or larger, their
terminations shall be not less than 1.2m from any part of the motor.
(3) For ambients higher than 30C, the supply conductor insulation rating shall be increased at
least by the difference between the ambient and 30C.

11.7.1.4

Conductors to individual motors

(1) The conductors of a branch circuit supplying a continuous-duty motor shall have an
ampacity not less than 125% of the full-load current rating of the motor.

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(2) The conductors of a branch circuit supplying a non-continuous-duty motor shall have an
ampacity not less than the current value obtained by multiplying the full-load current rating of
the motor by the applicable percentage given in Table 11.2 for the duty involved.
(3) Notwithstanding the Provisions of (1) above, conductor ampacities shall be permitted to be
selected from Table 11.5 using the full-load current rating for a continuous duty motor.
(4) Tap conductors supplying individual motors from a single set of branch circuit overcurrent
device supplying two or more motors shall have an ampacity of at least equal to that of the
branch circuit conductors except that where the tap conductors do not exceed 7.5m in length,
they shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with (1) or (2) above provided the ampacity
so determined is not less than Y3 of the ampacity of the branch circuit conductors.

11.7.1.-5

Conductors - two or more motors

(1) Conductors supplying a group of two or more motors shall have an ampacity equal to or
exceeding:

(a)

(b)
(c)

125% of the full-load current rating of the motor having the largest full load current
rating plus the full load current ratings of all the other motors in the group where all
motors' in the group are continuous-duty motors;
the total of the calculated currents determined in accordance with (a) above for each
motor where all motors in the group are non-continuous-duty motors; or
the total of the following where the group consists of two or more motors of both
continuous and non-continuous-duty types:
125% of the current of the continuous-duty motor having the largest full load
current rating;
(ii) the full-load current ratings of all other continuous duty motors; and
(iii) the calculated current determined in accordance with (2) below for the non
continuous duty motors.
i)

(2) Where the circuitry is so interlocked as to prevent all motors of the group from running at
the same time, the size of the conductors feeding the group shall be permitted to be determined
for the motor, or group of motors operating at the same time, having the largest rating selected
as determined in (I) above.

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(3) Demand factors shall be permitted to be applied if the character of the motor loading
justifies reduction of the: ampacity of the conductor to less than the ampacity specified in (1)
above provided that:
(a) the conductors have sufficient ampacity for the maximum demand load; and
(b) the rating ur selling uf the overcurrent devices protecting them is in accordance with
11.7.2.3(4) below.

11.7.1.6

Feeder conductors

(1) Where a feeder supplies both motor loads and other loads, the ampacity of the conductors
shall be calculated in accordance with 11.7.1.4 and 11.7.1.5 plus the requirements of the other
loads.
(2) The ampacity of a tap from a feeder to a single set of overcurrent devices protecting a motor
branch circuit shall not be less than that of the feeder, except that the ampacity of the tap shall
be permitted to be calculated in accordance with 11.7.1.4 and 11.7.1.5 if the tap:
(a)
(b)

11.7.1.7

does not exceed 3.0m in length and is enclosed in metal; or


does not exceed 7.5m in .length, has an ampacity not less than Y3 that of the feeder
and is suitably protected from mechanical damage.

Secondary conductors

(1) Conductors connecting the secondaries of wound rotor motors to their controllers shall have
ampacities not less than:
(a)
(b)

125% of the rated full load secondary current for continuous-duty motors; or
the percentage of rated full load specified in Table 11.2 for non-continuous-duty
motors.

(2) Ampacities of conductors connecting secondary resistors-to their controllers shall not be less
than that determined, by applying the appropriate percentage in Table 11.3 to the maximum
current which the devices are required to carry.

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11.7.2

Overcurrent Protection

11.7.2.1 Branch Circuit overcurrent protection


(l) Each unearthed conductor of a motor branch circuit shall be protected by an overcurrent
device complying with the following:

(a) A branch circuit supplying a single motor shall be protected, except as permitted by (c)
below, by using an overcurrent device of rating not to exceed the values in Table 11.4
/
using the rated full load current of the motor;
(b) notwithstanding (a) above, Table 11.5 shall be permitted to be used to select the size
of overcurrent devices required for a motor where the full load current rating of the
motor is shown in the Table;
(c) instantaneous trip (magnetic only) circuit interrupters shall be permitted where applied
in accordance with 11.7.2.5;
(d) where the overcurrent devices as determined in (a) above will not permit the motor to
start, the rating or setting of the overcurrent device shall be permitted to be increased
as follows:
(i) A non-timedelay fuse:
_. not in excess of 400% of the motor full load current for fuses rated up to
600.0A; or
- not in excess of 300% of the motor full load current for fuses rated 601 to 6000
A; or
(ii) A timedelay fuse to a maximum of 225% of the motor full load current; and
(e)

11.7.2.2

for a branch circuit supplying two or more motors, the rating or setting of the
overcurrent device shall not exceed the maximum value permitted by 1L7.2.4.

Overcurrent protection marked on eqidpment

(1) Where the characteristics and rating or setting of a branch circuit protective device are
/
specified in the marking
of motor control equipment, they shall not be exceeded,
notwithstanding any greater rating or ~etting permitted by 11.7.2.1.
/

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11.7.2.3 Feeder overcurrent protection


(1) For a feeder supplying motor branch circuits only, the rating or setting of the feeder
overcurrent device shall not exceed a maximum value calculated by determining the maximum
rating or setting of the overcurrent device permitted by 11.7.2.1 for that motor which is
permitted the highest rated overcurrent devices of any motor supplied by the feeder, and adding
thereto the sum of the full load current ratings of all other motors which will be in operation at
the same time.
(2) (i) Where a feeder supplies a group of motors, two or more of which are required to start
simultaneously, and the feeder overcurrent devices as set in accordance with (1) above
are not sufficient to allow the motors to start, the rating or setting of the feeder
overcurrent devices shall be permitted to be increased as necessary to a maximum.
(ii) Notwithstanding the Provisions of (i) above, the permitted increase shall not exceed
the rating permitted for a single motor having a full load current rating not less than
the sum of the full load current ratings of the greatest number of motors which start
simultaneously, provided this value does not exceed 300% of the ampacity of the
feeder conductors.
(3) Where a feeder supplies one or more motor branch circuits together with other loads, the
required overcurrent protection shall be determined by calculating the overcurrent protection
required for the motor circuits and adding thereto the requirements of the other loads supplied
by the feeder.
(4) Where a demand factor has been applied as permitted in 11.7.1.5(3b), the rating or setting
of the overcurrent devices(s) protecting a feeder shall not exceed the ampacity of the feeder,
except as permitted by applicable Clauses of Section 8.

11.7.2.4 Grtluping of motors on a single branch circuit


(1) Two or more motors shall be permitted to be grouped under the protection of a single set
of branch circuit overcurrent devices having a rating or setting calculated in accordance with
11.7.2.3(1) provided that the protection conforms to one of the following:
(a) The ratings or settings of the overcurrent devices do not exceed 16.0A; or
(b) Protection is provided for the control equipment of the motors by having the branch
circuit overcurrent devices rated or set at:

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values not in excess of those marked on the control equipment for the lowest rated
motor of the group, as suitable for the protection of that control equipment; or
(ii) in the absence of such markings, values not in excess of 400% of the full-load
current of the lowest rated motor.
(i)

(0) The motors are used on a machine tool or woodworking machine; and

(i)

the control equipment is arranged so that all contacts which open the motor's
primary circuits are in enclosures, either forming part of the machine base or for
separate mounting, having a wall thickness not less than 1.69mm for steel, .
2.40mm for malleable cast iron, or 6.30mm for other cast metal, having hinged
doors with substantial catches, and having no openings to the floor or the
foundation on which the machine rests; and
(ii)the ratings or settings of the overcurrent devices do not exceed 200.0A at 230.0V
or less, or 100.OA at voltages from ,231.0V to 750.0V.
(d) All the motors are operated by a single controller.

11.7.2.5

Instantaneaus-sripcireuit interrupters

(l) Instantaneous trip circuit interrupters, when used for branch circuit protection, shall be:

(a) part of a combination motor starter or controller that also provides overload protection;
and
(b) rated or adjusted, for an a.c. motor, to trip at not more than 1300% ofthe motor full
load current or at not more than 215% of the motor locked rotor current, where given,
except that ratings or settings for trip current need not be less than 16.0A; or
(c) rated or adjusted, for a d.c. motor rated at 50.0hp or less, to trip at not more than 250%
of the motor full load current, or for a d.c. motor rated at more than 50.0hp, to trip at
not more than 200% of the motor full-load current.
11.7.3

Overload and Overheating Protection

11.7.3.1 Overloadprotection requited


(1) The branch circuit conductors and control equipment of each motor shall have overload

protection, except as permitted by II. 7.3.5

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11.7.3.2 Types of overload protection


(1) Overload devices shall be either:

(a) a separate overload device which is responsive to motor current and which shall be
permitted to combine the function of overload and overcurrent protection if it is capable
of protecting the circuit and motor under both overload and short circuit conditions,
(b) a protective device, integral with the motor and responsive to motor current and
temperature, provided such device will protect the circuit conductors and control
equipment as well as the motor.
(2) Fuses used as separate overload protection of motors shall be timedelay fuses.

11.7.3.3 Number and location of overload devices


(1) The number and location of current-responsive devices shall be:

(a) if fuses are used, one it! each unearthed conductor; or


(b) as specified in Table 9.1, Section 9, if devices other than fuses are used.
(2) Except by special permission, where current-responsive devices are used for the overload
protection of 3-phase motors, such devices shall comprise of three current-responsive elements
which shall be:
(a) connected directly in the motor circuit conductors as required by (1) above; or
(b) fed by two or three current transformers so connected that all 3-phases will be protected,

11.7.3.4 Rating or trip selection of overload devices


(1) Overload devices responsive to motor current shall be rated or selected to trip at not more
than the following:
(a) 125% of the full-load current rating of a motor having a marked service factor of 1.15
or greater; or
(b) 115% of the full-load current rating of a motor which does not have a marked service
factor or where the marked service factor is less than 1.15.

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.(2) Notwithstanding the Provisions of (1) above, Table 11.5 shall be applicable to determine
the type of the overcurrent device required for motors having a service factor of 1.15 or greater
where the full-load current rating of the motor is listed in the Table.
(3) Where a motor overload device is so connected that it does not carry the total/current
designated on the motor nameplate, such as for wye-delta starting, the percentage/of motor
nameplate current applying to the selection or setting of tli'e overload device shall be clearly
marked on the motor starter or shown In the motor starter manufacturers overload selection table.

11.7.3.5

Overload protection not required

(1) Overload protection shall not be required for motors complying with any of the following:
(a) A manually started motor rated at l.Ohp or less that is continuously attended while in
operation, which is on a branch circuit having overcurrent protection rated or set at not
more than 16.0A or on an individual branch circuit having overcurrent protection as
required by Table 11.5 if it may be readily determined from the starting location that
the motor is running.
(b) A motor constructed so that it cannot be overloaded.
(c) A motor whose operating requirements are such that it is impracticable to obtain proper
overload protection.
(d) An automatically startable motor having a rating of l.Ohp or less forming part of an
assembly equipped with other safety controls that protect the motor from damage due
to stalled-rotor current and on which a nameplate, so located as to be visible after
installation, indicates that such protection features are provided.

11.7.3.6

Shunting of overload protection during starting

(1) Overload protection shall be permitted to be shunted or cutout of a circuit during the starting
period, provided that the device by which the protection is shunted or cutout cannot be left in
the starting position and that the overcurrerit device is in the motor circuit during the starting
period.

11.7.3.7 Automatic restarting after overload


(l) Where automatic restarting of a motor after a shut down on overload could cause injury to

persons, the overload or overheating devices protecting the motor shall be so arranged that
automatic restarting cannot occur.

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~-------~. ~

SECTION 11: INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

11.7.3.8

Overheating protection required

(1) Each motor shall be provided with means of overheating protection except as permitted by
11.7.3.10.

11.7.3.9

Types 0/ overheating protection

(1) Overheating protection, where required by 11.7.3.8, shall be provided by devices integral
with the motor and responsive to both motor current and temperature or to motor temperature
only, and shall be arranged to cut off power to the motor or, by spacial permission, to activate
a warning signal when the temperature exceeds the safe limit for the motor.

(2) Motors with inherent overheating protection acceptable under (1) above shall be marked to
indicate that they are thermally protected or impedance protected.

11.7.3.10 Overheating protection not required


(1) Overheating protection shall not be required:

(a) where the motor circuit requires no overload protection under 11.7.3.5; or
- (b) where overload protective devices required by 11.7.3.2 adequately protect the motor
against overheating due to excess current and the motor is in a location where:
(i) ambient temperatures are not more than l O'C higher than those at the location of
the overload devices; and
(ii) dust or other conditions will not interfere with the normal dissipation of heat from
the motor.

11.7.4 Undervoltage Protection


11.7.4.1

Undervolatge protection required/or motors

(1) Motors shall be disconnected from the source of supply in case of low voltage by one of
the following means unless it is evident that no hazard will be incurred through lack of such

disconnection:

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(a) A motor control device shall provide low-voltage protection when automatic restarting
is liable to create a hazard.
(b) The motor control device shall provide low-voltage release when it is necessary or
desirable that a motor stops on failure or reduction of voltage and automatically restart
on return of voltage.

11.7.4.2

Undervoltage protection on feeders or branch circuits

(l) The protection specified in II. 704.1 shall be permitted to be applied to a feeder or branch

circuit supplying a group of motors, in which case the individual motors need not. be so
protected, provided the means for manually resetting a low-voltage protective device shall be
within sight of all machines supplied by a feeder or branch circuit and so located that the
operator can visually assure himself that safe re-energization of the feeder or branch circuit is
possible.

11.7.5

Control

11.7.5.1 Control required


(1) Except as permitted by (3) below, each motor shall be provided with a motor starter or
controller for starting and stopping it and having a rating, in horsepower, not less than the rating
of the motor it serves.

(2) A motor controller need not open the circuit in all unearthed conductors to a motor unless
it also serves as a disconnecting means.
(3) The motor starter or controller specified in (1) above shall not be required for motors
applied as follows:
(a) A singlephase portable motor rated at lhhpor less, connected by means of a socket
outlet and attachment plug rated not in excess of 16.0A, 230.0V.
(b) A motor controlled by a manually operated general-use switch having an ampere rating
not less than 125% of the full load current rating of the motor.
(c) A two-wire potable a.c. or d.c. motor having a rating not in excess of lhhp, 230.0V
controlled by a horsepower rated singlepole motor switch.

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11.7.5.2

Control location

(1) A motor controlled manually, either directly or by a remote control of a motor starter, shall

have the means of operation by the controller so located:

(a) that safe operation of the motor and the machinery driven by it is assured, or the motor
and the machinery shall be guarded or enclosed so as to prevent accidents due to contact
of persons with live or moving parts; or
(b) where compliance with (a) above is not practicable because of the type, size or location
.---'
of the motor or machinery and its parts, devices shall be provided at each point where
the danger of accidents exists whereby the machine or parts of the machine may be
stopped in an emergency.

11.7.5.3

Starters having different starting and running positions

(1) Manual motor starters having different starting and running positions shall be constructed
so that they cannot remain in the starting position.

(2) Magnetic motor starters having different starting and running positions shall be constructed
so that they cannot remain in the starting position under normal operating conditions.
11.7.5.4

Earthed control circuit

(1) When power for a co~trol circuit for a.motor controller is obtained conductively from an
earthed system, the control circuit shall be so arranged that an accidental earth in the wiring
from the controller to any remote or signal device will not:
(a) start the motor; or
(b) prevent the stopping of the motor by the normal operation of any control or safety
device in the control circuit.

11.7.6 Disconnecting Means


(1) Except as permitted by (2) and (3) below, separate disconnecting means shall be provided

for:
(a) each motor branch circuit,
(b) each motor starter or controller, and
(c) each motor.

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.>

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---

.- ......

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(2) A single disconnecting means shall be permitted to serve more than one of the functions
described in (1) above.
(3) A single disconnecting means shall be permitted to serve two or more motors and their
associated starting and control equipment grouped on a single branch circuit.
(4) Disconnecting means or the means for operating themshall readily be accessible.

11.8

AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATING EQUIPMENT

11.8.1 General
(1) The provisions of Section 11.7 for overload, overheating and control of motors shall apply
to electric motor driving air conditioning and refrigerating equipment.

11.8.2 Branch Circuit


(l) A room air conditioner shall be considered as a single motor unit in determining its branch
circuit requirements when all the following conditions are met:

(a) It is cord-and-attachment plug-connected.


(b) Its rating is not more than 40.0A and 230.0V single phase.
(c) Total rated-load current is shown on the room air-conditioner nameplate rather than
individual motor currents.
(d) The rating of the branch-circuit, short-circuit and earth-fault protective device does not
exceed the ampacity of the branch-circuit conductors or the rating of the socket outlet,
whichever is smaller.
(2) The total marked rating of a cord-and-attachment plug-connected room air conditioner shall
not exceed 80% of the rating of a branch circuit where no other loads are supplied.
(3) The total marked rating ofa cord-and-attachment plug-connected room air conditioner shall
not exceed 50% of the rating of a branch circuit where lighting units or other appliances are also
supplied.

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11.8.3 Disconnecting Means


(1) An attachment plug and socket outlet are permitted to serve as disconnecting means for a
single-phase room air conditioner rated i30.0Y or less if:
(a) the manual controls on the room air conditioner are readily accessible and located within
2.0m of the floor; or
(b) an approved, manually operable switch is installed in a readily accessible location within
sight from the room air conditioner.

11.8.4 Supply Cords


(1) Where a flexible cord is used to supply a room air conditioner, the length of such cord shall
not exceed 2.0m for a nominal 230.0Y rating.

11.9

STORAGE BATTERIES

11.9.1 Location of Storage Batteries


(1) Batteries with exposed live parts shall be kept in a room or an enclosure accessible only to
authorized personnel.

11.9.2 Ventilation of Battery Rooms or Areas


(1) Storage, battery rooms or areas shall be adequately ventilated.
(2) Storage batteries shall not be subjected to ambient temperatures greater than 45C or less
than the freezing point of the electrolyte.

11.9.3 Battery Vents


(l) Vented cells shall be equipped with flame arresters.

(2) Sealed cells shall be equipped with pressure-release vents.

11.9.4 Battery Installation


(l) Battery trays, racks and other surfaces on which batteries are mounted shall be:

a) level,

b) protected against corrosion from the battery electrolyte,

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c) covered with an insulating material having a dialectic strength of at least 1500.0V,


d) of sufficient strength to carry the weight of the battery, and
e) designed to withstand vibration and sway, where appropriate.
(2) Battery cells shall be spaced a minimum of 1O.Omm apart.
(3) Battery cells having conductive containers shall be installed on non-conductive surfaces.
(4) Sealed cells and multi-compartment sealed batteries having conductive containers shall have
an insulating support if a voltage is present between the container and earth.
(5) Cells and multi-compartment vented stage batteries, with covers sealed to containers of non
conductive, heat resistant material, shall not require additional insulating support.
(6) Batteries having a nominal voltage greater than 230.0V and with cells in rubber or
composition containers shall be sectionalized into groups of 230.0V or less.
11.9.5 Wiring
(1) The installation of wiring and equipment in a battery room shall be in accordance with the
requirements of a dry location.

(2) The wiring between cells and batteries and between the batteries and other electrical
equipment shall be:
a)
b)
c)
d)

bare conductors.which shall not be tapped;


open wiring;
a jacket flexible cord;
mineral-insulated cable provided it is adequately protected against corrosion where it
may be in direct contact with acid or acid spray; or
e) aluminium-sheathed cable provided that it has a suitable corrosion-resistant protection,
where necessary.
(3) Where wiring is installed in rigid conduit or electrical metallic tubing:
a) the conduit or tubing shall be of corrosion-resistant material suitably protected from
corrosion;
b) the end of the raceway shall be tightly sealed with sealing compound, rubber tape, or
other acceptable material, to resist the entrance of electrolyte by spray or creeping;

270

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 11: INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

c) the conductor shall issue from the raceway through a substantial glazed insulating
bushing;
d) at least 300.0mm of the conductor shall be free from the raceway where connected to
a cell terminal; and
e) the raceway exit shall be at least 300.0mm above the highest cell terminal to reduce the
electrolyte creepage or spillage entering the raceway.
Table 11.1 Minimum temperature rating for the insulation of motor supply conductor [0C]
(Based on ambient temperature of 30C)
Insulation class rating.
Motor enclosure

All except totally enclosed nonventilated

75

75

90

110

Totally enclosed non-ventilated

75

90

11.0

110

Table 11.2 Conductor sizes for motors for different service requirements
Percentage of nameplate current rating of
motor

s-rnlnute
rating

15
minute
rating

30-and
60
minute
rating

Contlnu
ous
rating

110

120

150

85

85

90

140

Periodic duty
Rolls, ore-and coal-handling
machines, etc.

85

90

95

140

Varyng duty

110

120

150

200

Classification of service

Short-time dUty
Operating valves, raising or lowering.
rolls, etc.
Intermittent dUty
Freight and passenger elevators,
tools heads, pumps, drawbridges,
turntables, etc.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

271

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

TABLE 11.3 Conductor sizes in the secondaryCircuits of motors

Duty cycles

Carrying capacity of
conductors In percent of
full-load secondary
circuit

5 sec on 75 sec off


10 sec on 70 sec off
15 sec on 75 sec off
15 sec on 45 sec off
15 sec on 30 sec of
15 sec on 15 sec off
Continuous Duty

35
45
55
65
75
90
110

Resistor duty classification

Light staring duty


Heavy starting duty
Extra heavy starting duty
Light intermittent duty
Medium intermittent duty
Heavy intermittent duty
Continuous dUty

Table 11.4 Rating or setting of overcurrent devices for the protection of motor branch circuits
(Except as permitted in Table 11.5 where 16-A overcurrent protection for motor branch circuit conductors exceeds
the values specified in here)

Per cent of full-load current

Tlmedela
y fuses

Non
tlmedelay

Maximum
setting tlme
limit type
circuit breaker

175

300

250

175

300

250

175
175
150

250
200
150

200
200
150

150

150

150

. Maximum fuse rating

Type of Motor

Alternating Current
Single-phase all types'
Squirrel-cage and synchronous:
Full-voltage, resistor and reactor
Staring
Auto-Transformer starting:
Not more than 30.0A
More than 30.0A
Wound rotor
Direct Current

The ratings of fuses for the protection of motor branch circuits as given in Table 11.5 are based upon
fuse ratings appearing in the Table above, which also specifies the maximum settings of circuit
breakers for the protection of motor branch circuits.
(il) Synchronous motors of the low-torque, low-speed type (usually 4S0.0rpm, or lower) such as are
used to drive reciprocating compressors, pumps, etc., and which start up unloaded, do not require
a fuse rating or circuit breaker setting in excess of 200% of full-load current.
(iii) For the use of instantaneous trip (magnetic only) circuit interrupters in motor branch circuits, see
11.7.2.5.

Note;

(i)

272

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

Table 11.5 Sizes of conductors, fuse ratings, and circuit breaker settings for motor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection
(This Table is based on Table 11.4 and a room temperature of 30C).

Overcurrent protection maximum allowable rating of fuses and


Maximum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the time-limited
Type for motor circuits [A]

Overload protection for


running protection of
motor [A]
Full~load

current
rating of
motor [A]

Minimum
allowable
ampacity of
conductor

Maximum
rating of
Type 0
Fuses

Maximum
setting of
overload
devices

1
2
3
4
5

1.25
2.50
3.75
5.00
6.25

1.125
2.25
3.5
4.5
5.6

1.125
2.25
3.75
5.00
6.25

6
7
8

7
8

10

7.50
8.75
10.00
11.25
12.50

7.50
8.75
10.00
11.25
12.50

11
12
13
14
15

13.75
15.00
16.25
17.50
18.75

10
12

Single phase, all types and


squirrel cage and synchronous
(Full voltage, Resistor and
Reactor Starting)

Squirrel cage and Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
Starting)

I .
I

d.c. or wound rotor a.c.

Non-time
delay
Fuses

Timedela
y"D"
Fuses

Circuit
breaker

Non-time
.delay
fuses

Timedela
y"D"
fuses

Circuit
Breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

Time
delay "0"
fuses

Circuit
breaker

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
1'5

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

20
25
25
30
30

15
15
15
20
20

15
15
20
20
20

15
15
20
25
25

15
15
15
20
20

15
15
15
15
20

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

30
40
40
45
45

20
25
25
25
30

30
30
30
30
30

30
30
35
35
40

20
25
25
25
30

20
20
30
30
30

29
20
20
25
25

20
20
20
25
25

15
15
20
20
20

,
1

~.

12
15
15
17.5
~F5

13.75
15.00
16.25
17.50
18.75

~
Table 11.5 Sizes of conductors, fuse ratings, and circuit breaker settings for motor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection (conte'd)
(This Table is based on Table 11.4 and a room temperature of 30C).

Overload protection for


running protection of
motor [A]
Full.load
current
rating of
motor [A]

Minimum
allowable
ampacltyof
conductor

Maximum
rating of
Type 0
Fuses

Maximum
setting of
overload
devices

Overcurrent protection maximum allowable rating of fuses and


Maximum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the tlme-llrnlted
Type for motor circuits [A]
Single phase, all types and
squirrel cage and synchronous
(Full voltage, Resistor and
Reactor Starting)

Squirrel cage and Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
Starting)

d.c. or wound rotor a.c.

Non-time
delay
Fuses

Timedela
y"O"
Fuses

Circuit
breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

Timedela
y "0"
fuses

Circuit
Breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

Time
delay "0"
fuses

Circuit
breaker

16
17
18
19
20

20.00
21.25
22.50
23.75
25.00

17.5
20
20
20
25

20.00
21.25
22.50
23.75
25.00

50
60
60
60
60

30
30
35
35
35

40
40
40
40
50

40
45
45
50
50

30
30
35
35
35

30
30
30
40
40

25
30
30
30
30

25
30
30
30
30

20
30
30
30
30

22
24
26
28
30

27.5
30.0
32.5
35.0
37.5

25
30
30
35
35

27.5
30.0
32.5
35.0
37.5

60
80
80
90
90

40
45
50
50
60

50
. 60
60
70
70

60
60
70
70
70

40
45
50
50
60

40
40
50
50
60

35
40
40
45
45

35
40
40
45
45

30
30
40
40
40

32
34
36
38
40

40.0
42.5
45.0
47.5
50.0

40
40
45
45
50

40.0
42.5
45.0
47.5
50.0

100
110
110
125
125

60
60
70
70
70

70
70
100
100
100

70
70
80
80
80

60
60
70
70
70

60
60
70
70
70

50
60
60
60
60

50
60
60
60
60

40
50
50
50
60

Table 11.5 Sizes of cond.uCtors, fuse ratings,

and Circuit breaker settings fOI" Iilotor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection

(conte'd)

(This Table is based on Tabie 11.4 lind a room temperature of 30C).


"'-

",

- .

..

..

~.

---"

Overload proteCtion for


runnin~ protection of
motor [Ai
Minimum
allowable
ampacltyof
conductor

f'ull-ioad
current
rating of
motor [AJ

Maximum
ratirig of
type b
Fuses

Maximurn
setting of
averldad
devices
..

Non-time
delay
Fuses

Tirnedela
yiiDil
Fuses

Squirrel cage arid Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
Starting)

Circuit
breaker
..

Non-time
delay
. .. fuses

Tlmedela
y"D"
fuses

Circuit
Breaker

d.c, or wound rotor a.c,

Non-time
delay
fuses

Time
delay liD"
fuses

Circuit
breaker

50
50
50
60
60

52;5
55.0
57;5
60.0
62.5

125
125
150
150
150

80
80
90
90
90

100
100
100
10Q
125

90
90
100
100
1'00

80
90
90
90
90

70
100
100
100
100

70
70
70
80

eo

70
70
70
80
80

60
60
70
70

52
56
58
60

65.0
67.5
70.0
72.5
75.6

60
60
70
70
70

65.0
61.5
70.0
12.5
75.0

175
175
175
175

2dO

100
100
100
110
110

125
125
125
125
150

11o
110
126
126
125

100
100
100
110
110

100
100
100
100
100

80
90
90
90
90

80
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
100
100

62
64
66
68
70

71.5
80.0
82.5
85.0
87.5

70
10
80
80
80

80.0
82.5
85.0
87.5

200
200
20b
225
225

11o
125
125
125
125

150
150
150
150
175

125
150
150
150
160

110
125
125
125
125

125
125
125
125
125

100
100
100
110
110

100
100
100
110
110

100
100
100
100
100

72
14

90.0
92.5
95.0
91.5
100,cl

80
90
90
90
90

225
225
250
250
25Cl

150
150
150
150
150

115
175
175
175
200

150
150
175
115
115

150
150
150
150
150

125
125
150
150
150

110
125
125
125
125

110
125
125
125
125

100
100
100
100
100

78
80
.~..

Singie phase; all types and


squirrel cage arid synchronous
(Full voltage, Resistor and
Reactor St8:rting)

525
55.0
57.5
60.0
62.5

76
;;.,;j
Vi

O"ercurrerrt protection maximum alloWable rating of fuses and


lIIIaxlinum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the time-limited
type for motor circuits tAJ
..
..

42
44
46
48
50

54

t-:.!

..,

',"-

>.

>

77.5

96.0

92.5
95.0
97.5
100.0

..

."'

60

Table 11.5 Sizes of conductors, fuse ratings, and circuit breaker settings for motor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection (conte'd)
(This Table is based on Table 11.4 and a room temperature of 30C).
I

Overload protection for


running protection of
motor [A]

Overcurrent protection maximum allowable rating of fuses and


Maximum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the time-limited
Type for motor circuits [A]

- -

Full-load
current
rating of
motor [A]

Minimum
allowable
ampacltyof
conductor

Maximum
rating of
Type 0
Fuses

Maximum
setting of
overload
devices

86

88

90

102.5
105.0
107.5
110.0
112.5

90

100

100

100

100

92

94

96

98

100

115.0
117.5
120.0
122.5
125.0

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

82

84

Single phase. all types and


squirrel cage and synchronous
(FUll voltage, Resistor and
Reactor Starting)

Squirrel cage and Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
Starting)

t--~

d.c. or wound rotor a.c.

--,----

Non-time
delay
Fuses

limedela
y"O"
Fuses

102.5
105.0
107.5
110.0
112.5

250
250
300
300
300

110

110

110

110

110

115.0
117.5
120.0
122.5
125.0

131.5
137.5
144.0
150.0
156.5

125

125

125

125

150

162.5
169.0
175.0
181.5
187.5

150

150

150

175

175

Circuit
breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

limedela
y"O"
fuses

Circuit
Breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

lime
delay "0"
fuses

Circuit
breaker

150
150
175
175
175

200
200
200
200
225

175
175
175
200
200

150
150
175
175
175

150
150
150
175
175

125
150
150
150
150

125
150
150
150
150

125
125
125
125
125

300
300
300
300
300

175
175
175
175
175

225
225
225
225
225

200
200
200
200
200

175
175
175
175
175

175
175
175
175
175

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

125
125
125
125
150

131.5
137.5
144.0
150.0
156.5

350
350
350
400
400

200
200
225
225
225

250
250
250
250
250

225
225
250
250
250

200
200
225
225
225

200
200
225
225
250

175
175
175
200
200

175
175
175
200
200

150
150
150
175
175

162.5
169.0
175.0
181.5
187.5

400
450
450
450
450

250
250
250
300
300

300
300
350
350
350

300
300
300
300
300

250
250
250
300
300

250
250
250
250
300

20Q
225
225
225
225

200
225
225
225
225

175
200
200
200
225

,
,

Table 11.5 Sizes of conductors, fuse ratings, and circuit breaker settings for motor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection (conte' d)
(Ibis Table is based on Table 11.4 and a room temperature of 30"C).

Overcurrent protection maximum allowable rallng of fuses and


Maximum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the time-limited
Type for motor circuits [A]

Overload protection for


running protection of
motor [A]
FUll-load
current
rating of
motor [A]

Minimum
allowable
ampaclty of
conductor

Fuses

Maximum'
setting of
overload
devices

Maximum
rating of
Type D

-...J

Single phase, all types and


squirrel cage and synchronous
(Full voltage, Resistor and
Reactor Starting)

Squirrel cage and Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
Starting)

d.c. or wound rotor a.c.

Non-time
delay
F!Jses

limedela
y liD"
Fuses

Circuit
breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

limedela
y''O"
fuses

Circuit
Breaker

Non-time
delay
fuses

lime
delay "0"
fuses

Circuit
breaker

155
160
165
170
175

194
200
206
213
219

175
175
200
200
200

194
200
206
213
219

500
500
500
500
600

300
300
300
300
350

350
400
400
400
400

350
350
350
350
350

300
300
300
300
350

300
300
300
300
350

250
250
250
300
300

250
250
250
300
300

225 '
225
225
250
250

180
185
190
195
200

225
231
238
244
250

200
200
225
225
225

225
231
238
244
250

600
600
600
600
600

350
350
350
350
350

400
400
400
400
500

400
400
400
400
400

350
350
350
350
350

350
350
350
350
400

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

250 '
250
250
250
300

210
220
230
240
250

263
275
288
300
313

250
250
250
250
300

263
275
288
300
313

400
400
450
450
450

500
500
500
600
600

450
450
500
500
500

400
400
450
450
450

400
400
400
400
500

350
350
350
400
400

350
350
350
400
400

300
300
300
350
350

Table U.5 Sizes of conductors, fuse ratings, and circuit breaker settings for motor overload protection and motor circuit overcurrent protection (conte'd)
(This Table is based on Table 11.4 and a room temperature of 30pe).

Overload protection for


r'unnlrtg protection of
motor [A]
FuJl~load

current
rating of
motdr [A]

Minimum
allowable
ampaclty of.
col1ductdr ".

Maximum
rating of
fypeD
Fuses

260
270
280'
290
300

325
338
350
363
315-.

300
300
300
350
350

320
340
360
380
400

400
425
450
475
500

420
440
460
480
500

Maximum
setting of
overload
devices

32$
338'

Overcurtent protectlort maximum allowable rating of f~ and


Maximum allowable setting of circuit breakers of the time-limited
Type for motor circuits [A] .
Single phase, all types and
squirrel cage and synchronous
(Full voltage, Resistor and
Reactor Starting)

Squirrel eage and Synchronous


(Autotransformer and Star-Delta
starting)

Non-time
delay
Fuses

Tlmedela

500
500
500

600

600

600

600

600

y"O.
Fuses

Non-time

Tmedela

de18y

y"O.

fuses

fuses

600,

600

600

600

500
500
500
600
600

Circuit
breaker

350
363
375

60Q

600

600

350
400
400
450
450

400
425
450
475

.-

52.5

500

525

550

500
500
500
600

550

515

600
625

500

575
600

625

--

500

500
500
500
600

--

Circuit
Breaker

-'
~

d.c. or wound rotor a.c,

Non~time

delay
fUSes

Time
delay. "0"
fuses

400
450
450
450
450

400
450
450
450
450

500
600

500

600
600
600

..

Cireuit
breaker

350
~oo

'400
400
400
400
500

600
600
600

500
500

600

600

.
.

SECfION

12

HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS

12.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to hazardous locations in which electrical equipment and wiring
are subject to the conditions classified as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)

12.2

Class I locations in which flammable gases or vapouls are or may be present in


the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitible mixtures;
Class II location which are hazardous because of-the presence of combustible or
electrically conductive dusts; and
Class III locations which are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitible
fibres or flyings, but in which such fibres or flyings are not likely to be in
suspension in the air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitible mixtures.

NORMATIVE REFERENCE

(1) The following reference contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.
(a)

12.3

C22.1:1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

CLASSIFICATION

12.3.1 Division of Class I Locations


(1) Class I locations shall be divided into two divisions as follows:
(a) Division 1, comprising Class I locations in which:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

. EBCS-10 1995

279

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

.i)

hazardous concentration of flammable gases or vapours may exist continuously,


intermittently, or periodically under normal operating conditions;
ii) hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapours may exist frequently
because of repair or maintenance operation or because of leakage; or
iii) equipment is operated or processes are carried on, of such a nature that
breakdown or faulty operation thereof could result in the release of hazardous
concentrations of flammable gases or vapours and simultaneous failure of
electrical equipment.

(b)

Division 2, comprising Class I locations in which:


(i) flammable volatile liquids, flammable gases or vapours are handled, processed,
or used, but in which the liquids, gases, or vapours are normally confined
within closed containers or closed systems from which they can escape only as
a result of accidental rapture or breakdown of the containers or systems or the
abnormal operation of the equipment by which the liquids or gases are
handled, processed, or used; or
(ii) hazardous concentration of gasses or vapours are normally prevented by
. positive mechanical ventilation, but which may become hazardous as the result
of failure or abnormal operation of the ventilating equipment; or
(iii) the location is adjacent to a Class I, Division 1 location, from which a
hazardous concentration of gasses or vapours could be communicated, unless
such communication is prevented by adequate positive-pressure' ventilation
from a source of clean air, and effective safeguards against ventilation failure
are provided.

12.3.2 Division of Class II Locations

(L) Class II locations shall be divided into two divisions as follows:


a) Division 1 comprising Class II locations in which:
i) combustible dust is or may be ih suspension in air continuously, intermittently,
or periodically under normal oeperating conditions in quantities sufficient to
produce explosive or ignitible mixtures;
ii) jhe normal or abnormal operation or the failure of equipment or apparatus might
cause explosive or ignitible mixtures to be produced in, or in dangerous proximity
to, 'electrical equipment or apparatus; or

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iii dusts having the property of conducting electricity may be present.


b) Division 2, comprising Class.II locations in which combustible dusts are not normally
in suspension in air or likely to be thrown into suspension by the normal or
abnormal operation or the failure of equipment or apparatus in quantities sufficient
to produce explosive or ignitible mixtures, but in which: .
i) deposits or accumulations of dust may be sufficient to interfere with the safe
dissipation of heat from electrical equipment or apparatus; or
ii) deposits or accumulations of dust on, in or near electrical equipment may be
ignited by arcs, sparks, or burning material from the electricalequipment.
12.3.3 Division of Class III Locations
(1) Class III locations shall be divided into two divisions as follows:
a) Division 1, comprising Class III locations in which readily ignitible fibres or
materials producing combustible flyings are handled, manufactured, or used ....
b) .Division 2, comprising Class III locations in which readily ignitible fibres other than
those in process of manufacture are stored or handled.
12.4

GENERAL

REQUI~MENTS

12.4.1 Electrical Equipment


(1) Where electrical equipment is required by this Section to be approved for the class of
location, it shall also be approved for the specific gas, vapour, or dust that will be present.
(2) Such approval in (1) may be indicated by one or more of the following atmospheric
group designations which have been established for the purpose of testing and approval:
a) Group A, comprising atmospheres containing acetylene;
b) Group B, comprising atmospheres containing butadiene, ethylene oxide, hydrogen
(or gasses or vapours equivalJnt in hazard to hydrogen, such as manufactured gas),
or propylene oxide;

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c) Group C, comprising atmospheres containing acetaldehyde, cyclopropane, diethyl


. ether, ethylene, or unsymmetrical dimenthyl hydrazine (UDMH), or other gases or
vapours of equivalent hazard;
d) Group D, comprising atmospheres containing acetone, acrylonitrile, alcohol,
ammonia, benzine, benzol, ethylene dichloride, gasoline, hexane, isoprene, lacquer
solvent vapours, naphtha,natural gas, propane, propylene styrene, vinyl acetate, vinyl
chloride, xylenes, or other gases or vapours or equivalent hazard;
e) Group E, comprising atmospheres containing metal dust, including aluminum,
magnesium, and their commercial alloys, and other metals of similarly hazardous
character istics;
t) Group F, comprising atmospheres containing carbon black, coal or coke dust;
g) Group G, comprising atmospheres contaiiring flour, starch or grain dust, and other
dusts of similarly hazardous characteristics.
12.4.2 Marking
(1) Electrical. equipment approved for use in hazardous locations shall be marked to
indicate the class and for Classes I andll locations the group, or the specific gas, vapour
or dust for which the equipment has been approved.

(2) Electrical equipment approved for use in Class I hazardous locations may be marked
with:
a) the maximum external temperature, or
b) one of the following temperature codes in Table 12.1 to indicate .the maximum
external temperature;
Table 12.1 Temperature codes to lndlcsbe the maximum external temperature
Temperature
code

r.mperature
Gode

Max. external
temperature [0C]

T1

450

T3A

180

T2

300

T3B

165

T2A

280

T3C

160

T2B

260

T4

135

T2C

230

T4A

120

T2D

215

T5

100

T3

200

T6

85

282
I

Max. external
temperature [0C]

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-,

SECTION 12: HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS


'j

(3) If no maximum external temperature marking is shown on Class I equipment approved


for the class and group, the equipment, if of the heat-producing type (which excludes
junction boxes, conduit fittings, etc), shall be considered as having the following maximum
external temperature:
Group
Group
Group
Group

A
B
C
D

2800C
2800C
1600C
215C

(4) Equipment approved for Class I, Division 2 only shall be so marked.


(5) Electrical equipment approved for operation at ambient temperatures exceeding 400C
shall, in addition to the marking specified in 12.4.2 be marked with,the maximum ambient
temperature for which the equipment is approved, and the maximum external temperature
of the equipment as referred to in (2) and (3) above.
12.4.3 Non-Essential Electrical Equipment
(1) No electrical equipment shall be used in a hazardous location unless it is essential to
the processes being carried on therein.
.
(2) Service equipment, panelboards, switchboards, and similar electrical equipment, shall,
'where practicable, be located in rooms or sections of the, building in which hazardous
conditions do not exist.
12.4.4 Equipment Rooms
(1) Where walls, partitions, floors or ceilings are used to form hazard-free rooms or
sections, they shall be:
a) of substantial construction;
b) built of or lined with noncombustIble material; and
c) such as to ensure that the rooms or section will remain free from hazards. '

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(2) Where a non-hazardous location within abuilding communicates with a Class I,


Division 2 location, a Class IT location, or a Class ill location, the locations shall be
separated by close-fittings, self-closing,. approved fire doors.
12.4.5 Cable Trays
(1) Cable trays shall not be used to support cables in hazardous locations except where: .

a) the type of cable is approved in Clauses of this Section for use in the particular
hazardous location; and
b) there can be no hazardous accumulation of combustible process dust or fibre in or
upon the cable; the cable tray or the supports.

u.s

CLASS I LOCATIONS

12.5.1

Installations in Class I, Divisiop 1 Locations

12.5.1.1

Transformers and capacitors

(1) Transformers and electrical capacitors which contain a combustible liquid that will burn .
shall be installed in electrical equipment vaults in accordance with applicable Clauses of
Section 11.
12.5.1.2

Meiers, instmments and relays

(1) Where practicable, meters, instruments and relays, including kilowatt-hour meters,
instrument transformers and resistors, rectifiers and thermionic tubes shall be located
outside the hazardous locations.
(2) Where it is not practicable to install meters, instruments, and relays outside Class I,
Division 1 locations, they shall be approved for Class I locations:
12.5.1.3 Switches,'motor controllers, circuit breakers and fuses
(1' Switches, motor controllers, circuit breakers and fuses, including push buttons, relays,
and similar devices shall be provided with enclosures; the enclosure in each case, together
with the enclosed apparatus, shall be approved as a complete assembly for use in Class I
locations. ,

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12.5.1.4 Motors and generators

(1) Motors, generators and other rotating electrical machines shall be approved for Class
I locations.
12.5.1.5

Wiring methods'

(1) The wiring method shall be 'thre~ded rigid-metal conduit or cables approved for
hazardous locations with associated cable glands approved for the particular hazardous
location.
(2) All boxes, fittings, and joints shall be threaded for conrtection to conduit or cable
glands, and shall be explosion-proof with boxes and fittings approved for Class I locations.
(3) Threaded joints shall have at least five full threads fully engaged and running threads
shall not be> used.
(4) Cables shall be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress atJ.b~. .cable
glands.
.,'
,<t.,.

.'

.'

(5) Where it is necessary to use flexible connections at motor terminals and similar places,
flexible fittings of the. explosion-proof type and approved for the location shall be used.
(6) Seals shall be provided in conduit or cable systems to prevent the passage of gases,
vapours, or flames from one portion of the electrical installation to another through the'
system.
12.5.1.6 Lighting fixtures

(1) Fixtures for fixed and portable lighting shall be approved as complete assemblies for
Class I locations and shall be clearly marked to indicate the maximumwattage of lamps for
which they are approved.
(2) Boxes, box assemblies or fittings used for the support of lighting fixtures shall be
approved for the purpose and for Class I locations.

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12.5.2

Installations in Class I, Division 2 Locations

12.5.2.1

Wiring methods

(1) The wiring method shall be:


a) threaded metal conduit; or
b) cables approved for hazardous locations with associated cable glands approved for
the particular hazardous location.
(2) Cable shall be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress at the cable
glands.
(3) Where it is necessary to use flexible connection at motor terminals and similar places,
flexible metal conduit may be used.
(4) Boxes, fittings and joints need not be-explosion-proof
(5) Seals shall be provided in conduit or cable systems to prevent the passage of gases,
vapours, or flames through the system from one portion of the electrical installation to
another.

12.5.2.2 Motors and generators


(1) Motors, generators, and other rotating electrical machines, in which are incorporated
arcing or spark-producing components or integral resistance devices, shall be approved for
Class I, Division 2 locations unless the arcing or spark-producing components or integral
resistance devices are provided with enclosures approved for Class I locations.
(2) Motors, generators, and other rotating electrical machines which do not incorporate
arcing or spark producing components or integral resistance devices may be of the open or
non-explosion-proof type.
12.5~2.3

Lighting fixtures

(1) Fixed lighting shall be:


a) protected from physical damage by acceptable guards or by location;

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b) approved as complete assemblies for Class I, Division 2 locations and shall be clearly
marked to indicate the maximum wattage, voltage, and specific type designations
of the lamps for which they are approved.
(2) Pendent fixtures shall be suspended by threaded rigid conduit systems or by other
approved means.
"
(3) Starting and control equipment for electric-discharge lighting equipment shall be
provided with enclosures approved for the location.
12.6

CLASS II LOCATIONS

12.6.1

Installations in Class II, Division 1 Locations

12.6.1.1

Transformers and capacitors

(l) Transformers and electrical capacitors which contain a combustible liquid shall be
installed in electrical equipment vaults in accordance with applicable Clauses of Section 11.
12.6.1.2 Switches, controUers, circuit breakersandfuses

(1) Switches, motor controllers, circuit breakers and fuses, including push buttons, relays,
and similar devices, shall be provided with a dust-tight enclosure approved for Class IT
locations.
12.6.13

Motors and generators

(1) Motors, generators and other rotating electrical machines shall be approved for Class
IT locations.
12:6.1.4

Wiring methods

(1) The wiring method shall be threaded. rigid metal conduit or cables approved for
hazardous locations with associated cable glands approved for the particular hazardous
location.
(2) Boxes, fittings and joints shall be threaded for connection to conduit or cable glands
and boxes and fittings shall be approved for Class II locations.

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I

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(3) Cables shall be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress at the cable
glands.
(4) Where flexible connections are necessary, they shall be provided by:
a) flexible connection fittings approved for the location;
b) liquid-tight flexible metal conduit with fittings approved for the location; or
c) extra-hard-usage flexible cord and provided with cable glands approved for the
location.
(5) Where flexible connections are subject to oil or corrosive conditions, the insulation of
the conductors shall be of type approved for the condition or shall be protected by means
ofa suitable sheath.
(6) Where a raceway provides communication between enclosures one of which is required
to be dust-tight and the other not, the entrance of dust into the dust enclosure through the
raceway shall be prevented by:
a) a permanent and effective seal;
b) a horizontal section not less than 3.0m long in the raceway; or
c) a vertical section of raceway not less than 105m long and extending downward with
~ the dust-tight enclosure.

12.6.1.5

Lighting.fixtures

(1) Fixtures for fixed and portable lighting shall be approved as complete assemblies for
Class II locations and shall be clearly marked to indicate the maximum wattage of lamps
for which they are approved.
(2) Pendent fixtures shall be suspended by threaded rigid conduit stems or chains with
approved fittings or by other approved means which shall not includ~ a flexible cord as the
supporting medium, and threaded joints shall be provided with-set screws or other effective
means to prevent loosening.
(3) Boxes, box assemblies or fittings used for the support of lighting fixtures shall be
approved
for the purpose.
.
~

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12.6.2

Installation in Class II, Division 2 Locations

12.6.2.1

Transformers and capacitors

(1) Transformers and electrical capacitors which contain a combustible liquid shall be
installed in electrical equipment vaults in accordance with applicable clauses of Sections 11.
12.6.2.2

Switches, controUers, circuit "breakers and fuses

(1) In locations where dust from magnesium, aluminum, aluminum bronze powders, or
other metals of similar hazardous characteristics may be present, switches, motor
controllers, circuit breakers, and fuses shall have dust-tight enclosures approved for such
locations.
12.6.2.3 ,Motors and generators

(1) Motors, generators and other rotating electrical machinery shall be:
a) approved for Class II, or Class II Division 2 locations;
b) ordinary, totally enclosed pipe-ventilated or totally enclosed fan-cooled and subject
to the following:

i) be equipped with integral overheating protection in accordance with 11.7.3.8


ii) if drain holes or other openings are provided they shall be closed with threaded
plugs.
12.6.2.4

Wiring methods

(1) The wiring method shall be:


a) threaded metal conduit; or
b) cables approved for hazardous locations with associated cable glands approved for
the particular hazardous location.
(2) Cables shall be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress at the cable
glands.

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12.6.2.5 Lighting fixtures .


(1) Fixed lighting.shall:
a) be protected from physical damage by acceptable guards or by location;
b) provide enclosures for lamp and lampholders which shall be designed to minimize
the deposit of dust .on lamps and to prevent the escape of sparks, burning material,
or hot metal;
c) be clearly marked to indicate the maximum wattage of lamps for which they may be
used without exceeding a maximum exposed surface temperature of 165C under
normal conditions or use.
(2) Pendent fixtures shall be suspended by threaded rigid conduit stems or chains with
approved fittings, or by other approved means, which shall not include flexible cord as the
supporting medium.

(3) Boxes, box assemblies or fittings used for the support of lighting fixtures shall be.
approved for that purpose,
(4) Starting and control equipment for mercury-vapom:.and fluorescent lamps shallconform
to the requirment of 12.6.2.2.

12.7

CLASS III LOCATIONS

12.7.1 .Installations in Class III, Division 1 Locations

12.7.1.1

~ransformers

and capacitors

(1) Transformers and capacitors shall conform to the requirement of12.6;2.1

12.7.1.2 Switches, cntrotlen, circuit ,beakers anilfuses


(1) Switches, motor controllers, circuit breakers and fuses, including push buttons, relaYs.
and similar devices, shallbe p!ovided with tight enclosures designed toannimfzeentrance
of fibres and flyings, and which shall:
a) be equipped with telescoping or closefittin,g covers; or with other 'effective means
to prevent escape of sparks or burning material; and

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b) have no openings, such as holes for attachment screws, through which, after
installation, sparks or burning material might escape, or through which exterior
accumulations of fibres or flyings or adjacent combustible material might be ignited.
12.7.1.3

Motors and generators

(1) Except as provided in (2) below, motors, generators and other rotating electricalmachinery
shall be:
a) totally enclosed non-ventilated,
b) totally enclosed pipe-ventilated,
c) totally enclosed fan-cooled.
(2) Where only moderate accumulations of lint and flyings are likely to collect on or in the
vicinity of a rotating electrical machine and the machine is readily accessible for routine
cleaning and maintenance, there may be installed in the location: .
a) standard open-type machines without sliding contacts, centrifugal, or other types of
switching mechanism, including motor overload devices;
b) standard open-type machines which have contacts, switching mechanisms, or
resistance devices enclosed within tight housings without ventilating or other
openings; or
c) self-cleaning textile motors of the squirrel-cage type.
(3) Motors, generators and other rotating electrical machinery of the partially enclosed or
splash-proof type shall not be installed in Class III locations.
12.7.1.4 Wiring methods
(1) The wiring method shall be threaded rigid metal conduit or cables approved for
hazardous locations with associated cable glands approved. for the particular hazardous
location.
(2) Boxes and fittings in which taps, joints or terminal connections are made shall:
a) be provided with telescoping or close fitting covers, or other effective means to
prevent the escape of sparks or burning material; and

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b) have no openings, such as holes for attachment screws, through which after
installation, sparks or burning material might escape, or through which adjacent
combustible material might be ignited.
(3) Cables shall be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress at the cable
glands.
(4) Where it is necessary to use flexible connections, the provisions of 12.6.1.4(4) and
12.6.1.4(5) shall apply.
12.7.1.5

Lighting fixtures

(1) Fixed lighting shall:


a) provide enclosures, for lamps and lampholders, which shall be designedto minimize
entrance of fibres and flying objects and to prevent the escape of sparks, burning
material, or hot metal;
b) be clearly marked to indicate the maximum wattage .lamp which may be used
without exceeding a maximum exposed surface temperature of 165C under normal
conditions of use.
(2) Lighting fixtures which may ~e exposed to physical damage shall be protected by a
suitable guard.
(3) Pendent fixtures shall comply with the requirments of 12.6.2.5(2).
(4) Boxes, box assemblies or fittings used for the support of lighting fixtures shall be
approved for that purpose.
12.7.1.6

Storage-battery charging equipment

(1) Storage battery charging equipment shall be located in a separate room built or lined
with substantial noncombustible materials so constructed as to adequately exclude flyings
or lint, and shall be well ventilated.

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12.7.2

Installations in Class III, Division 2 Locations

12.7.2.1

Transformers and CIlpacitors

(1) Transformers and capacitors shall conform to the requirement of 12.6.2.1.

12.7.2.2

Wiring method

(1) The wiring method in Class IiI, Division 2 locations shall conform to 12.7.1.4 except .
that in sections, compartments or areas used solely for storage and containing no
machinery, open wiring on insulators, in accordance with applicable Clauses of Section 8,
may be used, provided that, where conductors are installed elsewhere other than in roof
spaces and remote from physical damage, they shall be protected by running board not less
than 19.0mm thick or other acceptable means. .
12.7.2~

Switches, co1llTOllers, cireuit breaker andfuses

(1) Switches, motor controllers, circuit breakers, and fuses shall conform to the requirement
of 12.7.1:2.

12.7.2.4 Motorsand generators .


(1) Motors, generators, and other rotating electrical machinery shall be:
a) totally enclosed non-ventilated;

b) totally enclosed pipe-ventilated; .or

c) totally enclosed fan-cooled.

(2)
Motors, generators or other rotating electrical machinery of the partially enclosed
or splashproof type shall not be ittstalled in Class ill locations.

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SECTION

13

FlAMMABLE UQUID DISPENSING AND

SERVICE STATIONS, GARAGES,

BULK STORAGE PIANTS, FINISIHNG

PROCESSES AND AIRCRAFT HANGARS

U.t

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to electrical apparatus and wiring installed in the following
facilities;
a) Gasoline dispensing and service stations;and other locations where gasoline or other
similar volatile flammable liquids are dispensed or transferred to fuel tanks of self
propelled vehicles.
b) Commercial garages, repair houses and storage where service and repair operations
of vehicles of the type described in (a) above are carried out and in which more
than three such vehicles are, or may be, stored at anyone time.
e) Residential storage garages in which not more than three vehicles of the type
described in (a) above are, or may, be, stored, but which will not normally be used
for service or repair operations.
d} Bulk st-orage plants where gasoline or other similar volatile flammable liquids are
stored in tanks having an aggregate capacity of one-ear-load or more, and' from
which such products are distributed (usually by tank truck)
.e), FInishing processes where paints, lacquers or other flammable finishes are re~lIar1y
or frequently applied by spraying, dipping, brushing or by other means, and where
volatile flammable solvents or thinners are used or where readily ignitible deposits
or residues from such paints, lacquers, or finishes may occur.

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Q Aircraft hangars used for storage or servicing of aircraft in which gas()line jet fuels,
or other volatile flammable liquids, or flammable gases, are used; but' shall 'not .
include those locations used exclusively for aircrafts that have never contained such
liquids or gases, or which have been drained and properly purged.

13.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES'

(1) The following references containprovisions which, through reference in this text, constitute

provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.


(a) C22.1:1990

(b)

13.3

NEC Handbook:1981

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1 Safety Standard for


Electrical Installations, Sixteenth Edition.
National Electrical Code Handbook, Based on the
1981 (NEC), Seventeenth Edition.

GASOLINE DISPENSING AND SERVICE STATIONS

13.3.1 Hazardous Areas


(1) The space within a ~penser enclosureupto 1.2m vertically above its base including the
space below'the dispenser which may contain electrical wiring and equipment, shall be
considered to be Class I, Divisionl location.
(2) The space within a nozzle boot of a dispenser shall be considered to be a Class I
Division 1 location.
. (3) The space within 450.0mm horizontally from the Division 1 location within the
dispenser enclosure as specified in (1) above shall be considered to be a. Class I,' Division
1 location.
(4) In an outside location, any ar~' beyond the Class I, DivisionI area within .6.0m
horizontally from the exterior enclosure of' any dispenser shall be considered a Class I,
Division 2 location, which will extend to a level 4~O.Onup above driveway or ground level.

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(5) In an outside location, any area beyond the Class I, Division 1 location and within 3.0m
horizontally from any tank fillpipe shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 'location which
shall extend upward to a level 450.0mm above driveway or ground level.
(6) Electricalwiring and equipment, any portion of which is below the surface of areas
defined as Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 in (1), (3), (4) or (5) above shall be considered
to be within Class I, Division 1 location which shall extend at least to the point of
emergence above grade.
(7) Areas within the vicinity of tank ventpipes shall be classified as follows:
a) The spherical volume within a 900.0mm radius from point of discharge of any tank
ventpipe shall be considered a Class I, Division 1 location and the volume between
the 900.0mm to 15m radius from point of discharge of a vent shall be considered
a Class I, Division 2 location.
.b) For any vent that does not discharge upward, the cylindrical volume below both the
Division 1 and Division 2 locations extending to the ground shall be considered as
Class I, Division 2 location.
c) The hazardous area shall not be.considered to extend beyond an unpierced wall.
(8) Areas within lubrication rooms shall be classified as follows:
a) The area within any pit or space below grade or floor level shall be considered a
Class I, Division 1 location unless the pit or space is beyond the hazardous areas
specified in (4), (5), (6), (7) above in which case the pit or space shall be considered
a Class I Division 2 location.
b) Thearea within the entire lubrication room up to 50.0mm above the floor or grade,
whichever is' the higher, and the area within 900.0mm measured in any direction
from the dispensing point of a hand-operated unit dispensing volatile flammable
liquids shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 location.
13.3.2 Wiring and Equipment within Hazardous Areas
(1) Electrical wiring and equipment within the hazardous areas defined in Clause 13.3.1
shall conform to the requirements of Section 12.
I

II

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(2) Where dispensers are supplied byrigid metal conduit, flexible fittings of the explosion
proof type approved for the location shall be-used between the conduit and the junction box
of the dispenser in addition to any sealing fittings and unions that may be required pursuant
to the provisions of Section 12.
(3) Each circuit leading to or through a dispensing pump shall be provided with a switching
means which will disconnect simultaneously from the source of supply all unearthed
conductors of the circuit.
(4) All non-current-carrying metal parts of dispensing pumps, metal raceways and other
electrical equipment shall be bonded to earth in accordance with Section 7 of this Code.
13.3.3 Wiring and Equipment above Hazardous Areas
(1) Wiring and equipment above hazardous areas - shall meet the requirements and
provisions of Clauses 13.4.3 and 13.4.4 of this Section.
13.4

COMMERCIAL GARAGES, REPAIRS AND STORAGE

13.4.1 Hazardous Areas


(1) For each floor at or above grade, the entire area up to a level 50.0mm above the floor
shall be considered to be a Class I, Division 2 Iocation.
(2) For each floor below grade, the entire area up to a level 50.0mm above the bottom of
outside doors or other openings which are at or above grade level shall be considered to
be a Class I, Division 2 location except -that, where adequate mechanical ventilation is
provided, the hazardous location shall extend up to a level of only 50.0mm above each such
floor.
(3) Any pit or depression below floor level shall be considered to be a Class I, Division 2
location which shall extend up to the floor level.
(4) Adjacent areas in which hazardous vapours are not likely to be released such as
stockrooms, switchboard rooms, and other similar locations having floors elevated at least
50.0mm above the adjacent garage floor, or separated therefrom by tight curbs or partitions
at least 50.0mm high, shall not be classified as hazardous.

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13.4.2 Wiring and Equipment in Hazardous Areas

(1) Within hazardous areas as defined in Clause 13.4.1, wiring and equipment shall
conform to the requirements of applicable Clauses of Section 12.
13.4.3 Wiring above Hazardous Areas

(1) All fixed wiring above hazardous areas shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions of Section 8 and suitable for the type of building and occupancy.
(2) For pendants, flexible cord of the hard-usage type shall be employed.
(3) For connection of portable lamps, portable motors, or other portable utilization
equipment, flexible cord of the hard-usage type shall be used.
13.4.4 Equipment above Hazardous Areas

(1) Fixed equipment which is less than 3.6m above the floor level and which may produce
arcs, sparks, or particles of hot metal such as cutouts, switches, charging panels, generators,
motors or other equipment (excluding socket outlets, lamps and lampholders) having make
and-break or sliding contacts, shall be of the .totally enclosed type or so constructed as to
prevent escape of sparks or hot metal particles.
(2) Lamps and lampholders for fixed lighting and that are located over lanes through which
vehicles are commonly driven or which may otherwise be exposed to physical damage shall
be located not less than 3.6m above floor level unless of totally enclosed type or so
constructed as to prevent escape of sparks or hot metal particles.
13.5

RESIDENTIAL STORAGE GARAGES

13.5.1 Non-Hazardous Location

(1) Where the lowest floor is at or above adjacent grade or driveway level, and where there
is at least one outside door at or below floor level, the garage area shall not be classified
as a hazardous location.

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13.5.2 Hazardous Location


(1) Where the lowest floor is below adjacent grade or driveway level, the following shall
apply:
a) The entire area of the garage or of any enclosed space which includes the garage
shall be classified as a Class I, Division 2 location and will extend up to a level
50.0mm above the garage floor.
b) Adjacent areas in which hazardous vapours or gases are not likely to be released,
and having floors elevated at least. 50.0mm above the garage floor, or separated
therefrom by tight curbs or partitions at least 50.0mm high shall not be classified as
hazardous.

13.5.3 Wiring
(1) Wiring above the hazardous locations shall conform to the provisions of Section 8.
(2) Wiring in the hazardous location shall conform to the provisions of Section 12.

13.6

BULK STORAGE PLANTS

13.6.1 Hazardous Areas


(1) Areas containing pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, metres and si:milar devices wliich
are located in pipelines handling flammable liquids under pressure shall be classified and
comply with the following:
a) Ventilated indoor areas shall be considered as Class I, Division 2 locations within
a 105m distance extending in all directions from the exterior surface of such devices
as well as 7.5m horizontally from any surface of these devices and extending upwards
to 900.0mm above floor or grade level, provided that:
design of the ventilation systems takes into account the relatively high relative
density of the vapours;
ii) where openings are used in outside walls, they are of adequate size and located
at floor level unobstructed except by louvres or coarse screens; and

i)

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iii) where natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation is provided.


b) Indoor areas not ventilated in accordance with (a) above shall be considered
Class I, Division 1 locations within a 15m distance extending in all directions from
the exterior surface of such devices as well as 7.5m horizontally from any surface of
the device and extending upward 900.0mm above floor or grade level.
c) Outdoor area shall be considered as Class I,_Division 2 locations within a 900.0mm
distance extending in all directions from the exterior surface of such devices as well
as up to 450.0mm above grade levelwithin 3.0m horizontally from any surface of the
devices.
(2) Areas where flammable liquids are transferred shall be classified as follows:
a) In outdoor areas or where positive and reliable mechanical ventilation is provided
in indoor areas in which flammable liquids are transferred to individual containers,
such areas shall be considered a Class I, Division 1 locations within 900.0mm of the
vent or fill opening extending in all directions and a Class I, Division 2 location
within the area extending between a 900.0mm and 15m radius from the vent or fill
opening extending in all directions, and including the area within a horizontal radius
of 3.0m from the vent or fill opening and extending to a height of 450.0mm above
floor or grade levels.
b) Where positive and reliable mechanical ventilation is not provided in indoor areas
in which flammable liquids are transferred to individual containers, such areas shall
be considered to be a Class I, Division 1 location.
(3) Areas in outside locations where loading and unloading of tank vehicles and tank cars
take place shall be classified as follows:
a) The area extending 900.0mm in all'directions from the dome (when loading through
an open dome) or from the vent (when loading through a closed dome with
atmospheric venting) shall be considered a Class I, Division 1 location.
b) The area extending "between a 900.0mm and a 15m radius from the dome (when
loading through an open dome) or from. the vent (when loading through a closed
dome with atmospheric venting) shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 location.

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c) The area extending within 900.0mm in all directions from a fixed connection used
in bottom loading or unloading, loading through a closed dome with atmospheric
venting, or loading through a closed dome with a vapour recovery system shall be
considered a Class I, Division 2 location except that, in the. case of bottom loading
. or unloading, this classification shall also be applied to the area within a 3.0m radius
from point of connection and extending 450.0mm above grade.
(4) Area within the vicinity of above-ground tanks shall be classified as follows:
a) The area above the roof and within the shell of a floating-roof type tank shall be.
considered a Class I, Division 1 location.
b) For all type of above-ground tanks:
i) the area within 3.0m from the shell ends, and roof of other than a floating-roof
shall be considered a Class I, division 2 location; and
ii) where dikes are provided, the area inside the dike and extending upwards to the
top of the dike shall be considered to be a Class I, Division 2 location.
c) The area within 15m of vent opening and extending in all directions shall be
considered a Class I, Division 1 location.
d) The area between 15m and 3.0m of a vent opening and extending in all directions
shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 location.
(5) Pits and depressions shall be classified as follows:
a) Any pit or depression, any part of which lies within a Division 1 or Division 2
location, unless provided-with positive and reliable mechanical ventilation, shall be
considered a,Class I, Division 1 location.
b) Any such areas as in (a) above, when provided with positive and reliable mechanical
ventilation, shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 location.
c) Any pit or depression not within a Division 1 or Division 2 location as defined
herein, but which contains piping, valves, or fittings shall be considered a Class I,
Division 2 location.:
(6) Garages in which tank vehicles are stored or-repaired shall be considered to be a Class
I, Division 2 location up to 450.0mm above floor or grade level.

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(7) Buildings such as office buildings, boiler rooms, etc which are outside the limits of
hazardous areas as defined herein and which are not used for handling or storing volatile
flammable liquids or containers for such liquids shall not be considered to be hazardous
locations.

13.6.2 Wiring and Equipment in Hazardous Areas


(1) All electrical wiring and equipment in hazardous areas defined in Clause 13.6.1 shall
conform to the requirements of Section 12.
13.6.3 Wiring and Equipment above Hazardous Areas
(1) Wiring installed above a hazardous location shall. conform. to the requirements of
Section 8 and be suitable for the type of buildings and occupancy.
(2) Fixed equipment which may produce arcs, sparks or particles of hot metal, such as
lamps and lampholders, cutouts, switches, socket outlets, motors or other equipment having
make-and-break or sliding contacts, shall be of the totally enclosed type or so constructed
as to prevent the escape of sparks or hot metal particles.
(3) Portable lamps or utilization equipment and the flexible cords supplying them shall
conform to the requirements of Section 12 for the class of location above which they are
connected or used.
(4) All non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment and raceways shall be bonded to
earth in accordance with Part I of Section 7 of this Code.
13.7

FINISlDNG PROCESSES

13.7.1 Hazardous Locations


(1) The following areas shall be considered to be Class I, Division 1 locations:
a) The interiors of spray booths and their exhaust ducts.
b) All space within 6.0m horizontally in any direction, and extending to a height of
. 900.0mm above the goods to be painted, from spraying operations that are .more
extensive than touch-up spraying and not conducted within the spray booth..

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c) All space within 6.0m horizontally in any direction from dip tanks and their drain

boards, such space extending to a height of 900.0mm above the dip tank and drain

board.

d) All other spaces where hazardous concentrations of flammable vapours are likely to

occur.'

(2) For spraying operations within an open face spray booth, the extent of the Class I,

Division 2 hazardous location shall be not less than the following:

a) Where the ventilation system is interlocked with the spraying equipment so as to

make the spraying equipment inoperable when the ventilation system is ~ot in

operation, the space shall extend at least 1.5m from the open face of the spray

booth.

b) Where the ventilation system is not interlocked with the spraying equipment so as

to make the spraying equipment inoperable when the ventilation system is not in

operation, the space shall extend at least 3.0m from the open face or front of the

.spraybooth.
(3) All space within the room, but beyond the limits for Class I, Division 1 location as
classified in (1) above.for extensive open-spraying, for dip tanks and drain boards and for

other hazardous operations, shall be considered to be Class I, Division 2 location.


(4) Adjacent areas which area cut off from the defined hazardous area by tight partitions
without communicating openings, and wi~hin which hazardous vapours are not likely to be
released, shall be classified as non-hazardous.
(5) Drying and baking areas provided with positive mechanical ventilation to prevent

formation of flammable concentration of vapours and provided with effective interlocks to

.de-energize all electrical equipment, not approved for Class I locations, in case the
ventilating equipment is inoperative, may be classified as non-hazardous.
(6) Notwithstanding the requirements of (Ib) above,where adequate mechanicalventilation
with effective interlocks is provided at floor level:
a} the space within'900.0mmhorizontally in any direction from the goods to be painted

and such space extending to a height of 900.0mm above the goods to be painted

shall be considered a Class I, Division 1 location; and

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

b) all space between a 900.0mm and 15m distance above the goods to be painted and'
all space within 6.0m horizontally in any direction beyond the limits for Class I,
. Division 1 location shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 location.
(7) Notwithstanding the requirements of (2) above where a baffle of sheet metal of not less
than l.25mm is installed vertically above the front face of an open-face spray booth to a
height of 900.0mm or to the ceiling, whichever is lower and extending back on the side
edges for a distance of 15m, the space behind this baffle shall be considered to be a non
hazardous location.
13.7.2 Wiring and Equipment in Hazardous Areas
(1) All electrical wiring and equipment within the hazardous areas as defined in
Clause 13.7.1 shall conform to the requirements of Section 12.
(2) Unless specifically approved for both readily ignitable deposits and flammable vapour
location, no electrical equipment shall be installed or used where it may be subject to a
hazardous accumulation of readily ignitable deposits or residue.
(3) Illumination of readily ignitable area through panels of glass or other trnsparent 011
translucent materials is permissible only where:
a) fixed lighting units are used as the source of illumination;

b) the panel is noncombustible and effectively isolates the hazardous area from the

area in which the lighting unit is located;


c) the lighting unit is acceptable for its specific location;
d) the panel is of a material or is so protected that breakage will be unlikely;
'e) the arrangement is such that normal accumulation of hazardous residue on the
surface of the panel will not be raised to a dangerous temperature by radiation
conduction from the source of illumination.

or

(4) Portable electric lamps or other utilization equipment shall:


a) not be used within a hazardous area during operation of the finishing process;
b) be of a type specifically approved for Class I locations when used during cleaning
or repairing operations.
(5) Notwithstanding the requirements of (2) above:

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a) totally enclosed and gasketted lighting may be used on the ceiling of a spray room
where adequate and positive mechanical ventilation is provided; and
b) infra-red paint-drying units may be utilized in a spray room if the controls are
interlocked with those of the spraying equipment such that both operations cannot
.be performed simultaneously; and if portable, the paint and the drying unit shall not
be brought into the spray room until the spraying operations have ceased.
13.7.3 Wiring and Equipment above Hazardous Areas

(1) All fixed wiring above hazardous area shall conform to the provisions of Section 8.
(2) Equipment which may produce arcs, sparks, or particles of hot metal, such as lamps and
lampholders for fixed lighting, cutouts, switches, receptacles, motors Of other equipment
having make-and-break or sliding contacts, where installed above a hazardous area or above
an area where freshly finished goods are handled, shall be of the totally enclosed type or
so constructed as to prevent the escape of sparks or hot metal particles.
(3) All metal raceways and all non-current-carrying metal portions of fixed or portable
equipment, regardless of voltage, shall be bonded to earth in accordance with Part I Of
Section 7 of this Code:
13.8

AIRCRAFT HANGARS

13.8.1 Hazardous Areas

(1) Any pit or depression below the level of the hangar floor shall be considered to be a
Class I, Division 1 location which shall extend up to the floor level.
(2) The entire area of the hangar; including any adjacent and communication areas not
suitably cut off from the hangar shall be considered to be Class I, Division 2 location up to
a level 450.0mm above the floor.
(3) The area within 15m horizontally from aircraft power plants, aircraft fuel tanks, or
aircraft structures containing fuel shall be considered to be a Class I, Division 2 location
which shall extend upward from the floor to a level 105m above the upper surface of wings
and of engine enclosures.

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"Etl:CTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(4) Adjacent area in which hazardous vapours are not likely to be released, such as stock
rooms, electrical control rooms, and other similarIocations, may be, classified as non-:
hazardous when adequately ventilated and when effectively cut off from the hangar itself
'in accordance with the provisions of Section 12.
'13.8.2 Wiring and Equipment in Hazardous Areas
(1) All fixed and portable wiring and equipment which is or may be installed or operated
within any, of the hazardous locations defined in Clause 13.8.1 shall conform to the
requirements of Section 12.
(2) All wiring installation in or under the hangar floor shall conform to the requirements
for Class I, Division 1 locations.
(3) Wiring systems installed in pits or other spaces in or under the hangar floor shall be
provided with adequate drainage and shall not be placed in the same compartment with any
other service except piped com~ressed air.
(4) Attachment plugs and socket outlets inhazardous locations shall be explosion-proof or
shall be so designed that they cannot be energized while the connections are being made
or broken.
13.8.3 Wiring Not within Hazardous Area
(1) All fixed wiring in a hanger not within -a hazardous area as defined in Clause 13.8.1
shall be installed in metal raceways or shall be armoured cable, Type MI (Mineral
Insulated) cable, or aluminium sheathed cable, except that wiring in' a non-hazardous
location as set out in 13.8.1(4) may be of any type recognized in Section 8 as suitable for
the type of building and the occupancy.
(2) For pendants, flexible cord of the hard-usage type and containing a separate bonding
conductor shall be used.
(3) For portable utilization equipment and lamps, flexible cord approved for hard usage
and containing a separate bonding conductor shall be used.
(4) Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining continuity and adequacy of bonding
between the fixed wiring system and the non-current-carrying metal portions of pendant
fixtures, portable lamps and other portable utilization equipment.

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GODE STANDARD

SECTION 13: FLAMMABLE LIQUID DISPENSING AND OTHER FACILITIES

13.8.4 Equipment Not within Hazardous Areas

(1) In locations other than those described in Clause 13.8.1, equipment which is less than
3.0m above wings and engine enclosures of aircraft and which may produce arcs, sparks, or
particles of hot metal, such as lamps and lanipholders for fixed lighting, cutouts, switches,
socket outlets, charging panels, generators, motors or other equipment having make-and
break or sliding contacts, shall be of totally-enclosed type or so constructed as to prevent
escape of sparks or hot metal particles, except that equipment in areas described in
13.8.1(4) may be of general purpose type.
(2) Lampholders of metal-shell-fibre-lined types shall not be used for fixed lighting.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1-995307

SECTION

14

PATIENT CARE AREAS

14.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section of the Code applies to the installation of electrical wiring and equipment
within patient care areas of hospitals and those portions of the electrical systems of
hospitals designated as essential electrical systems.

14.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings: .

a) C22.1:1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, Safety Standard for


Electrical Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

b) NEC (Handbook):1991 National Electrical Code Handbook, Based on the .1991


(NEC), Seventeenth Edition.

14.3'

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section, in addition to the terms defined in Section 1, the
following definitions shall apply:

anaesthetizing location

any area of a health care facility where the induction and


maintenance of..general anaesthesia are routinely carried out in
the course of the examination or treatment of patients.

appUedpart

the part or parts of medical electrical' equipment including the


patient leads which come intentionally into contact ~h the
patient to be examined or treated.

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body contact

an intentional contact at the skin surface or internally, bur not


directly to the heart.

cardiac contact

an intentional contact directly to the heart by means of an


invasive procedure.

casual contact

contact by voluntary action with a device that has no applied


part and is not intended to be connected to a patient.

criticalcare area

a patient care area in which anaesthetics are administered, or in


which cardiac contact between a patient and medical electrical
equipment is frequent or normal.

delayed vital branch

that portion of an essential electrical system in which the


circuits require power restoration within 2.0min.

emergency supply

one or more in-house generators of electricity intended to be


available in the event of a failure of all other supplies and
capable of supplying all the essential loads.

essential electrical sysem

an electrical system which has the capability of restoring and


sustaining a supply of electrical energy to specified loads in the
event of a loss of the normal supply of energy.

hazard index

for a given set of conditions in an isolated power system, the


current, expressed in milliamperes and consisting of resistive
and capacitive leakage and fault currents, that would flow
through low impendence if the low impendence were to be
connected between either isolated conductor and ground.

hospital

an institution, so designated by Ethiopian Ministry of Health,


where patients are accommodated on the basis of medical need
and are provided with continuing medical care and supporting
diagnostic and therapeutic services.

intermediate care area

a patient care area in which body contact between a patient and


medical electrical equipment is frequent or normal.

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isolated system

an electrical distribution system in which no circuit conductor is


connected directly to earth.

line isolation monitor

a device which measures and displays the total hazard index on.
an isolated electrical system, and provides warning when the
index reaches a preset limit.

normal supply

the main electrical supply into a building or building complex,


and may consist of one or more consumer services capable of
supplying all loads in the building complex.

patient

a person undergoing medical investigation or treatment.

patient care area

an area intended primarily for the provision of diagnosis,


therapy, or care.

patient care location

a zone in a patient care area which has been pre-selected for


the accommodation ofa patient bed, table, or other supporting
mechanism, and for the accommodation of equipment involved
in patient treatment, and which includes the space within the
room 15m beyond the perimeter of the' bed in its normal
location and to within 2.3m of the floor.

patient carf! location bonding point

a common bus at a patient care location, that is


bonded to earth, and that serves as a common point
to which equipment and other bonding connections
can be made by means of a group of-jacks,

permanently connected equipment

equipment that is electrically connected to the supply


be' means of connectors that can be accessed,
loosened or tightened only with the aid of a tool.

.' total hazard index

vital branch

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EBCS-10 1995

the hazard index of a given isolated system with all appliances,


including the line isolation monitor, connected.
that portion of an essential electrical system in which the
circuits require power restoration within 10,Os.

ETHIOPIAN BUilDING CODE SYANDARD

SECTION 14: PATIENT CARE AREAS

14.4

CIRCUITS IN BASIC CARE AREAS

14.4.1 Branch Circuits

(1) The branch circuits supplying socket outlets and permanently connected equipment in
basic care areas shall be supplied from an earthed distribution system.
(2) A branch circuit which supplies socket outlets or permanently connected medical
electrical equipment within a patient care location shall only supply loads within such
location.
(3) All branch circuits for a patient care location shall be supplied from a single
panelboard, except branch circuits intended to be part of an essential electrical 'system,
which shall then be permitted to be supplied from two panelboards, one of which is part
of the essential system.
14.4.2 Bonding to Earth in Basic Care Areas

(1) Bonding conductors shall be insulated unless they are:


a) installed in nonmetallic conduit; or
b) incorporated into a cable assembly 'in such a manner that contact between any
metal shield or armour, if it is present, and a bare bonding conductor is not
possible..
(2) All socket outlets and other permanently connected equipment shall be bonded to earth
.by copper equipment bonding conductors, sized not smaller than the minimum size required
for circuit conductors and, except as permitted by the supplying authority, run with the
circuit conductors in accordance with the following:
a) Each multi-wire branch circuit shall be provided with its own equipment bonding
conductor.
b) Except as permitted by (c) and (d) below, each 2~wire branch circuit supplying' a
socket outlet at a patient care location shall be provided with its own equipment
bonding conductor.
c) When the socket outlets at a patient care location are supplied from two 2-wire
branch circuits in the same raceway, a single equipment bonding conductor shall be
. permitted to be shared by the two circuits.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

d) When socket outlet intended for a pair of adjacent patient care locations are
supplied by three 2-wire branch circuits and one of the circuits is intended to be
shared by both patient care locations, the three circuits shall be permitted to share
two equipment bonding conductors.
(3) Equipment bonding conductors required by (2) and (5) below shall terminate either at
the panelboard supplying the branch circuits to the patient care location from which they
arise or on an earthing bus which is bonded to that panelboard.
(4) Each item of3-phase equipment shall be bonded to earth with an equipment bonding
conductor which is:
a) sized in accordance with Part I of Section 7 of this Code, but in no case smaller than
4.0mm2; and
b) connected to its own terminal at the equipment and the panelboard.
(5) Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of communication, radio or television
equipment, other than\' telephone sets, at a patient care location, if they could become
energized, shall be bonded to earth by:
a) connection to the bonding screw in the communication section of a buried and
ganged metal outlet box, serving a patient care location; or
b) connection to an equipment bonding conductor or earthing bus for that patient care
location as identified in (3) above.
14.4.3 Socket Outlets in Basic-Care Areas
(1) Socket outlets intended for a given patient-care location shall be located so as to
minimize the likelihood of their inadvertent use for a patient-care location for which they
are not intended.
(2) Socket outlets which are located in areas that are routinely cleaned using liquids which
normally splash against the walls shall be installed not less than 300.0mm above the floor.
(3) Socket outlets located in bathrooms or washrooms within a patient care area shall be
located:
a) adjacent to the wash basin, and
b) outside of any bathtub enclosure or shower stall.

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(4) Socket outlets which are located adjacent to a washbasin in a patient care area shall be
protected by an earth fault circuit interrupter of the Class At type.
14.5

CIRCUITS IN INTERMEDIATE AND CRITICAL-CARE AREAS

14.5.1 Branch Circuits

(1) The branch circuits supplying socket outlets and other permanently connected
equipment in intermediate or critical care areas. shall be supplied from either an earth
system meeting the requirements of Section 14.4 or an isolated system meeting the
requirements of Section 14.6, except that all branch circuits, other than those supplying
multiphase equipment, shall be 2-wire circuits.
.
14.5.2 Bonding to Earth in Intermediate and Critical-Care Areas

(1) Bonding to earth in intermediate and critical ca.re areas shall conform to Clause.14.4.2
whether the supply is derived from an earthed or an isolated system.
(2) If a patient-care-location bonding point is provided, if shall' be bonded to the
panelboard serving the patient-care location with which it is associated by either:
a) a bonding jumper connecting it to the bonding terminal in an enclosure which
accommodates the bonding point along with socket outlets for a patient care
location; or
b) a copper conductor which is installed. for that specific purpose, and is run in the
same raceway as the equipment bonding conductors serving that patient care
location.
14.5.3 Receptacles in Intermediate and Critical Care Areas

(1) Socket outlets in intermediate and critical care areas shall:


a) meet t~~q'uirements of Clau~e)4.4.3; and
b) where supplied from an isolated system, be so identified.
~.;..

';"

,~" (

,,',
.,',
~.

~~ '

:,'"

"

t For definition of Class A earth-fault circuit interrupter, refer to Clause A.2, Annex A, Section 25.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

14.6

ISOLATED SYSTEMS

14.6.1 Sources of Supply


\

(1) The means of supply to an isolated system shall be:

\\
\

a) the secondary of one or more isolating transformers h~g no direct electrical


connection between primary and secondary windings,
.

b) a motor-generator set, or

c) a suitably isolated, battery-powered inverter supply.

(2) Where more than one single-phase isolated power system serves a singlelocation, the
earthing busses of all of these systems shall be bonded together with a copper bonding
conductor:
a) having a total impedance not greater than O.20hm, and

b) sized not smaller than that permitted in Part I of section 7 of this Code.

14.6.2 Single-Phase Isolated Circuits

(1) Isolated circuits shall:


a) not be deliberately earthed except through the impedance of an isolation sensing
device (e.g., isolation monitor);
b) have- overcurrent devices that will open all unearthed conductors simultaneously;
c) unless prohibited by the Power Suppling Authority, be installed in non-metal
raceways.
(2) Any disconnecting means controlling an isolated circuit shall safely and simultaneously
disconnect all unearthed conductors.
(3) A single-phase isolated system shall include automatic means (a line isolation monitor),
with an indicator located where visible to persons using the system, to monitor the
impedance-to-earth of the system together with any loads connected to it.
(4) Where a single-phase isolated system is employed, it shall supply:
a) general-purpose socket outlets at:

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i)
ii)
iii)

a single anaesthetizing location;

one or more patient care locations in a single room; or

a maximum of two patient care location.s'in separate but adjacent rooms,

provided that the alarm indicator clearly identifies the patient care locations
affected by the fault; or

b) special purpose socket outlets at different locations or in different rooms, provided


that the system is used only for the one purpose, and is arranged so that only one
socket outlets can be energized at a time.
(5) A single-phase isolated system which supplies only a single load via a single branch
circuit shall meet the requirements of (1) through (3) above except that:
a) overcurrent devices need not be installed in the isolated circuit; and

b) the use of a line-isolation monitor shall be optional.

14.6.3 Three-Phase Isolated Systems


(1) A three-phase isolated system shall:
a) supply only permanently connected equipment; and

b) meet the requirements of Clause 14.6.1.

14.7

ESSENTIAL ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

14.7.1 Circuits in Essential Electrical Systems


(1) An essential electrical system shall comprise those circuits that supply loads designated
by the hospital administration as being essential for the life safety and care of the patient,
and the effective operation of the hospital.
(2) An essential electrical system shall comprise at least a vital branch, and may also
include a delayed vital branch.
(3) The wiring of the essential electrical system shall be kept entirely independent of all
other wiring and equipment and shall not enter a fixture, raceway, box or cabinet occupied
by other wiring except where necessary as in:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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315'

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

a) transfer switches; and


b) emergency lighting fixtures suppIi~dJr",m two sources.

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TRANSFER SWITCHES"

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:141 .
(1pAll transfer switches shall be acceptable to the supply anther]

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(2) Automatic transfer switches used in essential electrical syste


a) be el;~tr.ically operated and mechanically held; and
b) include means for safe manual operation.

,
(3) Manual transfer switches shall conform t9 the following:
){i_ ~
a) The switching means shall be mechanically held and the operation shall be by direct
manpower or by electrical remote manual control utilizing control power from the
supply to which the load is being transferred.
b) A manual transfer switch which is operated by electrical remote manual control
shall include a,means for safe manu'al mechanical operation.
;;:?;

c) Reliable mechanical interlocking (and.m the case of a switch operated by electrical


remote manual control, electrical interlocking) to prevent interconnection of the
normal and the emergency supplies of power shall be inherent in the design of a
manual transfer switch,
d) A manual transfer switch shall include a readily visible mechanical 'indicator
showing the switch position.~;i/
(4) The vital and delayed vital branches shall be connected to the emergency power supply
by means of one or more automatic transfer switches.
14.9

EMERGENCY SUPPLY

(1) An emergency supply shall be one or more generator sets driven by a prime mover and
located on the hospital premises in a fire-resistant enclosure or room, and in such a manner
as to minimize the possibility of flooding a~d damage.

316

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

.;[k:
~

...;;.

SECTION 14: PATIENT CARE AREAS

(2) The prime mover of the generating set, as specified in (1) above, shall be capable of
operatiri!jndependently
of supplies of
r.
. water and fuel from public utilities.
(3) ~luei'supply sufficient to operate the prime mover under full load for at least 24.0hrs
shalr"e
st~;ed on the site.
"l>
".
"t-o.. -r.'"

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,

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

317

SECTION

15

INSTALlATION OF UGHTING EQUIPMENT

15.1

SCOPE

(1) This. Section applies to installation of interior and exterior lighting equipment.
15.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

(a)

C22.1:1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard


for Electrical Installation, Sixteenth Edition.

(b)

IEE:1970

The Institute of electrical Engineers, Regulations for


the Electrical Equipment of Buildings, Fourteenth
Edition, Incorporating Amendments.

(c)

BS 8208:1985

British Standard, Artificial Lighting for Interior,


Part 1.

(d) BS 5649 (EN40):1978:

BJitfsh Standard, Lighting Columns Parts 1,2, 4,5,


6, and 9.

15.3

INTERIOR LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

15.3.1

General

15.3~1.1

Material

(1) Material of lamps shall confirm, as regards the type of lamp, mechanical qualities and
insulation resistance, to applicable IEC or other international standards.

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.SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

15.3.1.2 Luminaire Construction


(1) Luminaires shall be constructed from such material and so finished that their safety,
performance or appearance does not deteriorate significantly during normal life when they
are operated in the condition for which they are designed.

15.3.1.3 Voltage
(1) Branch circuit voltages shall not exceed 230.0V-to-earth in dwelling units; and in other
than dwelling units, voltages shall not exceed the voltage-to-earth ofnominal system 380.0V.
Note:

Where 380.0Y line-to-line system is used, the control switch shall be of double-pole type and the
.luminaire shall be earthed,

15.3.1.4 Pro.tection
. (1) Incandescent luminaires and incandescent lampholders shall not be' connected to a
branch circuit protected by overcurrent devices rated at more than 16.0A; but in other than
dwelling units, they shall be permitted to be connected to a branch circuit protected by
overcurrent devices rated or set at not more than 2O.0A.
. (2) Tungsten halogen luminaries, incandescent moulded-base luminaries, and incandescent
moulded-base lampholders shall not be connected to branch circuit protected by
overcurrent devices rated or set at more than 40.0A. .
(3) Fluorescent luminaries shall not be connected to a branch circuit protected by
overcurrent devices rated or set at more than 16.0A except for circuits supplying fluorescent
luminaries; only the rating of the overcurrent protection may exceed 16.0A, but shall not
exceed 20.0A.
(4) High intensity discharge (HID) luminaries shall not be connected to a branch circuit
protected by overcurrent devices rated or set at more than:
~ 2O.0A where the input voltage to the luminaire is not more than 230.0V nominal,

but not exceeding 380.0V nominal; and


b) 16.0A where the input voltage is above 380.0V nominal.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

15.3.2 Location of Lighting Equipment


15.3.2.1 Near or over combustible material

(1) Luminaries and lampholders shall be placed or guarded in such a manner as to prevent
ignition of any combustible materials.
(2) Any shade or guard used for the purpose in (1) above shall be, besides limiting the
temperature to which the combustible material may be subjected, suitable to withstand the
heat from the lamp.
15.3.2.2 Show 'windows

(1) In show windows:


a) no luminaries having exposed wiring other than a luminaire of a chain-suspension
type shall be used; and
b) no lampholders having a paper-fibber lining shall be used.
15.3.2.3 Clothes closets

(1) Luminaires installed in clothes closets:


. a) shall be located on the ceiling or on the front wall above the door of the closet
unless mounted on the trim of the sidewalls of the doorway and approved for the
application; and
b) shall not be of pendant type.
15.3.2.4 Luminaire in damp or wet locations

(1) Luminaries in damp or wet locations shall be approved for such locations and be so
marked.
15.3.2.5

Control switch

(1) A light fitting connected to an installation by means other than a socket outlet shall be
controlled by a switch which shall be arranged to disconnect all the supply conductors.

320

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(2) The switch required by (1) above shall be separate from lighting fitting and in a readily
accessible position subject to the provisions (3) and (5) below, where applicable.
(3) Where a switch has to be situated so as to be normally inaccessible to a person who is
>:
using a bath or a shower, iris admissible for the switch to be placed adjacent to thenormal
access door of the room, or to be of the type operated by insulating cord.
(4) The switch or switches providing control of comprehensive lighting installation
comprising more than one lighting fitting in non-domestic premises may be installed in
separate rooms.
(5) Where lighting fittings are installed over readily combustible material, every light fitting
'shall be controlled by an individual wall switch.
(6) Where stairway in a dwelling unit has risers, the lighting shall be controlled by
intermediate wall switches or their functional equivalent located at the head and foot of the'
stairway,
15.3.3 Installation of Lighting Equipment

15.3.3.1

Live part,

(1) Luminaries, lampholders, and rosettes shall be installed so that no live part is exposed
to contact while they are in use.
(2) Where lampholders and switches have exposed accessible terminals, they shall not be
installed in metalluminaire canopies or in open bases of portable lamps.

15.3.3.2

Support,

(1) Every luminaire, lampholder and rosette shall be securely supported.


(2) Where a luminaire weighs more than 30;ON or exceeds 40.0cm in any dimension, it
shall not be supported by the screw shell of the lampholders.
(3) Where a non-metallic outlet boxof thermoplastic material, such as, for example, P.V.C,
is used to suspend a luminaire, care shall be taken to ensure that the temperature of the
box does not exceed 60C; and the mass suspended shall not exceed 30.0N.

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321

.I'

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

(4) Where the weight of a luminaire does not exceed lOO.ON, it shall be permitted to be
supported by an outlet box that is mounted on a bar hanger.

(5) Where luminaireweights more than 100.0N, it shall be suspended independently of


the outlet box, or by means of an acceptable fixture hanger with integral outlet box.
15.3.3.3

Outlet boxes to be covered

(1) Every outlet box used with lighting equipment shall be provided with a cover or covered
by a luminaire canopy lampholder , rosette, or other device.
15.3.3.4 Recessedluminaries

(1) The recessed portion of every enclosure of a recessed luminaire shall be at least
12.5mm from combustible material at every point other than at a point of support.
(2) Every recessed luminaire shall be-so installed that any adjacent combustible material
is not subjected to temperature in excess of 90C.
(3) Recessed luminaries shall not ~ used when blanketed with thermal insulation unless
the luminaries are marked and approved for this use.
15.3.3.5 Minimum height of luminllries

(1) Where a rigid luminaireor lampholder is located at a height of less than 2.1m above
the floor and is readily accessible, the luminaire or lampholder shall be protected 'from
mechanical injury by a guard or by location.
15.3.3.6 Luminaire exposed to flying objects

(1) Where luminaries are installed in gymnasiums or similar locations where the lamps are
normally exposed to damage from flying objects, the lamp shall be guarded by one of the
following means:
.a) metal reflectors that effectively protect the lamps,
b) metal screens,
c) enclosures of armoured glass or suitable plastic material.

322

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SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EUUIPMEN:r


.
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'penir
/ithin

15.3.3.7 Luminaire as a raceway

5) A
ccessi

(1) Branch circuit conductors run through a luminaire shall be contained ir:
which is an integral part of the luminaire except that the conductor of a 2-wic;
4-wire branch circuit supplying the Iuminaire may be carried through:

equin

a)

b)

5) Br

art of

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i.3.4.~

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ith a'

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nctioi

ensu
.ting.

fHIO

a) an installation of luminaries approved and marked for end-to-end ass; ,.;.


a continuous channel; or
b) luminaries which are connected together by acceptable wiring metl.:
(2) Ballasts located within luminaries shali be deemed to be sources of
conductors supplying the luminaries shall:

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,.,ceway
"',re, or

i-,

farm

:.r, " 'the

a) have a temperature rating not less than90OC;

b) be of type listed in:

i) Section 4, Annex B,as being suitable for use in raceway; or


ii) Section 4, Annex B, as being suitable for use :in accordance with this Clause,
provided that conductors are not smaller than 2.5mm 2 and do not extend
beyond the luminaries through raceway more than 2.0m long.

5.3.4.~

l) Br.
iring
npaci

r,

15.3.4

Wiring of Lighting Equipment

15.3.4.1

Wiring ()j.luminaries

(1) .All-electricalwiringon orwithin a luminaire, beside ensuring its electrical safety, shall:
a)bene:atly arranged without excess wiring;

b) be not exposed 10 mechanical injury;

C) be arranged so that it is not subject to temperatures above those for which it is

approved; and

d) be free from joint or tap Within.an armor stem.

15.3.4.2 Colour coding

,(1) Notwithstanding the requirementsofSection 4 with regard to the colours used for
identifyingconductors,acontinuous-coloured tracer in the braid of individual braided
conductor shall be permitted for thesu,pplyconductofs of a luminaire.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 199b

323

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUilDINGS

15.3.4.3 Conductor cross section and insulation

(1) Luminaries shall be wired with a conductor at least O.5mm2 cross sectional arc a, having
insulation suitable for voltage and temperature to which the conductors may be subjected.
15.3.4.4 Conductor on movablepans

(1) Stranded conductors shall be used on chain-type luminaire and other movable parts of
lighting equipment.
(2) Conductors shall be arranged so that the weight of the luminaire or that of the movable
parts does not place undue tension on the connections.
(3) All conductors which supply movable parts of lighting equipment shall be protected
against mechanical injury.
15.3.4.5 Pendant conductors

(1) Where pendant conductors are longer than 900.0mm, they shall be twisted together.
15.3.4.6 Recessed luminaire wiring

(1) Conductors for wiring recessed luminaire, branch circuit and tap connection shall have
insulation suitable for the temperature encountered.
(2) Branch circuit conductors shall be permitted to be run directly to the luminaire.
(3) Tap connection on" conductors shall:
a) not be smaller than l.Dmm'' copper run in a factory-installed raceway or, if raceway
is provided but not factory assembled, smaller than 2.5mm2;
b) extend at least 150.0mm from the raceway; and
c) be installed in a raceway extending at least 450.0mm but not more than 2.0m from
the luminaire, and terminate in an outlet box located not less than 300.0mm from
the luminaire.
(4) The outlet box referred in (3c) above shall be accessible, and if access is through the
opening for mounting the luminaire or through some other opening in the ceiling, this

324

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF aUtLDINGS

15.:'-5

Earthing of Lighting Equipment

15.3.5.1 Genetal
(1) Non-current-carrying metal parts of luminaries and associated equipment shall be
earthed in accordance with Part I of Section 7.

15.3.5.2

Lampholders

(1) Where centre-contact screw Iampholders are connected to a source of supply having
an earthed neutral conductor, the outer or screwed contact shall be connected to that
conductor.

(2) Where lampholders in (1) above are used in circuits having neither pole connected with
earth or itt any damp situation in which they can readily be touched by a person in contact
with or standing on earthed metal, they shan be provided with a protective shield of
insulating material or shall be placed or safeguarded so that neither the lamp cap nor the
outer or screwed contact of the Iampholder can inadverntly be touched when the lamp cap
is engaged with the contact

15.3..6

Electric-Discharge Lighting Systellls Operating at 1000.0V or Less

15.3.6.1

Transformer

(1) Oil,:.fil1ed transformers shall not be used.


15.3~6.2

TltemittJ p1"otection

(1) Luminaries which employ fluorescent lamps shall have thermally protected ballasts
except where the ballasts are of the simple reactance type.

15.3.6.3

AUXiliary equipmettt

(t) Reactors, capacitors, resistors, and other auxiliary equipment shan be:
a) enclosed within the liminaire;
b) enclosed within an accessible; permanently installed, metal cabinet where remote
from the luminaire, or

e) acceptable for use without an additionalenclosure.

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(2) The metal cabinet, if not part of the luminaire, shall he installed as close as possible
to the Iuminaire.
(3)- Where display
cases are not permanently
installed, no part
of a secondary circuit shall
.
.
.
be included in more than one case.
15~3.6.4

Control

(1) The luminaries and lamp installations shall be controlled by a switch, circuit breaker,
or contactor.
(2) Where a switch is used as in (1) above, it shall:
a) have a current rating of not less than twice the current rating of the lamps or
transformers;

b) be a type approved with the assembly; or

c) be a manually-operated general use 380.0V a.c. switch.

15.4

OUTDOOR LlGIITING EQUIPMENT

15.4.1 General
15.4.1.1 Hazard

(1) In outdoor lighting installations, either decorative lighting or illumination of outdoor


areas, the protection of the installation and safety from shock hazard shall be the major
concern and the fire hazard of the minor or of secondary nature.

15.4.1.2 Ball4st protection


(1) Luminaire which employ fluorescent lamps shall have thermally protected ballasts
except where the ballasts are of the simple reactance type.
15.4.1.3 Overcurrem potection

(1) Overcurrent protection shall not be provided in a high-intensity discharge luminaire or


a separate ballast box unless the combination is approved for the purpose and so marked.

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327

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

15.4.2 Permanent Outdoor Floodlighting Installation


15.4.2.1 General

(1) Clause 15.4.2 shall apply to permanent, outdoor installations of floodlights of 300.0W
or larger where the floodlights art; mounted on poles or towers,
15.4.2.2 Service equipment

(1) Service equipment shall comply with Section 5 of this Code; and where indoor
installation is installed outdoors, it shall be installed in an acceptable weather-proof
enclosure.
15.4.2.3

Wiring methods underground

(1) Underground wiring shall be run:


a) where acceptable, in rigid steel or rigid aluminium conduit;
b) in non-metallic underground conduit;
c) as lead-sheathed armoured cable, mineral-insulated cable, or aluminium-sheathed
cable; or
d) as conductors or cable assemblies acceptable for earth burial.
(2) Conductors buried directly in the earth shall be of types suitable' for use in wet
locations.
(3) Suitablecorrosion-resistant protection shall be provided for aluminium sheathed cables
and aluminium conduits, and also for mineral-insulated cable, if used where materials
coming into contact with the cable may have a deteriorating effect on the sheath.
15.4.2.4

Wiring methods on poles

(1) All electrical equipment on a pole shall be controlled by a switch which can be locked
in the "Off' position, and each pole shall be provided with a prominent sign warning against
climbing the pole until the switch is "Off' unless all conductors and live parts other than
those used for pole-top wiring are guarded against accidental contact in one of the
following ways:
.

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SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

a) The conductors are run in rigid or flexible metal conduit, as in mineral-insulated


cable, or up the centre of steel, aluminium, or hallow concrete poles.
b) The conductors and live parts are kept at least l.Om from the climbing ladder or
climbing step.
c) Barriers are provided between conductors or live parts, or both, and the climbing
ladder so as to prevent a likelihood of contact by the climber. .'
(2) Conductors running up the centre of poles shall be supported so as to prevent injury
to the conductors inside the pole and so as to prevent undue strain on the conductor where
they leave the pole.
(3) Where vertical conductors, cables, and earthing conductors are within 2.5m of locations
accessible to unauthorized persons, they shall be provided with a covering which gives
acceptable mechanical protection.
(4) On wood poles, for earthing conductors from lightning arresters, the protective covering
specified in (3) above shall be of wood moulding or other insulating material giving
equivalent protection.
(5) Where there is more than one branch circuits on a pole top, the feeders shall be run
to a distribution panelboard which shall be either weather-proof or installed in a weather
proof enclosure.
Note:

The panelboard may be omitted where there are two branch circuits on a 230/380.0V circuits with a
common neutral Iineand where there are three branch circuits on a 230/380.0V,3-phase, 4-wire circuits.

(6) Pole-top branch circuit wiring, exclusive of leads approved with floodlights to which
they are connected, shall be run:
a) as lead-sheathed cable or rubber or thermoplastic-insulated, moisture-resistant types
of conductors installed in rigid conduit; or
b) by special permission, as insulated or uninsulated exposed wiring provided that:
i) the wiring is supported on a suitable insulator;
ii) the wiring is controlled by a switch which can be locked in the "Off' position;
and
iii) the pole is provided with a prominent sign warning against climbing it until the
switch is "Off'.

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EBCS-10 1995

329

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS


- -----

-- -._------~-- , . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

(7) There shall be no joints or splices concealed within conduit; but open taps and joints
may be made in pole-top exposed wiring provided the joint or lap is given insulation
equivalent to that on the conductors jointed.
(8) Transformers shall comply with the following:
a) If mounted on floodlight poles, all live parts shall be guarded as required by (1)
above.
b) If mounted on poles, the bottom of the transformer shall be at least 5.0m above

locations accessible to unauthorized persons.


c) If located on platforms on the ground, they shall be completely enclosed so as to
prevent access by unauthorized persons or they shall be surrounded by a protecting
/'

fence,

(9) Switches controlling floodlights shall comply with the following:


a) A switch on the primary side of a transformer shall be capable of making, and
interrupting the full-load on the transformer.
b) Switches controlling floodlights from tIre secondary side of a transformer shall have
a current rating not less than 125% of the current requirements of the floodlights
they control.
c) Switches shall be capable of being' operated either by remote operation or by
proper guardingwithout exposing the operator to danger of contact with live parts.
d) Switches shall be capable of being locked in the "Off' position.
The secondary earthed-circuit conductor may be earthed by interconnecting to the
primary earthed circuit conductor provided that:
(10)

a) the primary is earthed at the transformers, and

b) interconnection is made at the transformer.

Except for isolated metal parts such as cross bars, bolts; insulator pins, and the like,
all non-current-carrying metal parts of the electrical equipment at the pole-top shall be
bonded together and, if within reach of any earthed metal, they shall be earthed.
(11)

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15.4.3

Exposed Wiring for Permanent Outdo".. Lighting

15.4.3.1

General

(1) Clause 15.4.3 shall apply to exposed wiring for permanent outdoor lighting other than
floodlighting where the circuits are run between buildings, between poles, or between
buildings and poles.

15.4.3.2 Conductors
(1) Conductors shall be stranded copper, not less than 205m2, and shall be:
a) of a type suitable for exposed wiring where exposed to the weather;
b) of the rubber-insulated type suitable for exposed wiring where exposed to the
weather when lampholders of a type which puncture the insulation and make
contact with the conductors are used; or
c) of the moisture-resistant, rubber-insulated type suitable for exposed wiring where
exposed to the weather if cabled together and used with messenger cables.

15.4.3.3 Use of insulators


15.4.3.3.1 Conductors attachment
(1) Conductors shall be securely attached to insulators. at each end of the run if a
messenger is not used and at the intermediate points of support, if there are any.
15.4~3.3.2

Type of insulator

(1) Insulators at the ends of runs shall be of the strain type unless the conductors are
supported by messenger cables.
15.4.~.3.3

Split knobs

(1) Split knobs shall not be used.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

15.4.3.3.4 Height of conductors

(1) Conductors supplying lamps in parking lots, used-car lots, drive-in establishments and
similar commercial areas shall be maintained such that the conductors or the bottom of a
lamp fed from the conductors, whichever is lower, shall have a clearance of not less than
4.0m above grade at any point in a run, except that where a driveway or through fare exists,
this clearance shall not be less than 4.0m.
15.4.3.5

Spacing from combustible material

(1) Conductors and lampholders shall be maintained at a distance not less than 1.0m from
any combustible material except for branch circuit conductors at the point of connection
to buildings or poles.
15.4.3.6

Spacing of conductors

(1) Conductors shall be separated at least 300.0mm from each other by means of insulating
spacers at intervals of not more than 4.5m unless the conductors are secured to and
supported by messenger cables.
15.4.3.7

Lampholders

(1) Lampholders shall:


a) be of weatherproof types, with moulded insulating bodies;

b) be of types having either:

i) permanently attached leads; or


ii) terminals of a type which puncture the insulation and make contact with the
conductors;
c) have, when with permanently attached leads, the connection to the circuit wires
staggered where a cabled assembly is used.

332

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15.4.3.8

Use of messenger cables

(1) Messenger cables:


a) .shall be used to support the conductors:
i) if lamp holders having permanently attached leads are used, and the span
exceeds 12.0m; and
ii) in all cases where lampholders having termination which puncture the insulation
are used;
b) shall be securely attached at each end of the run and shall be earthed.
15.4.3.9

Construction of messenger cables

(1) Messenger cables shall be of galvanized steel, copper-coated steel, or stainless steel, and
shall be of a stranded construction with no less than seven strands.
(2) The effective ultimate strength of a messenger cable shall not be less than 3 times the
calculated maximum working load and in no case shall the individual strands be less than:
a) 1.168mm in diameter in the case of galvanized or copper-coated wire; or

b) 1.112mm in diameter in the case of stainless steel wire.

15.4.3.10 Branch circuit loading and protection

(1) Branch circuits shall be protected by overcurrent devices rated at not more than 32.0A.
(2) The total load on a branch circuit shall not exceed 80% of the rating or setting of the
overcurrent devices.

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EBCS-10 1995

333

ANNEX'

A(NORMATIVE)

LIGHTING COLUMNS,

A.1

TERMS IN THE FIELD OF LIGHTING COLUMNS

Lighting column

a support intended to hold one or more lanterns, consisting of one


of more parts: a post, possibly an extension piece and, if necessary,
a bracket. It does not include columns for catenary lighting.

nomi1lll1 height

the distance between the centreline of the point of entry of the


lantern and the intended ground level for a column planted in the
ground, or the flange plate, for a column with a flange plate as
shown in Figure A.1.

/."~

,')

I '

.~ J .
II

'~,.
,
~

'L"

"L.,;"Ii ...

...' -.

Figure A.l Nominal height

334

EBCS",10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

posMOp column

a straight column without bracket to support the lantern (post-top


lantern) directly.

column with bracket

a column to support a lantern or lanterns (side-entry lanterns) by


means of one or more brackets which are integral with, or
demountable from, the column.

bracket

a component used to support a lantern at a definite distance from


the axis of the lower straight portion of a single, double or multiple
form column and integral with, or demountable from, the column.

bracket projection

horizontal distance from the point of entry to the lantern to a


vertical line passing through the center of the cross section of the
column at the ground level as shown in Figure A.2.

the shape

of the bracket

is not ~pecified

in this standard

'\
).

.i.>
Figure A.2 Bracket projection
bracket fixing

the connecting part on a column for securing a separate bracket. It


may be of the same size or a different cross section from the column.

lantern .fixing

the connecting part on the end of a post-top column or of a bracket


for securing a lantern. It may be the end of the column or the
bracket itself or an additional part having the same or a different
cross section from the column or bracket.

ETHJOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

335

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

angle between the axis of the lantern fixing and the horizontal.

lantern .fixing angle

opening in a column for access to electrical equipment.

door opening

opening in a column below ground for cable entry.

the length of a column below the intended ground level as shown in

Figure A.3.

cable entry slot


planting depth

,..~

"

"'",",---",,,'

1b,Plan.hng dep.tl\

Figure A.3 Planting,depth

plate below ground level fixed to a planted column sinking into the
ground and to help prevent the column overturning as shown in
Figure A.4.

base plate

~/-~

,)

"

Base plate

Figure A.4 Base plate

336

EBCS-10 1995 _

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

a plate with an opening for cable entry, attached rigidly to a column


which is surface mounted, to allow it to be secured to a concrete
foundation or other structures as shown in Figure A.S.

flange plate

,/':.-f'

. '-----

'I

Flange plate

Figure A.5 Flange plate


A.2

DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCE

A.2.1

Requirements

The dimensional requirements are specified except that the connection dimensions in
Clause A. 2.7 represent a recommended choice.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

337

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUiLDINGS


it

A.2.2 Post top columns, main dimensions (in meters)

~
I.

For to.lerana:s for d~mcnsions


and shape see clause 8

'NClmin.1

height

3
_--------
4
--.--------
...

5
6

--

.c:

S
10

12

1'1

._.15
..

__

__ _ .- ...... _-

18

.....

1
1

For dimensions for door openings


and cable entry s"lots see clause A2~~

10

$1.
-,;n

-. +.

...- +

1. 1

'1;9

-:

llY

:W#f/.,f'W;Vv :'

For base plate


s"clalne

Type Al

A.?.s

Type A2

For column foundation see clause A

338

.... ..__

20

EBCS-101995

".
$
@j

For llange :plate


see -clause 'AI.'

Type A3

1.5

ETHlOPIANBUILPfNG CODE STANDARD

SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

A.2.3 Columns with brackets, main dimensions (in meters)

Connection dimensions heli clouse A2.1)


Lantern fixing ong'lt 5" or 15"

The shape
of the bracket
not specified
In this standard

'S

'\

For tolerances for dimensions


and shape. see clause Al.8

<>'

Nomlnll
h.lght

Pro/.ctlon

w"

-e

6
8

:i9~

.~

w-

For base plale


142.5

~ see clause
Type 81

Type 82

For column foundallon see clause

1.25

10

12

15

For dimensions for door


opening,'and cable entry
slots see clause "'2.4

0.75

18

For flange plate


see clause A2. ~

Type 83

A2.5

11 It is 'ecommondod Ihll W l!ono,"lIy should b. equll 10. 0' loss Ihon.1

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

339

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

A.2.4 Door openings and cable entry slots (dimensions in millimetres)

.----~

,
'>""

-.

//
---

. . ' ./

~I

'#t
f ; I'\.~
b

'"

<!"<:'

",.

"

I'

fQ

200
300

__400

@]
I

Position of door 4) and cable entry slot

-,
~.
I

,50

:1
a

<" <1

U11

1
~

U1

,:-' /.

85

100
.----.- 500
100
500

120

600

115

600

130

F,'Ju,,:,, A23

Fl!
a

75

680 11

95 11

680 1 )

130 11

900 11

130 11

1=(tur~ A;2.+

Dimensions of cutout

1)
2)
3)
4)

Supplementary dimensions for concrete columns.


For metal columns only.
It is recommended that this dimension be approximately 600mm, but in no case shall it be less than
30Omm; no maximum is specified.
It is recommended that the door opening is positioned parallel to the bracket on the side away from the
direction of traffic.

340

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 15: INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

A.2.5 Column foundation, planting depth and base plate (dimensions in millimetres)

Nominal
height

Planting depth

U1)

m
0<5

600

800

1000

800

1000

1200

1000

1200

1500

10

1200

1500

1700

12

1500

1700

2000

15

1500

2000

2500

18

1500

2000

20

1800

300 x 300
or
400 x 400

.~
""1-~J

I I%:a.

~\

~t

Ij

-.t

Figurll

1)

A25a

Figurll

The planting depth, e, shall be selected from the values given in the table taking into consideration the
calculations made before hand and the ground conditions.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

341

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF eUILDINGS


A.Z~6

Flange plate (dimensions in millimetres)

f ~.'.'
...::--:
. . '.
r

. \..
)

.~

"= I:

II

. --II
.t-"" I

,:: I

...

I.

d2

.... .---_-

,
~
_

'r

-I

Figure

Figure

A2.'

A 7. 7

m
~

s1l

'r

-<t:r.

Ivumln.

Il..

tJ

t.J 1 III

I,

"1

. ..

..

L=:
Figure

d 1 1l

J .t

2~B

d 1 1)

d2

260

200

M18

'" 12

400

10

300

M24

~20

400
500

,20

300
400

M27

M18

22

400

M24

30

600

M27

33

700

1) These dimensions shall be checked by calculation.

342

EBCS.,10 1995

,11

min.

min.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

I
I

i
I
I

I
i

SECTION

Al.7

15: INSTALLATION OF L1GH'ING EQUIPMENT

Connection Dimensions for Lanterns (in millimetresjv


d .
1

;1

~j

Fil/ure

A2.,.1

Fillurll

A2.~

d1 3 1

i1

;0

70

76

130

102

250

;: . . .

(I)

Pon lop 'anlurns

d23 1

Figure

Figure

/'2

.!. 42

100

Gll

100
250

A 2. lOb

Sido entry lanterns

Fi,urt.
1)
2)
3)

Al. 11

See clause A..2.1.


This design does not apply to concrete columns.
Diameters of steel spigots should be as given in ISO 64-1974 "Steel tubes, outside diameters" for steel
tubes of the nearest size.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

343

SECTION

16

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section describes the essentials of the fire alarm systems and applies to the
installation of local fire alarm systems and fire pumps.

16.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute

provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.


a) BS - CP 1019:1972 .

The Installation and Servicing of Electrical Fire


Alarm System.

b) C22.1:1990

~anadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard


for Electrical Installations, sixteenth Edition.

c) DIN 57833:1982

Danger Alarm Systems for Fire, Hold-up and


Intrusion, Parts 1 and 2.

d) .Euro Standard, En 54:1976

Component of the Automatic Fire Alarm Systems,


Parts 1 and 5.

16.3

DEFINITIQNS

(1) In addition to the terms defined in Section 1, the following definitions shall apply in
this Section:

344

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SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

smoke

particulate product of combustion generated by fire, whether


this be of smouldering or open-flame type.

sounders

devices in which electric signals are converted into sound


signals.

/antem-light

a glazed construction standing above the surface of a roof,


designed to admit light to the space below.

alertingfacility

a facility which issues the fire alarm - e.g., by means of audible


and visual signalling devices - and which is not contained in the
fire alarm control and indicting panels.

automatic fire alarm system

a system which detects the occurrence of fire in its incipient


stage and immediately signals this without human intervention.

automatic fire detector

a part of a fire alarm system which, either continually or at periodic


intervals, observes a suitable physical and/or chemical identifier for
detecting a fire in the monitored area.

heat detector

a detector which respond to an increase in temperature.

smoke detector

a detector which responds to products of combustion and/or


pyrolysis (suspended matter) contained in the air.

flame detector

a detector which responds to the radiation emitted by fire.

fire identifiers

physical variables which are subject to measurable changes in the


environment of a fire in its incipient stage; e.g, rise in temperature,
smoke, flame radiation.

fire alarm signal

a signal which alerts the fire fighting forces.

fire alarm system

the entirety of the equipment and parts, matched for correct


interaction, used in a fire alarm system.

alarm box control room

a facility from which the necessary fire fighting measures can be


initiated at all time.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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345

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

false alarm

a fire alarm signal caused by technical malfunctions in the fire


alarm system (alarm resulting from disturbance) or spurious alarms
resulting from the fire detector being "mislead".

non-automatic (manual) fire alarm devices

16.4

alarm devices which can be used to initiate the


fire alarm signals manually.

DESIGN CONSIDERATION

16.4.1 General

16.4.1.1 Design
(1) Fire alarm systems shall be designed so that:
a) the earliest possible definite warning of fire (i.e., avoiding false alarm) is given to all
personnel immediately concerned;
b) it is capable of indicating the locality of the origin of the fire alarm as to facilitate the
safe evacuation of the premises and to direct fire fighters; and
c) it performs its function with great reliability.

16.4.1.2 Equipment and power supply


(1) The equipment, wiring and use of the fire alarm system shall be exclusive to that system
and its power supply shall be provided independently from those for any other equipment.

16.4.1.3 A/arm signals


(1) The audible and visual alarm signals shall be used solely for the fire alarm purpose, and
these signals shall not reset automatically.

16.4.1.4 Location of the alarm control and indicating panel


(1) The fire alarm and associated indicating panel shall be sited where they can be undet
constant observation when the premises are occupied and shall be accommodated in a room:
a) in the direct vicinity of the main entrance;

346

EBCS40 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

-------------------

----

SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

b) that provides adequate protection against ambient influences which could impair
operations; e.g. vibration, smoke, dust, gasses, vapour, etc. produced by machinery, etc;
and
c) that has room climate suitable for proper operation of the fire alarm control and
indicating panel.

16.4.1.5 Explosive or flammable atmosphere


(1) If it is necessary to install the fire alarm equipment or wiring in situation where there may
be an explosive or flammable atmosphere, the applicable Clauses of Section 12 shall be
observed.

16.4.2

Circuit Design

16.4.2.1

General

(1) The design of a fire alarm circuit shall provide facilities for rapid and reliable transmission
of initiated signals when manual call points or detectors are operated and when specified faults
occur to control and indicating equipment.

16.4.2.2 Number of circuit elements


(1) For sake of reliability, the number of circuit elements in the fire alarm system on which
alarm actuation depend shall he kept to a minimum.

16.4.2.3

Transmission circuitry

(1) Any resultant signal shall be transmitted by the simplest possible circuitry to sounders and
other indicating equipment and to any equipment which is to be operated by the fire alarm
system; e.g, fire extinguishers, fire protection traps, local plant facilities, etc.

16.4.2.4

Fault signal discrimination

(1) Where chances of malfunction are high in a fire alarm system, discriminatory circuit shall
be incorporated in the system so that false alarms _are identified.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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347

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

16.4.2.5

Origin of call indication

(1) Except in buildings where fire can be located without delay, the fire alarm system shall
include an indication panel designed to show clearly the location of the origin of the alarm.
Note: To meet this requirement, suitable zones should be defined throughout the building so that all the detectors
and/or manual call points in anyone zone are connected to an indicator exclusive to that zone.

16.4.3

Manual Call Points

16.4.3.1 General
(1) A manual call point shall be operated by a spring-loaded switch which is held in
"non-alarm" position and protected from accidental operation by a cover usually of glass.
Breaking this glass cover releases the switch to an "alarm" position and the system starts to
operate.

16.4.3.2 Construction and requirements


(l) Manual call points shall:

a) be constructed of pressed metal, cast metal, or plastic materials so that they will not be
adversely affected' by the ambient temperature;
. b) be rigid enough in construction to withstand the abuse to which they are Iikely to be
subjected, without deterioration or reduction in their ability to operate effectively when
required to do so;
c) have contacts that are capable of operating satisfactorily during the design life of the
installation;
d) be coloured "signal red" over at least 50% of their visible area;
e) have replaceable glass cover'; breaking the glass shall automatically operate the call
point, and shall include description of the method of operation" by a concise inscription

It is recognized that there are situations, e.g. food processing areas, where this type of call point is
unacceptable and there may be no alternative to using a suitable manual call point of the toggle-switch type with
safeguards against accidental operation.

The method of operation in an installation should be identical unless there is special reason for
variation.

348

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLAT~ON OF BUILDlNGS

16.4.4.2

Detector types

(1) If development of a smoldesing fire is anticipated in the incipient stage of fire (intense
smoke generation, very little or no flame radiation), smoke detectors shall be .used.
{2) If a rapid development of the fire is anticipated as early as in the incipient stage of a fire
.(intense heat generation, intense flame radiation, and generation ofsmoke), smoke detectors, heat
detectors, flame detectors, or combinations of the various types of fire detectors shall be used.
Note: The fact is that combustion is not always accompanied by flame and the reflected radiation effect restricts the

application of flame detectors.

(3) Jf smoke damage is anticipated as early as the incipient stage of a fire owing to .room
occupancy (risk to human life, materials and goods sensitive to smoke), smoke detectors shall
be used.
(4) If a very rapid development of the fire is anticipated with a high degree of probability, an
automatic extinguisher system shall be considered.
(5) If it is not possible to predict or anticipate the development of a fire in the alarm area,
special investigation shall be conducted to assist in selecting the particular type of required fire
alarm detectors.

16.4.5

Sitting of Detectors

16.4.5.1

Monitoring

(1) Building and installation complexes shall be monitored or covered completely and each
effectively enclosed space shall be considered separately for this purpose in accordance with the
limits of spacing for the types of detectors concerned.
Notes:

i)

ii)
iii)

350

If, for some reason a fire alarm system is not installed throughout a building or a related series of
buildings, the criterion shall be that the system will cover all of an area having physical boundaries of
such a nature as to provide adequate fire separation or all of an area surrounded by sufficient open
space; e.g. roads, to provide adequate fire separation.
Voids not more than 800.0mm in height need not necessarily have independent monitoring.
Small lavatories and water closets need not have independent monitoring but; may rely upon that
provided in a lobby common thereto.

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.4.5.2 Sectioned rooms


(1) Rooms divided into sections by walls, partitions or storage racks reaching 300.0mm of the
ceiling or where goods might be stacked in defined areas to a corresponding height, shall have
detectors for each section or passageway.

16.4.5.3 Flue-like openings


(1) Hoists, elevators and similar flue-like openings shall be monitored by detectors at the top.

16.4.5.4 Staircases
(1) Staircases shall be monitored by detectors on each floor.

16.4.5.5 Lantern lights


(I) Lantern lights shall be monitored by detectors.

16.4.5.6 Special monitoring


(I) Due to the requirements of the use to which any room, space, area or void is to be put or
to its structural features, installation of additional detectors shall be considered,

16.4.5-.7

Height consideration

(I) Generally, the inter-relationship between the suitability of the various types of fire detectors
and room height indicated in Table 16.1 shall be observed.

16.4.6 Sitting of Heat Sensitive (point) Detectors


16.4.6.1 Position relative to ceiling

(1) Heat sensitive point detectors shall be mounted so that their heat sensitive elements are
positioned not less than 25.0mm and not more than 150.0mm below the ceiling or the underside
of the roof.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

351

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Table 16~1 Suitability ofdeteetors and room height

Smoke
detector
s

Room height

Heat detector$
Cat. 1

Cat.
2

..
Flame
detectors

Cat 3

Upto 20.0m

Upto 12.0m

Upto 7.5m

Upto 6.0m

Upto 4.5m
R - Suitable

W-= Unsuitable ,

i6.4.6.2 Limits of spacing

(1) The spacing limits indicated on Table 16.2 shall be observed in sitting detectors.
(2) Notwithstanding the requirement in (1) above, the maximum spacing between detectors
cannot apply in all directions since the area limit shall be observed, but detectors shall not be
mounted closer than 500.0mm to any outside walls, separating walls or dividing partitions.
Table 16.2 Spaeing limits for sitting detectors

Maximum floor
area to be covered
by one detector
[m 2]
50.0

Maximum (hQrizontal) distance


apart between centers [m]

Maximum (horizontal) dlst~nce


from any outside walls~
separating walls or dividing
partitions [m]

in general

In corridors

In general

In corridors

10.0

15.0

3.5

7.5

In special buildings such as churches, mosques, museums and castles, it may be that detectors can only
be arranged at a great height under certain circumstances. This will mean that an early fire warning cannot be
.
guaranteed. This render the use of the fire alarm less worthwhile.

Detectors are sub-divided into three response categories in line with the differing ceiling heights.
Sensitive detectors (e.g. detectors of response category 1) may be used for high ceiling.

352

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.4.6.3 Ceiling
(1) Where ceilings are crossed by beams, girders or other structural features having a depth of
SOO.Omm or more, at least one detector shall be installed in each "pocket" formed between such
features, and these detectors shall not be less than SOO.Omm from any beam, guider or wall.

16.4.6.4 . Single truss and north- light roofs


(I) One row ofdetectors shall be sited along the apex of each roof or bay; these and any further
detectors needed to cover the area shall be spaced in accordance with 16.4.6.2.

16.4.6.5 Floor openings


(1) Detectors shall be so sited that at least one on each floor is suitably placed within I.Sm of
hoists, elevators, stairways, well-holes, and similar openings to the floor above.

16.4.6.6 Lantern lights


(1) Detectors fitted in lantern lights shall be protected from direct sunlight; fixed-temperature
type detectors shall be used in such location.
Note: Suchlocations are liableto rapidtemperature variations due to combination of solarand internal heatingand,
thus, fixed-temperatere-type .detectors are recommended.

16.4.6.7 Ambient temperature


(1) Where high and/or suddenly rising temperature owning to natural conditions or conditions
resulting from normal operation are likely, fixed-temperature detectors shall be used.
(2) The static response temperature of the detector section shall lie between lOoe and 3Soe
above the maximum temperature which can occur in the vicinity of the detector; and the
maximum temperature setting shall not exceed 88e.

16.4.7

. Vibration Combined with Rapid Temperature Change

(1) If detectors have to be fitted where they will be subject to shock and/or vibration and may
also experience rapid temperature changes (e.g., in covering hoist apertures), a fusible alloy
fixed-temperature-type shall be used.
Note: Vibration coinciding withrising, although not dangerously rising, temperature couldinducefalsealarmsfrom
other types.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995353

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUilDINGS

16.4.8

Sitting of Heat-Sensitive (Line) Detectors

(1) These detectors are affected by the same phenomenon as the point detectors, and the
recommendations given in Clause 16.4.6 shall be complied with.

16.4.9

Sitting of Smoke-Sensitive Detectors

16.4.9.1

CTeneral

(1) Smoke detectors shall normally be sitted at the highest parts of the enclosed areas, and shall
be mounted so that their sensing area is not less than 25.0mm or more than 600.0mm below roof
ceiling, except as may be indicated by site tests,

16.4.9.2

Heat barrier

(1) The sitting of smoke detectors shall be arranged to take the effects of heat barrier.
Note: Warm air naturally collects under ceiling and in the apices of pitched roofs.. In some circumstances, this
warm air can form what is usually known as heat barrier to the products of combustion rising from fire which
is producing little change in the ambient condition. The combustion products from such a fire will spread out

below the heat barrier in the same way as they do beneath a ceiling or an apex of pitched roof.
16.4.9~3

Other factors

(1) Factors affecting the sitting, number, etc. of the smoke detectors shall be considered
carefully and the necessary measures shall be taken.
Note: Among facts which can establish temporary or permanent conditions which have their effect on the sitting

of smoke detectors are various forms of overhead heating, air-cooled equipment, roof or ceiling of unusual
shape, lofty buildings, staircases, canteen and restaurant, plant rooms, ambient air currents.
16.4~10

Audible and Visual Alarms

16.4.10.1 General
(1) Inside a building, at least two sounders shall be installed.
(2) In case of an automatic system, an additional sounder outside the building (preferably near
five brigades access) shall be installed.

354

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ETHIOPIAN BUilDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS


16.4.10.2 Audibility ofgeneral alarm
(1) Alarm sounders shall satisfy the following requirments:
a)' Their type, number and location shall be such that the alarm is distinct from the
background noise in every part of the premises.
6) Their noise shall be quite distinct from any other sounders likely to be heard.
c) Alarm sounders of the same kind on a particular installation shall produce a similar
sound.

16.4.10.3 Restricted alarms


(1) Where a general alarm is undesirable (e.g, department stores, entertainment places,
hospitals), the alarm system shall be restricted to the provision of sounders out of the hearing
of the public or patients.
(2) The sounders should be supplemented
by an adequate number of visual
signals throughout
.
.
the premises for staff recognition only and/or by discrete special alerting facilities.

16.4.10.4 Silencing switch


(1) Silencing switches shall only be installed for transferring an alarm or fault warning to a
supervisory sounders, and shall be so arranged as to put out of service the smallest practicable
number of manual call points and detectors.
(2) The operation of a silencing switch shall neither cancel the indications of the alarm or fault
on any indicator concerned while an alarm or fault condition exists nor prevent the proper
receipt of alarms or fault warnings on anycircuitother than those with which the silencing
switch is associated.

16.4.10.5 Two-stage alarm


(1) Where it is desired to distinguish between an alert and an evacuate signal, a two-stage alarm
shall be used in which the ftrst type of signal indicates an alert and the second type indicates a
need to evacuate the locality.

ETHIOPIAN BU1LD1NG CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

355

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

16.4.10.6 Visual alarm signals


(l) In general, visual signals shall be used to supplement audible alarms.

(2) The operation of a sounder shall. not be prevented by a defect in a visual signal. or
vice versa.
(3) In situations where a normal type of alarm sounder may be ineffective, e.g. where the
background noise is excessive or where the occupants are deaf, visual signals such as rotating
beacon lamps shall be used in addition.

16.4.10.7 Audible alarms provided by public address equipment


(1) Where public-addressequipment is used in stead of
ensured that:

co~ntional

sounders, it shall be

a) alarm of fire is automatically transmitted over the public address system, taking priority
and over-riding every other facility and circuit conditions of the public address system;
b) other signals such meal-break, start and stop work, are not at any time broadcast by the
public address equipment in a manner which can be confused with a fire alarm signals;
c) during alarm conditions, all microphones are automatically disconnected, except one
designated a "fire microphone" which is retained in circuit so that it can be used for
announcements and instructions relating to the fire;
d) the power supply, cabling,and wiring of the system shall comply with the requirements
of this Section.

16.5

CABLES AND WIRING

16.5.1

Cables

16.5.1.1

General

(1) Cables shall have copper conductors and the cross-sectional area of the conductors shall be
selected on the basis of the current consumption of the equipment used and the line length.

16.5.1.2

Insulation resistance

(1) The insulation resistance of the individual cable with respect to earth shall at least be
400.0Kohm.

356

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-SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.5.1.3

Conductors cross section

(1) Conductors shall not be smaller than:

a)
b)
c)
d)

1.5mm2
O.8mm 2
O.8mm2
O.5mm 2

for
for
for
for

individual cables pulled into raceway;

individual cables laid into raceway;

an integral assembly of two or more cables;

an integral assembly of four or more cables.

16.5.1.4 Suitability
(1) Cables shall be suitable for the purpose of the type listed in Annex B of Section 4.
(2) Notwithstanding the requirements in (1) above, cables smaller than 2.5mm 2 installed in
raceway shall be equipment-wire type.

16.5.2

Wiring Method

16.5.2.1 Installation
(1) All conductors of a fire alarm system shall be;

a) installed in a metal raceway of the totally enclosed typl.'l;

b) incorporated in cable, having metal armour or sheath;

c) installed in rigid non-metallic conduit where embedded iuat least 50.0mm ofmansonary

or poured concrete, or installed underground.

16.5.2.2 Conductor in building 0/ combustible construction

~.. !"

(1) Conductors installed in buildings of combustible construction shall be permitted to be:

a) non-metallic sheathed cable; or


.b) fire alarm and signal cable:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

16.5.2.3 Segregation
(I) The conductors shall be installed so as to be entirely exclusive to a fire alarm installation
and the wiring of the alarm system shall be segregated from the wiring of any other circuits and
shall not enter a fixture, raceway, box or enclosure occupied by other wiring, except as may be
necessary for connection to:
a)
b)
c)
d)

the source of supply,

a signal,

an ancillary device,

a communication circuit.

16.5.2.4 Spacing and crossing


(1) Fire-alarm wiring shall be spaced at least 50.0mm away from the circuits of any other

service.
(2) Notwithstanding the requirements in (I) above, where crossings are unavoidable, a bridge
of suitable non-combustible insulating material, at least 6.0mm thick, shall be securely fitted to
maintain path in air of 50.0mm between circuits.

16.5.2.5 Highest voltage


(l) All conductors contained in the same raceway or cable shall be insulated for the highest
voltage in the raceway or cable.

16.5.2.6 Avoidance offlue-like opening


(1) In order to reduce the likelihood of damage to fire-alarm cables by fire, main fire alarm
Wiring shall avoid lift wells, staircase, and other flue-like opening.

16.5.2.7 Disruptive electricalinfluences


(l) If necessary, special measures shall be taken to protect the fire-alarm networks against

disruptive electrical influences (electrical interferences) resulting from lightning strike, switching
on high-power loads, electrical sparks of all types and electromagnetic waves.

358

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SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.5.2.8 Connection point


(1) The number of connection points shall be as few as possible.

(2) Any necessary connection point must be soldered or established using another very reliable
mechanical method.

16.'6

EQUIPMENT BONDING

16.6.1 Exposed Non-Current Carrying Metal Part


(1) Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of electrical equipment, including outlet boxes,
conductors, raceway, and cabinets, shall be bonded to earth in accordance with Section 7.

16.6.2 Bonding Conductor


(1) Where a non-metallic wiring system is used, a bonding conductor shall be incorporated in
each cable and shall be sized in accordance with applicable Clauses of Section 7.

16.7 POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM


16.7.1 Operating Voltage
(1) The operating voltage of a fire alarm system shall not exceed 230.0V nominal whether
between conductors or to earth.

16.7.2 Sources of Power


(1) Two mutually independent power sources shall be provided for powering a fire alarm
system. The sources shall be:
a) a general mains or an equivalent network, operated continually; and
b) a rechargeable battery which is able to power the fire alarm system with no interruption
in the events of a main's failure.
(2) The power sources shall be permanently connected to the fire alarm system and it shall be
ensured that failure of one power source does not result in failure of the other power source.
Notes:

i) Only batteries that are suitable for stationary operation and trickle-charging must be used.
ii) Where no mains supply is available, a primary battery may be used for powering fire alarm systems
provided that a second similar battery in operational condition is held in reserve at all times.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

16.7.3

Current Supply

16.7.3.1

General

(1) The power supply from the electrical mains shall:


a) be dimensioned such that unrestricted 6peration of the system and the altering facilities
is guaranteed; and
b) also be able to supply the trickle charge CUITent for the battery when the system is in
normal operating condition.

16.7.3.2 Circuit connection


(1) A fire-alarm system shall be supplied by its own separate circuit connected as close as
practicable (without violating other Clauses of this Code) to:
a) the load terminals on the main service disconnect;
"b) the secondary terminal of the transformer, where transformer is necessary in order to
supply a utilizatien voltage required by the fire alarm system; or
.
c) the terminals of a transfer switch, while a fire alarm system receives emergency power
from an emergency power source which also supply other electrical equipment. .

16.7.3.3

Fusing

(1) A fire alarm's separate circuit shall be provided with its specially marked overcurrent device
and disconnecting means which shall be clearly identified in a permanent, conspicuous and
legible manner as a fire alarm system: and the disconnecting means shall be coloured red and .
lockable in the "ON" position.

16.7.3.4

Charging facility

(1) The charging facility shall be dimensioned such that it if' capable of recharging a battery,
the charge state of which has dropped to the cut-off voltage, automatically to 80% of its nominal
voltage within a maximum period of 24 hours.

360

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SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

16.7.3.5

Interruption

(1) There shall be no possibility of the fire alarm system power supply being' interrupted as a

result of other plant facilities being switched off.

16.8

FIRE PUMPS

16.8.1 Conductors
(1) Conductors shall be of copper and shall have their ampacityin accordance with Section 4 .
and the requirements of the pump motor.

16.8.2 Wiring Method


(1) All conductors of the fire pump equipment shall be:
a) installed in a metal raceway of the totally enclosed type; .
b) incorporated in metal raceway of the totally enclosed type; or
c) incorporated in a cable, having a metal annour sheath of a type listed in Annex B of
Section 4.

16.8.3

Consumers' Service for Fire Pumps

16.8.3.1

Box

(1) Where fire-pump equipment is connected to a consumers' service, a separate box for the fire

pump equipment shall be permitted.

16.8.3.2

Remote location

(1) A service box for the fire pump equipment shall be permitted to be located remote from
other service box.

16.8.3.3 Labelling
(1) A service box for fire pump equipment shall be labelled in a conspicuous, legible, and

permanent manner with the letter "FIRE PUMP".

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

16.8.4

Protection

16.8.4.1

Overcurrent protection.'

(1) The rating or setting of the over-current protection for feeders and branch circuits shall be
permitted to be selected to carry locked-rotor current of the motor(s) plus the rated current of
associated equipment on the circuit.
Note: Where the locked-rotor current is not marked on a motor, 600% of the rated current shall be considered to
be the locked-rotor current.

16.8.4.2 .Short circuitprotection


(1) The instantaneous short circuit characteristic shall be permitted to be selected or set at a
minimum of the normal load current of the associated equipment on the circuit plus 12 times
the full load current of the motor(s).

16.8.4.3 Overload and overheating protection


(1) The branch circuit conductors and control conductors or equ~pment of a fire pump shall not
require overload or overheating protection and shall be permitted to be protected by the motor
branch-circuit over-current device(s).

16.8.4.4 Earth-fault circuit interrupter


(I) Earth-fault protection shall not be installed in a fire pump circuit.

362

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ANNEX

A (INFORMATIVE)

. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS PRACTICAL EXAMPLES

Designations
1/1

1st digit - detector and alarm device group

FAP
TS

2nd digit - detector or alarm device number in the detector and alarm device group
: Fire alarm control and indicating panel
: Transmission unit for fire alarm signals

.H

'

'"
If

If

>IS

2 nd Floor

..

'"

'"

!.

Y,

!.

~,

1,t Floor

.....

r-e

?/

In

'"

1nI

UE

'/////,1 1111

'"

, .. O....111M01t

BUl~

..,

Ground Floor

'//.

Cellar

Figure A.1 Example - Automatic


If=

ti~e

alarm system

:=---.
'''~'
1/'

~
lit....'"

,;,[

c- '"

"'7J

~lIl

1/)['"

l/lB

Figure A.2 Example device

! '"

.~

UE

E1~1I

.,

''''n~_

"Melll"!1

Automatic tire alarm systems with non-automatic tire alarm

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

363

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

3/3

6 3/~

~III

3Il '

3ilor:

311

3112,

311

, 3("

~'

~IS

6 ylG

1 319

311

. -

10

3IS

Hall

M~,,"
,

I/GnUS

>

A'D4.

ll
./

I liG

211

L
1/1

/,fA

,;.

111 ~

",,/,

1/9 {}

61(l

0';'

IIIUO

Block circuit diagram,

I'

,~

RIUJ

1I~

~S

llf

11101,
MA'

tf

fkt

R~
m

t--------..,.. E- -
' II

---------

1/1

:UI

IWI '"

11,11

rwt ~I

(m"nCl

rn

Hlioior .In"Ulllu

- - -:.--r
...--:
FHIOllPlrlRl""

,IFWI

--.11,

,I

D.,.,"...'

"pp'Neil "lila

-1fj IIi...
'l/M

-Q

tI

11001"

101

lin -11,14",II',

el."n kwhCl'.' tfAAI

Jil~

"If

fl,n

Aus.

uE :

PIlIU,1 palnellPT.
II" .1.,ntJ' ..dl

Mlln' caM,eligrt

I6A

Figure A.3 Installation plant of a fire alarm system with block circuit diagram

364

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

ANNEX

B (INFORMATIVE)

CIRCUIT DESIGN

B.l MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC


B.l.l

CA~L

POINT CIRCUITS

Introduction

Whilst there are but two basic call point control circuits, i.e. 'open circuit' and 'closed circuit',
simple definition of each can be misleading because, in practice, there are employed numerous
variations and combinations of each circuit.
The type of circuit to be used should be determined by careful consideration of the functions
required from the fire alarm system in the particular building concerned, taking into account
simplicity, reliability, liability to damage, operational supervision, cost, environment and such
other relevant factors. It is unwise to assume, in general, that one type of circuit is better than
another.
Four simplified but typical, circuits are given below. Alarm and fault-sensing units may be
relays, solid-state circuits or similar devices; call points may have mechanical contacts, solid
state circuits, variable-resistance devices, etc. It should be appreciated that many other circuit
arrangements are possible and the following circuits should in no way be considered other than
for the purpose of illustration.

//

B.l.2 Circuit 1 - Open circuit

Alarm-sensing unit

/
.

Di--"------'----

r--I /1

'---1

supply

- I!

Figure B.l Open circuit

)/

::J

Open Circuit Call Point

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Current flows when the call point contacts are closed, causing the alarm-sensing unit to operate
and initiate an alarm signal.
A broken connection/conductor will prevent a call point beyond the break from operating the
alarm-sensing unit.
A short-circuit between conductors will cause the alarm-sensing unit to operate, producing an
alarm signal.
In this circuit, the alarm-sensing unit could be the alarm sounder.

B.l.3 Circuit 2 - Closed circuit

Alarm-Sensing Unit
0--

supply

,I

Closed circuit call point


Figure B. 2 Closed circuit

. Current is normally flowing through the conductors and call points; the alarm-sensing unit is
hand operated.
When a call point's contacts are opened, the current is interrupted allowing the alarm-sensing
unit to release and initiate an alarm signal.
A broken connection/conductor interrupts the current to the alarm-sensing unit, initiating an
alarm signal.

366

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

A short-circuit between conductors will allow the current to by-pass call points ,beyond the
short-circuit; thus, a call point beyond the short-circuit cannot interrupt the current and cannot,
therefore, initiate an alarm signal.
B.1.4 Circuit 3 - Combination of open and closed circuits, Type A
High-current
~ Limiting resistor
Sensing Unit(alarm)

supply

--+--

1\/1

Low-current
L Open circuit call point
sensing unit (fault)

Figure B.3

Combination of open and closed circuits, Type A

The conductors are closed-circuit connected; a resistor limits the current through two sensing
units to a value sufficient to hold operated the low-current (faults) sensing unit, but insufficient
to operate the high-current (alarm) sensing unit
Open circuit call points are connected across the conductors. Operation of a call point allows
the current to by-pass the resistor. The resultant increase in current operating the high-current
(alarm) sensing unit which initiates an alarm signal.
A broken connection/conductor will interrupt the current, releasing the low-current (fault)
sensing unit:which initiates a fault signal.
A short-circuit between conductors by-passes the resistor, the resultant increase in current
operates the high-current (alarm) sensing unit, which initiates an alarm signal.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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367

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATiON OF BUilDINGS

B.l.S . Circuit -I - Combination open and closed circuits, Type B


Medium-current
Sensing unit (alarm>/ Open circuit
call point
~

-I 0

,0

,~---

Supply

I
Low-current sensing
unit (fault)

Limiting
resistor

call point resistor

Figure B.4 Combination open and closed cireuits, Type B

The conductors are "closed circuit" connected, the open-circuit call points being wired in series,
their contacts being bridged by resistors. The values of the call point resistors and of the
limiting resistor are carefully chosen to ensure that the correct current flows in the circuit during
the various conditions of fault and alarm.
Under normal conditions, the current flowing in the circuit is sufficient to hold the low-current
(fault) sensing unit operational, but is insufficient to operate either the medium- or the high
current alarm or fault-sensing units.
Operation of a call point by-passes its call point resistor. The resultant increase in current is .
sufficient to operate the medium-current alarm-sensing unit, which initiates an alarm signal, but
is insufficient to operate the high-current fault-sensing unit.
A broken connection/conductor will interrupt the current, releasing the low-current fault-sensing
unit which initiates a fault signal.
A short-circuit between conductors by-passes the limiting resistor. The resultant increase in
current is sufficient to operate both the medium-current alarm and the high-current fault-sensing
units. The former's attempt to initiate an alarm signal is overridden by the latter and a fault
signal is initiated.
Study of the above circuits will indicate that each circuit has advantages and disadvantages.
Some of these are outlined in Clause B.2.

368

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDII\lG CODE STANDARD

SECTIO~I

16: FIRE ALARM SYSTEM AND FIRE PUMPS

B.2

ADVANTAGESAl~DISADVANTAGESOFVARIOUSCALLPOINTCIRCUITS

b.2.1

Circuit 1

a) Advantages
i) This is a simple and reliable circuit.
ii) No current is consumed on stand-by; therefore, a battery and charger of moderate
size and cost may be used.
iii) A broken connection or conductor will not result in a false alarm,
b) Disadvantages
There will be no indication of a break in the circuit which may make some parts of
the system inoperative.
ii) A short-circuit between conductors will produce a false alarm.
i)

iii) The call points are not monitored.


B.2.2 Circuit 2

a) Advantages
. i) This is a simple and reliable circuit.

ii) The call points are monitored.

iii) The contacts and connections are monitored.

b) Disadvantages
i)

Current is consumed on stand-by; therefore, the size and cost of the battery and
charger will be increased.
ii) There will be no indication of a short-circuit between conductors which may make
some parts of the system inoperative.
iii) A broken connection or conductor will cause false alarm.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-101995

;;j69

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

B.2.3 Circuit 3 Type A


a) Advantages'
i) The conductors are monitored.
ii) An open circuit of a connection or a conductor will produce afault signal; not a false

alarm.
b) Disadvantages

i) Current is consumed on stand-by.

ii) A short circuit between conductors will cause a false alarm.

iii) The call points are not monitored.

B.2.4 Circuit 4 Type B

a) Advantages

i) The conductors are monitored.


ii) An open circuit of a connection or a conductor will produce a fault signal, not a
false alarm.
iii) A short-circuit between conductors will produce efault signal, not a false alarm.
b) Disadvantages

i) Current is consumed on stand-by.


ii) The selection of values of call-point resistors and limiting resistors is critical. A
number of call points operated together may result in a fault signal instead of an
.alarm signal.
iii) There is a need for introduction of additional and complex sensing equipment.

370 . EBCS-10 1995

. ETHIOPiAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION

17

SIGNS AND OUTLINE LIGHTING

17.1

SCOPE

(1) This provisions of this Section apply to the installation of signs and outline lighting wherein
the source of light w:e:
a)
b)
c)
d)

incandescent lamps,

fluorescent lamps,

high-voltage luminous discharge tubes including neon tubes, and

high intensity discharge lamps.

Note:

The word "sign", when used throughout this Section, includes those of the through-wall type.:

17.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

17.3

a) IEE:1970

The Institute of Electrical Engineers, Regulation for the Electrical


Equipment of Buildings, Fourteenth Edition (1966), Incorporating
Amendments.

b) C22,1: 1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installation, Sixteenth Edition

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

17.3.1 Construction
(1) All signs and outline lighting apparatus, accessories, and fittings manufactured wholly or
in part in the field shall comply with the relevant requirements of:

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

a) this Code; and


b) the applicable international standards, if any, except so far as these requirements may be
modified by this Code.

17.3.2 Disconnecting Means


(1) Each outline lighting installation and each sign other than the portable type shall be provided
with a disconnecting means which shall:
a) open all unearthed conductors;

b) be suitable for condition of installation such as exposure to weather; and

c) be integral with the sign or outline lighting.

17.3.3 Rating of Disconnecting Means and Control Devices


(1) Switches, flashers, and similar devices breaking inductive loads shall be either of a type
approved for the purpose or have a current rating of not less than twice the current rating of the
loads.

17.3.4 Thermal Protection


(1) Ballasts of the thermally-protected type shall be required for all signs and outline lighting
which employ fluorescent lamps except where the ballasts are of the simple reactance type.

17.3.5 Branch Circuit Capacity


(1) Circuits shall be arranged so that the load imposed by lamps and associated gears shall not
exceed 80% of the branch circuit overcurrent protection.

17.3.6 Location
(1) Signs and outline lighting shall be located so that all the following requirement are met:
a) Any person working thereon is not likely to come into contact with overhead conductors.
b) No part of the sign or its support will interfere with normal work operations performed
on electrical and communication utility lines.
c) No part of the sign or its support is in such proximity to overhead conductors as to
constitute a hazard.

372

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SECTION 17: SIGNS AND OUTLINE LIGHTING

d) Unless mechanical protection is provided to prevent persons or vehicles from coming


into contact with the electrical components of the sign, no part of the sign, other than
its support, shall be located within 202m above grade.
17.3.7 Bonding
(1) All conductive non-current-carrying parts of the lighting installation shall be bonded to earth
in accordance with the requirements of Section 7 except for conductive parts of letters attached
to the building and illuminated from the rear.
17.3.8 Protection of Sign Leads
(l) Sign leads which pass through the walls or partitions of the sign structure shall be protected
by non-combustible, moisture-absorption resisting bushings.

17.3.9 Installation of Conductors


(l) Conductors for sign and outlying lighting shall be installed in accordance with the
requirement of Section 8.

17.3.10 Fuseholders and Flashers


(l) Fuseholder, flashers, etc. shall be enclosed in metal and shallbe accessible without the
necessity of removing obstructions or, otherwise, dismantling the sign.

17.4

IDGH-VOLTAGE LUMINOUSDISCHARGE TUBE SIGNSANDOUTLINE LIGHTING

17.4.1 Enclosure

17.4.1.1

Cleneral

(l) Enclosure for transformers, switches, timers, relays, sequencing units and other similar
devices shall be of metal or of heat and moisture resistant, non-combustible material.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

373

ELECTRICAL
lNSTALLATION
OF BUILDINGS
.
..
.

.~

17.4.1.2 Construction
(1) The enclosure shall be constructed to prevent the emission of flames or any burning or
ignited material.

17.4.1.3

Ventilation

(1) Openings for ventilation shal! be-arranged to comply with the requirement of 17.4.1.2
shall at least be lOO.Omm from live parts.
17.4.1.4

and

Thickness

(1) Metal enclosures shall not be less than O.8mm thick and at the point where it is intended

that the supply connections be made, the enclosure shall be of not. less than 1.6mm in thickness.
17.4.1.5

Marking

(1) Each enclosure housing a transformer shall be marked in accordance with the requirements

of Clause 2.4.6.

1704.2 Proteetlon of Uninsnlated Part


(I) Doors or covers accessible to the general public and which give access to uninsulatedparts

of indoor signs or outline lighting shall either be provided with interlock switches which, on the
opening of the doors or covers, disconnect the primary circuit or shall be fastened so that the
use of other than ordinary tools will be necessary to open them.

1704.3 Transformers
17.4.3.1

Secondary voltage

.(1) The rated secondary open-circuit voltage of transformers shall not exceed 15.0kV, except
as in (2) below.
(2) In end-earthed transformers, rated secondary open-circuit voltage shall not exceed 7.5kV.

I: ....,. .

374

EBCS- to 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 11: SIGNS AND OUTLINE LIGHTING

17.4.3.2.

Open core-and-coil type transformer

(1) Open core-and-coil type transformers shall only be used indoor.

17.4.3.3 Transformers used outdoors


(1) Transformers used outdoor shall be of the weather-proof type or shall be enclosed in the
sign body or in a separate weather-proof box.

17.4.3.4 Installation
(1) Transformers shall be installed in such location that they are accessible and capable of being
removed and replaced.
(2) They shall be supported by attachment to the enclosure in which they are housed by at least
two studs or bolts.

17.4.3.5 Overcurrent protection


(l) Each transformer shall be protected by an overcurrent device except that two or more
transformers may be protected by one ove-current device if their combined load does not exceed
12.0A.

17.4.4 High-Voltage Wiring Methods

17.4.4.1

Conductor installation

(1) High-voltage conductors shall be installed in:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

transformer enclosure,

sign enclosure,

flexible metal conduit,

rigid conduit, or

other acceptable type of raceways except for surface raceways.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OFBUILDINGS

17.4.4.2

Conductors run

(1) High-voltage conductors may be run from the ends of gas tubes to the earthed midpoint of
transformers which have terminals at the midpoint.

17.4.4.3

Bends

(1) There shall be no bends in high-voltage conductors.

17.4.4.4

Type of conductors

(1) All high voltage conductors installed inside metal sign enclosures shall be of the
luminous-tube-sign type cables.

17.4.4.5

Length of cable from transformers

(1) In a metalic raceway and in a non-metallic raceway, cables not more than a total of 6.0m
and 16.0m, respectively, shall be run from transformer to other parts of the sign.

17.4.4.6

Connection of conductors

(1) Connection of high-voltage conductors to neon tubing outside the building or structure shall
be made by means of one of the following.

a) an electrode receptacle;
b) a direct connection in the neon tubing outside the building or structure wall provided that
not more than 1.0m of high-voltage wiring extends beyond the end of the raceway;
c) any other acceptable methods.
Note:

376

The connection in (b) shall be electrically secure and provided with acceptable wrapping of insulating tape.

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION

18

LIFTS, ESCALATORS AND SIMILAR


EQUIP:MENT

18.1

SCOPE

(l) This Section applies to the installation of electrical equipment for passenger, good's or
dual-purpose elevators (lifts), including dumbwaiters, escalators, movmg walks, freight platform
lifts, and elevating devices for the handicapped.

18.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

18.3
'I

a) C 22.1: 1990

Canadian Electrical Code Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

b) NFPA 701NEC: 1986

National Fire Protection Association!American National


Electrical Code, 1987 Edition.

GENERAL

18.3.1 Voltage Limitation


(1) The nominal voltage used for lift operating control and signalling circuits, operating

equipment, driving machine motors, machine brakes, and motor generator sets shall not exceed
the following:
a) 380.0V for operating control and signalling circuits and related equipment, including
door operator motors.
b) 750.0V for driving motors, machine brakes, and motor-generator sets.

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Exemption:

Higher voltages shall be permitted for driving motors of motor generator sets.

18.3.2 Live Parts Enclosed


(1) All live parts of electric apparatus in hoistways, at landings or in or on the cars of lights and
dumbwaiters or in the well-ways or the landing of escalators, or moving walks shall be enclosed
to protect against accidental contact.

18.4

CONDUCTORS

18.4.1 Installation of Conductors

18.4.1.1

Hoistway door interlocking wiring

(1) The conductors to the hoistway door interlocks from the hoistway riser shall be
flame-retardant and suitable for temperature of not less than 200C.

18.4.1.2

Travelling cables

(1) Travelling cables used as flexible connections between the lift car and the raceway shall be
of the types of lift cables or other approved type.

18.4.1.3

Other wiring

(1) All conductors in raceways, in or on the cars of lifts and dumbwaiters, in the well-ways of
escalators and moving walks, and in the machine room of lifts, escalators, and moving walks
shall have flame-retardant insulation.

18.4.1.4 lnsulation rating


(1) All conductors shall have an insulation voltage rating equal to at least the maximum nominal
circuit voltage rating of any conductor within the enclosure, cable or raceway.

18.4.2 Minimum Size of Conductors


(1) The minimum size of conductors used for lifts, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walk
wiring, other than conductors that forms an integral part of control equipment, shall be as follow:

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a) for lighting circuits, I.Smm"; and

b) for operating control and signalling circuits, 0.5mm2

. 18.4.3 Motor Circuit Conductors

(1) Conductors supplying lifts, dumbwaiters, escalator, or moving walk motors shall have an
ampacity of:
(a)
(b)

18.5

if supplying single motor, not less than 150% of the motor full-load current rating.
if supplying two or more motors, not less than 125% of the nameplate current rating
of the highest rated motor in the group plus the sum of the nameplate current ratings
of the remainder of the motors in the group.

WIRING

18.5.1 Wiring Methods

18.5.1.1 In hoistway, machine rooms, and escalator wellways


(1) Conductors located in hoistway, machine rooms and escalator well-ways, except travelling
cables, shall be installed in rigid metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, or metal wireways,
except that flexible metal conduit or armoured cable shall be permitted only if not subjected to
mechanical damage.
Exemption: Mineral-insulated cable or aluminium-sheathed cable may be used if located so that there is no liability

of damage to the sheath.

18.5.1.2 On cars
(1) Conductors on lift and dumbwaiter cars shall be run in rigid metal conduit, electrical
metallic tubing, or wireways, except that:
a) short runs of flexible metal conduit or armoured cable may be used where they are
securely fastened in place and not exposed to oil or grease;
b) hard usage flexible cord shall be permitted to be used between fixed wiring on the car
and switching or sensing devices on the door or gate, and. between the fixed car top
inspection light and an extension light controlled by the SlUlle switch, provided it is
securely fastened and so located as to not be subject to mechanical injury;

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c) mineral-insulated cable.or aluminium-sheathed cable may be used iflocated so that there


is no liability or damage to the sheath.

18.5.2

Branch Circuits for Auxiliary Systems

18.5.2.1

Car lighting and accessories

(1) In passenger lifts, at least one branch circuit shall be provided solely for the lighting and
accessories on each car.

18.5.2.2

Air conditioning

(1) Where air conditioning units are installed on the car, they shall be supplied by separate
branch circuits.

18.5.2.3

Protection device location

(1) The overcurrent device protecting each branch circuit shall be located in the machine room.

18.6

INSTALLATION OF CONDUCTORS

18.6.1 Number of Conductors in Raceway


(1) The sum of the cross-sectional area of the operating and control circuit conductors in
raceways shall not exceed 40% the interior cross-sectional area of the raceway.

18.6.2 Supports
(1) Supports for cables or raceways in a hoistway or in an escalator or moving walkways shall
be securely fastened to the guide rail or to hoistway well-way construction.

18.6.3 Different Systems in One Raceway or Travelling Cable


(1) Conductors for operating, control, power, signalling and lighting circuits of 600.0V or less
shall be permitted to be run in the same travelling cable or raceway system if all conductors are
insulated for maximum voltage found in the cables or raceway system and if all live parts of the
equipment are insulated from earth for the maximum voltage.

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(2) Such travelling cable or raceway in (1) above shall be permitted to include shielded
conductors and/or one or more coaxial cable if such conductors are insulated for the maximum
voltage found in cable or raceway system. Conductors shall be pennitted to be covered with
suitable shielding for telephone, audio, video or higher frequency communication circuits.

18.6.4 Wiring in Hoistway


(1) Main feeders for supplying power to lifts and dumbwaiters shall be installed outside the
hoistway (hoist shaft).
Note:

Only wiring, raceways, and cables that are or form part of lift or dumbwaiter installation, including wiring
for signals, for communication with the car, for lighting, heating, air conditioning and ventilating the car,
for fire detecting systems, for pit pumps, and for heating and lighting the hoistway, shall be permitted inside
the hoistway.

18.6.5 Electric Equipment in Garages and Similar Occupancies


(1) Electric equipment and wiring used for lifts, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks in
garages shall comply with the requirements of Section 12 (Class I locations). Wiring and
equipment located on the underside of the car platform shall be considered as being located in
the hazardous area.

18.6.6 Sidewalk Lifts


(1) Sidewalk lifts with sidewalk doors located exterior to the building shall have all electrical
wiring in metallic tubing and all electrical outlets, switches, junction boxes and fittings shall be
weather-proof.

18.7

TRAVELLING CABLES

18.7.1 Suspension
(1) Travelling cables shall be so suspended at the car and hoistway's ends as to reduce the strain
on the individual copper conductors to a minimum and shall be supported by one of the
following means:
a) by its steel supporting members;

b) by looping the cable around supports for unsupported lengths less than 30.0m;

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c) by suspending from the supports by means that automatically tightens around the cable
when tension is increased for unsupported lengths upto 60.0m.

18.7.2 Hazardous (Classified) Location


(1) In hazardous (classified) locations, travelling cables shall be of a type approved for
hazardous (classified) locations and shall be secured to explosion-proof cabinets.

18.7.3 Protection Against Damage


(1) Travelling cable supports shall be so located as to reduce to a minimum the possibility of
damage due to the cable coming into contact with the hoistway construction or equipment in the
hoistway; and where necessary, suitable guards shall be provided to protect the cable against
damage.

18.7.4 Installation
(1) Travelling cable shall be permitted to be run without the use of raceway or conduit for a
distance not exceeding 1.8m from the first point of support on the lift car or hoistway wall
provided the conductors are grouped together and tapped or corded or in the original sheath.
(2) Travelling cables shall be permitted to be continued to lift control panels and to lift car and
machine room connections as fixed wiring provided they are suitably supported and protected
from damage.

18.8

DISCONNECTING MEANS AND CONTROL

18.8.1 General
(1) Lifts, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks shall have a single means for
disconnecting all unearthed main power supply conductors for each unit.

(2) Where multiple driving machines are connected to a single lift, escalator, moving walk or
pumping unit, there shall be one disconnecting means to disconnect the motor(s) and control
devices.

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(3) Where there is more than one driving machine in a machine room, disconnecting means
shall be number-marked to correspond to the number-mark of the driving machine which they
control.

18.8.2 Type
(1) The disconnecting means shall be an enclosed, externally operable, fused motor circuit
switch or circuit breaker to be locked in the open position.

(2) No provision shall be made to close the disconnecting means in (1) above from any other
part of the premises; nor shall circuit breakers be opened automatically by a fire alarm system.

18.8.3 Location
(I) Disconnecting means shall be located where they are readily accessible to qualified persons;

18.8.4

Phase Protection

18.8.4.1

Electric lifts

(1) Lifts. dsivenby polyphase alternating current shall be provided with a means to prevent
starting ofthe lift when:
a) the phase rotation is in the wrong direction, or

b) there is a failure in any phase.

18.8~4.2

Hydraulic lifts

(1) Hydraulic lifts powered by a polyphase alternating current motor shall be provided with the
means to prevent overheating of the drive system (pump and motor) due to phase-rotation
reversals or failure.

18.9

OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

18.9.1 Control and Operating Circuits


(1) Control and operating circuits and signalling circuitsshall be protected against overcurrent .
in accordance with the requirements of the relevant Clauses of Section 9.

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---------", . _ - - - ' - , - - - - - - -

18.9.2

Motors

18.9.2.1

Non-continuous duty

(1) Duty on lift and dumbwaiter driving-machine motors and driving motors of motor-generators
- used with generator field control shall be classed as non-continuous. Such motors shall be'
protected against overcurrent in accordance with applicable Clauses of Section 11.

18.9.2.2

Continuous duty

(1) Duty on escalators and moving-walk driving motors shall be classed as continuous. Such
motors shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with applicable Clauses of
Section 11.

18.10 MACHINE ROOM


18.10.1

Guarding Equipment

(1) Lifts, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walk driving machines, motor-generator sets,
motor controllers, and disconnecting means shall be installed in a room or enclosure set aside
for that purpose.
(2) The room or the enclosure in (1) above shall be secured against unauthorized access.

18.10.2

Clearance around Control Panels and Disconnecting Means

(1) Sufficient clear working space shall be provided around control panels and disconnecting
means to provide safe and convenient access to all live parts of the equipment necessary for
maintenance and adjustment.

18.11 EARTmNG
18.11.1

Metal Raceway Attached to Cars

(l) Metal raceways attached to lift cars shall be bonded to earthed metal parts of the car with
which they come into contact.

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18.11.2

Electric Lifts

(1) For electric lifts, the frames of all motors, lift machines, controllers, and the metal
enclosures of all electric devices in or on the car or in the hoistway shall be earthed in
accordance with Section 7.

18.11.3

Non-Electric Lifts

(1) For lifts other than electric and having any electric conductors attached to the car, the metal
frame of the car, where normally accessible to persons, shall be earthed in accordance with
Section 7.
18.11.4

Method of Bonding

18.11.4.1 Equipment
(I) Equipment mounted on members of an earthed structural metal frame of a building shall be
deemed to be bonded to earth.

18.11.4.2 Metal car frame supported by cables


(1) Metal car frames supported by metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal
sheaves or drums of lift machines and affording metal-to-metal contact therewith shall be
deemed to be bonded to earth when the machine is bonded to earth in accordance with
Section 7.

18.12 OVERSPEED
18.12.1

Overspeed Protection

(1) Under overhauling load conditions, a means shall be provided on the load side of each lift
power disconnecting means to prevent the lift from attaining a speed equal to the governor
tripping speed or a speed in excess of,125% of the lift rated speed, whichever is smaller.

(2) Overhauling load conditions shall include all loads upto rated lift loads for goods lifts and
all loads upto 125% for the rated lift loads for passenger lifts.

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18.12.2

Motor-Generator Overspeed Device

(1) Motor generators driven by direct current motors and used to supply direct current for the
operation of lift machine motors shall be provided with speed-limiting devices that will prevent
the lift from attaining, at any time, a speed of more than 125% of its rated speed.

18.13

EMERGENCY POWER

18.13.1

Supply

(1) A lift shall be permitted to operate from an emergency power supply in the event of normal
supply failure, provided the lift operates on such emergency power in accordance with the
emergency power system requirementsofa recognized international safety code for lifts.

18.13.2

Disconnection

(1) The disconnecting means shall disconnect the emergency power service from the normal
power service.

18.13.3

Hydraulic Lifts Disconnecting Means

(1) In the case of hydraulic lifts where emergency power-is supplied from a second source for
lowering the car only, thedisconnecting means shall be provided with an auxiliary contact that
is positively opened mechanically, the opening not being solely dependent on springs, and
connected in the control circuit to prevent movement of the car when the disconnecting means
is open.

18.14

MACHINE ROOMS AND HOISTWAY PITS LIGHTING AND AUXILIARY


SYSTEMS

18.14.1

Machine Room

18.14.1.1 Lighting

(1) Permanent provision of adequate artificial light shall be made in machine rooms of power
lifts.

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18.14.1;2 Illumination level


(I) Illumination shall he not less than lOO.Olx at floor level.

18.14.1.3 Lighting swit.eh


(I) The machine room lighting switch shall be within easy reach of the entrance to the machine
room.

18.14.1.4 Socket outlet


(1) At least one duplex (twin) socket outlet connected to 16.0A 'branch circuit supplying no

other socket outlets shall be installed in the machine room.

18.14.2

Hoist Pits

18.14.2.1 Luminaire
(l)One or more permanent luminaireequipped with.aguard of metal, safety glass.or suitable
'plastic material shall beprovided in all .pits,

18.14.2.2 Illumination level

The luminaires shall provide an illuminations level of at least 100.01x at the pit floor,

18.14.2.3 Lighting switch


(1) A light switch shall be provided and shall be located so as to be accessible from the pit

access door.

18.14.2.4 Socket outlet


(I) At least one twin socket outletconnected toa 16,OAbranch circuit supplying no other

socket outlet shall be installed in each pit.

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\SECTION

19

THEATRE INSTALLATION

19.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to electrical equipment and their installations in buildings or parts' of
a building designed, intended, or used for drama, opera, motion picture, or other shows.

19.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following reference contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

a) C22.1:1990

19.3

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installation, Sixteenth Edition.

WIRING METHOD

(1) Wiring in stage and stage wing areas, orchestra pits, and projection booths shall be in rigid
metal conduit, armoured cable, lead-sheathed armoured cable, or aluminium-sheathed cable
except that:
a) other wiring methods shall be permitted for temporary work,and

b) flexible cord or cable shall be permitted in accordance with other Clauses in this Section.

(2) Surface raceways shall not be used on the stage side of the proscenium wall,
(3) Wiring in areas other than those listed in (1) above shall be in accordance with the
requirements of the appropriate Sections of this Code.
(4) Circuits for aisle lights located under seats may supply 30 outlets provided that the size of
lamp which can. be used with each outlet is limited by barriers or the equivalent to 25.0W or
less.

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19.4

FIXED STAGE SWITCHBOARD

(1) Stage switchboard shall be:


a) of the dead-front type, and
b) protected above with a suitable metal guard or hood extending the full length of the
board and completely covering the space between the wall and the board to protect the
latter from falling objects.
(2) Where a stage switchboard has exposed live parts on the back of the board, it shall be
enclosed by the walls of the building, by wire mesh grills, or by other acceptable methods.
(3) The entrance to the enclosures shall have a self-closing door.
(4) Switches shall be of the enclosed type and externally operated.
(5) Pilot lamp on switchboard shall be:
(a)
(b)
(c)

installed within every switchboard enclosure,


connected to the circuit supplying the switchboard so that the opening of the master
switch does not cut off the supply to the lamp, and
on an independent circuit protected by an overcurrent device rated or set at not more
than 15.0A.

19.4.1 Fuses
(1) Fuses on switchboards shall be:

a) of either the plug or cartridge type, and

b) provided with enclosures in addition to the switchboard enclosure.

19.4.2 Overcurrent Protection


(1) All circuits leaving the switchboard shall have an overcurrent protection device connected
in each unearthed conductor.

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19.4.3 Dimmers
(I) Dimmersshall be connected so as to' be deadwhen their respectivecircuit switches ate
open.
(2) Dimmers which do not 'open the circuit maybeconnected :lh earthedneutralconductor.
(3) The terminals Of dimmers 'shallbe enclosed,
(4) Dimmer faceplates shall be arranged so thataccidentalcontactcannot readilybemadewith
the faceplate contacts.

19.4.4 Control of Stage and Gallery Pockets


(I) Stageandgallerypockets shall be controlled from the switchboard.
19;4.5 Conductors
(1) Stage switchboardsequipped with resistive- ortransformed-type 'aimmerswit~hesshanbe
wifed With conductors having insulationsuitable for the temperaturegenera:ted therein; 'bot in
no case shall the design temperature 'be less than 125C.
(2) The conductors in (I) above shall have an ampacityof not less than that ofthe switch or
overcurrent device to which they are connected.
(3) Holes in the metal enclosure through which conductors pass shall be bushed.
(4) Thestrands Of theconductor shall be soldered together before they ate fastenedundera
clamporbinding screw.
(5) Where a conductor of IO;Omm 2 or of a largersizeisconrrectedto a terminal:
a) it shall be soldered into a lug, or
b)a solderless connector shall be used.

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Sf;CTlQN 1~: THEATRE- !N$TALL,ATI,ON

19.5

J,?QRTi\BLE SWITCHBQARJ) ON

~TAGE

19.5.1 CQnstrll.ction of Portable Switchboards


(1) Portable switchboards shall be placed within enclosure of substantial construction; but they
may be arranged SO that the enclosure is open during, operation,

(2) There shall be no live parts exposed within the enclosure except those on dimmer faceplates,
19.5.2 Supply for Portable Swltehboard
(1) Portable. switchboards shall be supplied by Il1eaJ;1S of flexible cord or cable of extra-hard
usage type terminating within the switchboard enclosure in aJ;1 externally operated, enclosed,
fused master switch.

(2) The. master switch in (1) above shall be arranged so as to cut off current from all apparatus
within the enclosure except the pilot li~ht.
(3) The flexible cord or cable shall have sufficient amapcity to carry the total load current of
the switchboard.
(4) The ampere-rating of the fuses of the master switch shall not be greater than the. total load
current of the switchboard.

19.6

FIXED ST i\GE EQUIPMENT

19.(j.l Footlights
(1) Where footlights are wired in rigid metal conduit or electrical metallic tubing, every
lampholder shall be installed in an individual outlet box,
(2) Where footlights are not wired in rigid metal conduit or electrical metallic tubing, the wiring
shall be installed in a metal trough.

19;(i.2 Metalwork
(I) The metalwork for footlights, borders, proscenium sidelights, and strips shall not be lesr
than O.8mm thick.

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(2) The metalwork for bunches and portable strips shall be not less than O.5mm thick.

19.6.3 Clearance at Terminals


(1) The terminals of lampholders shall be separated from the "metal of the trough by at least
13.0mm.

19.6.4 Mechanical Protection


(1) Borders, proscenium sidelights, and strips shall be constructed so that the flanges of the
reflectors or other suitable guards protect the lamps from mechanical injury and from accidental
contact with scenery or other combustible material.

19.6.5 Suspended Fixtures


(l) Borders and strips shall be so suspended as to be electrically and mechanically safe.

19.6.6 Connections at Lampholders


(1) Conductors shall be soldered to the terminals of lampholders unless other suitable means are
providedto obtain positive and reliable connection under severe vibration.

19.6.7 Ventilation for Mogul Lampholers


(1) Where the lighting device are equipped with mogullampholders, the lighting devices shall
be constructed with double walls and with adequate ventilation between the walls.

19.6.8 Conductor Insulation for Field-Assembled Fixtures


(I) Foot, border, proscenium, and portable striplight fixtures assembled in the field shall be
wired with conductors having insulation suitable for the temperature at which the conductors will
be operated; but in no case shall the design temperature be less than 125C.

19.6.9 Branch Circuit Overcurrent Protection


(1) Branch circuits for footlights, border lights, and proscenium sidelights shall have overcurrent
protection in accordance with 15.3.1.4.

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19.6~10

Pendant Lights Rated More Than 100.0W

(1) Where, a pendent lighting device contains a lamp or group of lamps of more than lOO.OW
capacity, it shall be provided with a guard of not more than 13.0mm mesh so arranged as to
prevent damage from falling glass.

19.6.11 Cables for Border Lights


(1) Flexible cord or cable for border lights shall be of extra-hard-usage type.
(2) The flexible cord or cable shall be fed from points on the grid iron or from other acceptable
overhead points; but they shall not be fed from side walls.
(3) The flexible cord or cable shall be arranged so that strain is taken from clamps and binding
screws.
(4) Where the flexible cord or cable passes through a metal or wooden enclosure, a metal
bushing shall be provided to protect the cord.
(5) Terminals or binding posts to which flexible cords or cables are connected inside the
switchboard enclosure shall be located so as to permit convenient access to them.

19.6.12

Wiring to Arc Pockets

(1) Where the wiring to arc pockets is in rigid metal conduit or electrical metallic tubing, the.
end of the conduit or tubing shall be exposed at a point approximately 300.0mm away from the
pocket, and the wiring shall be continued in flexible metal conduit in the form of a loop at least
600.0mm long, with sufficient slack to permit the raising or lowering of the box.

19.6.13

Socket Outlets and Plugs

(1) Socket outlets intended for the connection of arc lamps shall:
a) have an ampere rating not less than 40.0A, and

b) be supplied by copper conductors not smaller than 16.0mm2

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(2) Socket outlets intended for the connection of incandescent lamps shall:
a) have an ampere rating not less than 16.0A, and

b) be supplied by conductors not smaller than 4.0mm2 copper or 6.0mm 2 aluminium.

(3) Plugs for arc and incandescent socket outlets shall not be interchangeable.
19~6.14

Curtain Motors

(1) Curtain motors shall be of the closed type.

19.6.15

Flue Damper Control

(1) Where stage flue dampers are released by an electrical device, the circuit operating the
device shall, in normal operation, be closed.
(2) The circuit shall be controlled by at least two single-pole switches enclosed in metal boxes
with self-closing doors without locks or latches.
(3) One switch shall be placed at the electrician's station and the other at a suitable place.
(4) The device shall be:
a) designed for the full voltage of the circuit to which it is connected, or resistance being
inserted;

b) located in the loft above the scenery; and

c) enclosed in a suitable metal box with a tight self-closing door.

19.7

PORTABLE STAGE EQUIPMENT

19.7.1 Fixtures on Scenery


(1) Fixtures attached to stage scenery shall be:
a) of the internally wired type, or

b) wired with flexible cord or cable suitable for hard usage.

(2) The fixtures shall be secured firmly in place.

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(3) The stems of the fixtures shall be carried through to the back of the scenery and shall have
a suitable bushing on the end thereof

19.7.2 String or Festooned Lights


(1) Joints in the wiring of string or festooned lights shall be staggered where practicable.
(2) Where the lamps of string or festooned lights are enclosed in paper lanterns, shades, or other
devices of combustible material, they shall be equipped with lamp guards.

19.7.3 Flexible Conductors from Portable Equipment


(1) Flexible conductors for arc lamps, bunches, or other portable equipment shall be of extra
hard-usage type cord or cable; but for separate miscellaneous portable devices operated under
conditions where the conductors are not exposed to severe mechanical injury, reinforced cords
of ordinary type may be used provided that they are protected by an overcurrent device rated
or set at not more than 16.0A.

19.7.4 Portable Equipment for Stage Effects


(1) Portable equipment for stage effects shall be of a type acceptable for the purpose and shall
be so located that flames, sparks, or hot particles cannot come in contact with combustible
material.

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SECTION

20

EMERGENCY SYSTEMS, UNIT

EQUIPMENT, AND EXIT SIGNS

20.1

SCOPE

(l) This Section applies to:

a) the installation, operation and maintenance of emergency system and unit equipment
intended to supply illumination and to emergency systems intended to supply power,
where required by the authority having jurisdiction, and
b) thewiring of exit signs.

20.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCE

(l) The following reference contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings.

a) C22.1: 1990

20.3

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

GENERAL

20.3.1 Capacity
(l) Emergency systems and unit equipment shall have adequate capacity and rating to ensure
the satisfactory operation of all connected equipment when the general power supply fails.

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SECTION 20: EMERGENCY SYSTEMS, UNIT EQUIPMENT, AND EXIT SIGNS

20.3.2 Instruction
(1) Complete instructions for the operation and maintenance of the emergency system or unit
equipment which shall also specify testing at least once every month to ensure security of
operation, shall be posted on the premises in a frame under glass.

20.3.3 Batteries Maintenance


(1) When batteries are used as a source of supply, the batteries shall be kept:

a) in proper condition, and

b) fully charged at all times.

20.3.4 Lamps
(1) Emergency lights shall be so arranged that the failure of one lamp will not leave the area
normally illuminated by it in total darkness.

20.3.5 Circuits
(1) No appliance or lamp, other than those required for emergency purposes, shall be supplied

by the emergency circuits.


20.3.6

Method of Wiring

20.3.6.1

General

(1) The method of wiring, including that between unit equipment and remote lamps, shall be
in accordance with the provisions of Section 8.

20.3.6.2

Segregation

(1) The wiring shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and shall
not enter a fixture, raceway, box, or cabinet occupied by other wiring except, where necessary:
a) in transfer switch, and

b) in emergency lighting fixtures supplied from two sources.

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20.4

EMERGENCY SYSTEMS

20.4.1 Supply
(l) The emergency supply shall be a standby supply consisting of;

a) a storage battery of the rechargeable type having sufficient capacity to supply and
maintain the total load of the emergency circuits at not less than 91 % of the full voltage
for the time period required by the authority having jurisdiction, but in no case less than
Y2hr, and be equipped with a charging means to maintain the battery in a charged
condition automatically.
Note:

Automobile batteries and lead batteries not of the enclosed glass-jar type are not considered suitable.

b) a generator driven by a dependable prime mover and it shall be:


i) of capacity sufficient to carry the load, and
ii) arranged to start automatically without failure and without undue delay upon the
failure of the current supply of the principal equipment of the building.

iO.4.2 Control
(l) The current supply for emergency systems shall be controlled by an automatic transfer
switch which energizes the emergency system upon failure of the normal current supply and is
accessible only to authorized persons.

20.4.3 Overcurrent Protection


(1) No device capable of interrupting the circuit, other than the overcurrent device for the
current supply of the emergency system, shall be placed ahead of the branch circuit overcurrent

device.

20.4.4

Audible and Visual Trouble Signal Devices

20.4.4.1

Trouble signal

(l) Every emergency system shall be equipped with audible and visual trouble signal devices
which give warning of derangement of the current source or sources and which indicate when
the emergency load is supplied from batteries or generators.

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20.4.4.2

'Wiring

(I) Audible trouble signals may be wired so that:


a) they can be silenced, but a red-warning or trouble light shall continue to provide the
protective function,and

b) when the system is restored to normal, the audible signal will:

i) sound, thus indicating the necessity of restoring the silencing switch to its normal
position, or
ii) reset automatically so as to sound for any subsequent operation .of the emergency
system.
20.4~4.3

Voltage drop

(1) the voltage drop in the wiring feeding lamps mounted remotefrom thecurrent supply shall

not exceed 5% ofthe applied voltage.

2'0.5

UNITEQUIPMENT

20.5.1 Mounting
(I ) Each unit equipment shall be mounted with the bottom of enclosure not less than 2;Om

above the float wherever practicable.


Note:

Unit equipment for emergency lighting is definedasanitemofequipment that:


i) is intended to.provide automatically, in response toa failure of a power supply to which it is connected,

specified light output and a specified amount ofpower forillumination purposes, for aspecifiedpeniod .
of time, but in any case not less than 30.0min;
Ii) comprises, in a unit construction, a storage battery, charging:meanstomaiIitainthebatteryin a charged
condition automatically, lamps, Of outputterminals towhich specificallylisted lamps maybe connected,
means to energize the lamps when the normal power supplyfailsandto de-energize the lamps when the
normal power supply is restored, and means to indicate and test the operating conditions of the
equipment.

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20.5.2

Supply Connections

20.5.2.1

Outlet distance

(1) Outlet point to which unit equipment is to be connected shall be not more than 1.5mfrom
the location of the unit equipment.

20.5.2.2

Connection to supply

(1) Unit equipment shall be permanently connected to the supply if:


a) the voltage rating exceeds 230.0V, or

b) the marked input rating exceeds 24.0A.

(2) Where the above ratings are not exceeded, the unit equipment may be connected using the
flexible cord and attachment plug supplied with the equipment.

20.5.2.3

Installation

(1) Unit equipment shall be installed in such a manner that it will be automatically actuated
upon the failure of the power supply to the normal lighting in the area covered by that unit

equipment.

20.5.2.4

Feeding

(1) Unit equipment shall be fed, where practicable, from the same panel board, and may be fed
from the same branch circuit which feeds the normal lighting in the area covered by that unit

equipment.

20.5.2.5

Voltage drop

(1) The circuit conductors to lamps mounted remote from supply SOUrce shall be of such size
that the voltage drop does not exceed 5% of the marked output voltage of the unit equipment.

20.5.1.6

Excess load

(1) The number of lamps connected to single equipment shall not result in a load that is in

excess of the

watt output rating marked on the equipment for the required emergency period.
'.

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20.6

EXIT SIGNS

20.6.1 Power Supply


(1) The power supply for exit signs shall be provided from:

a) a separate circuit or circuits used for no other purpose, or

b) the circuit supplying exit lighting

20.6.2 Wiring
(1) Exit signs shall be wired in accordance with the provisions of Section 8 of this Code.

-...

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..

~'

SECTION

21

MOTION PICTURE STUDIOS, PROJECTION

ROOMS, FILM EXCHANGES AND FACTORIES

21.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section sets provisions and installation requirements that apply to motion-picture
studios, projection rooms,exchanges, factories and any building in which motion-picture
films, pyroxylin plastic and nitrocellulose x-ray and photographic films are manufactured,
projected,developed, printed, rewound, repaired or stored.
21.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The followingreferencescontain provisions which,through reference in this text, constitute


provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings:

a) C22.1:1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for


Electrical Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

b) NFPA70/NEC:1986

National Fire Protection Association I American National


Electrical Code, 1987 Edition

21.3

GENERAL

21.3.1 Wiring Method


(1) The wiring-method.unless specified otherwise in subc1auseofthisSection, shall be rigid
conduit, steel electrical metallic tubing, or mineral-insulated cable.
-(2) The wiring for stage-set lighting, stage effects, electric equipment used as stage
properties, and other wiring not fixed as to location, shall be done with approved flexible
cords and cables.

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SECTION 21: MOTION PICTURE STUDIOS, PROJECTION ROOMS, ETC

(3) For portable lamps other than those used as properties in a motion-picture set on a
studio stage or similar location, the lamp holders shall be:
a) unswitched,

b) of composition or metal sheathed procelain, and

c) provided with a guard hook and handle.

21.4

VIEWING, CUTTING AND PATCIllNG TABLE FIXTURE

(1) All lighting fixtures, except lamps forming an integral part of table equipment, shall be
of the totally-enclosed gasketted type.
21.5

FILM VAULTS AND STORAGE ROOMS

21.5.1 Equipment in Film Vaults and Storage Rooms


(1) In rooms used for storage of pyroxylin plastic, no socket outlet or attachment plugs
shall be installed.
(2) .No electrical equipment other than that necessary for fixed lighting shall be installed
in film vaults.
21.5.2 Wiring Method in Film Vaults
(1) The wiring method in film-vault.shall be rigid-conduit or mineral-insulated cable only,
with threaded joints at couplings boxes and fittings.
(2) Conduit or cable shall not run directly from vault to vault, but only form the switch to
the lighting fixture within the vault.
(3) Conduit shall be sealed off near the switch enclosure with a fitting and compound
approved for the purpose.
21.5.3 Lighting Fixtures in Film Vaults
(1) Lighting fixtures in film vaults shall be of the explosion-proof type approved for the use
in Class I Group C hazardous locations and shall have metal cages or guards protecting the
globs.

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(2) The fixtures in (1) above shall be located as close as practicable to the ceiling to avoid
their being damaged through handling of film containers.
21.5.4 Film Vault Circuits
(1) Fixtures shall be controlled by a double pole switch located outside the film vault.
(2) A red pilot light shall be provided to indicate when the switch is closed and shall be
located outside the film vault.
(3) Wiring shall be arranged so that, when the switch is off, all conductors within the film
vault will be dead.
21.6

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS

21.6.1 Lamps in Projection Rooms


(1) Incandescent lamps in projection rooms or booths shall be provided with a lamp guard
unless otherwise protected by noncombustible shades or other enclosures.
21.6.2 Arc Lamp Current Supply
(1) Motor generator sets, frequency changers, transformers, rectifiers, rheostats, and similar
equipment for the supply or control of current to arc lamps or projectors shall be located
in a room separate from the projection room.
21.6.3 Ventilation
(1) Exhaust ventilation fans for the projection room shall be controlled from inside the
projection room.
21.7

MOTORS AND GENERATORS

(1) Motors and generators having brushes or sliding contacts, other than those used on
studio stages or those installed in accordance with Clause 21.6.2, shall be of approved dust
tight or enclosed types.

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SECTION

22

DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING INSTALLATION

22.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section of the Code applies to the installation of x-ray and other diagnostic
imaging equipment operating at any frequency. However, it does not specify safeguards
against direct, stray, or secondary radiation emitted by the equipment.

22.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(1) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings:
a) C22.1: 1990

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

b) NFPA70INEC:1986

National Fire Protection Association/American National


Electrical Code, 1987 Edition.

22.3

DEFINITIONS

(1) For the purpose of this Section, in addition to the tenns defined in Section 1, the following
definitions shall apply when referring to x-ray or,computerized tomography equipment,

longutlme rating

a rating that is applicable for an operating period of'S.Omin or more.

momentary rating

a rating that is applicable for an operating period of not more than


20.0s.

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22.4

mGH-VOLTAGE GUARDING

(1) High-voltage parts shall be mounted within metal enclosures that are bondedto earth except
when installed in separate rooms or enclosures where a suitable switch shall be:
a) provided to control the circuit supplying diagnostic imaging equipment, and
b) arranged so that it will be in an open position except when the door of the room or
enclosure is locked.
(2) High voltage parts of diagnostic imaging equipment shall be insulated from the enclosure.
(3) Conductors in the high voltage circuits shall be of the shock-proof type.
(4) A milliammetre, if provided, shall be:
a) connected, if practicable, in the lead that is bonded to earth.,or
b) guarded if connected in the high voltage lead.

22.5

CONNECTIONS TO SUPPLY ClkCUIT

(1) Permanently connected diagnostic imaging equipment shall be connected to the power
source by means of a wiring method meeting the general requirements of this Code except that
equipment properly supplied by a branch circuit rated at not over 30.0A shall be permitted to
be supplied through a suitable attachment plug and hard-service cable or cord.

(2) Mobile diagnostic imaging equipment of any capacity may be connected to its power source
by .suitable temporary connections and hard-usage cable or cord.

22.6

DISCONNECTING MEANS

_(1) A disconnecting means of adequate capacity for at-least 50% of the input required for the
momentary rating or 100% of the input required. for the long-time rating of. x-ray or:
computerized tomography equipment, whichever is greater, shall be provided in the supply
circuit in a location readily accessible from the radiation control.

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SECTION 22: DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING INSTALLATION

22.7

TRANSFORMERS AND CAPACITORS

(1) Capacitors forming part of a diagnostic Imaging equipment shall be provided with an
automatic means for discharging and grounding the plates whenever the transformer primary is
disconnected from the source of supply unless all current-carrying parts of the capacitors and of
the conductors connected therewith are:
a) at least 2.5m from the floor and are inaccessible to unauthorized persons, or
b) within metal enclosures that are bonded to earth or within enclosures of insulating
material if within 25m of the floor.

22.8

CONTROL

(1) For stationary equipment, the low-voltage circuit of the step-up transformer shall contain
an overcurrent device which:

a) has no exposed live parts,


b) protects the radiographic circuit against fault conditions under all operating conditions,
and
c) is installed as part of the equipment or adjacent thereto.
(2) Where as in (1) above, the design of the step-up transformer is such ~at branch fuses
having a current rating lower than that of the overcurrent device are required for adequate
protection for fluoroscopic and therapeutic circuits, they shall be added for the protection of
these circuits.
(3) For portable equipment, the requirements of (1) and (2) above shall apply; but, the
overcurrent device shall be located in or on the equipment except that no current-limiting device
is required when the high-voltage parts are within a single metal enclosure that is provided with
a means for bonding to earth.
(4) Where more than one piece of equipment is operated' from the same high-voltage circuit,
each piece or group of equipment, as a unit, shall be provided with a high-voltage switch or
equivalent disconnecting means.

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22.9

AMPACITY OF
PROTECTION

SUPPLY CONDUcrORS

AND RATING OF

OVERCURRENT

(1) The ampacity of supply conductors and the rating of overcurrent protection devices shall not
be less than:

a) the long-time current rating of x-ray or computerized tomography equipment, or


b) 50% of the maximum momentary current rating required by x-ray or computerized
tomography equipment on a radiographic setting.
(2) Theampacity of conductors and the rating of overcurrent protection devices for two or more
branch circuits supplying x-ray or computerized tomography units shall not be less than:
a) the sum of the long-time current rating of all x-ray or computerized tomography units
which are intended to be operated at anyone time, or
b) the sum of 50% the maximum momentary current rating for x-ray or .computerized
tomography equipment on a radiographic setting for the two largest units plus 20% of
the maximum current rating of the other units.
22.10 .BONDING

(1) Non-current-carrying parts of tube stands, tables and othes apparatus shall be bonded to
earth in accordance with the requirements of Part I, -Section 7 of this Code.

----------

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SECTION

23

ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS

23.1

SCOPE

(1) This Section applies to the installation of electrical communication systems including
information processing systems.

23.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCE

(1) The following reference contains provisions which, through reference In this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings:
a) C221: 1990

23.3

Canadian Electrical Code Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth: Edition.

GENERAL

23.3.1 Circuits in Communication Cables


(1) Radio and television circuits, r;emote control circuits, fire alarm circuits, or parts thereof
shall be:

a) permitted to use conductors in a cable assembly of communication building entrance


having other conductors used as communication circuits,
b) deemed to be communication circuits within the portions of circuits that use conductors
within the communication building entrance cable assembly, and
c) suitably protected at the point of interface connection with the communication cable
conductors.

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. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

23.3.2 Hazardous Locations


(1) Where the wiring orelectrical equipment within the scope of this Section is installed in
hazardous locations as defmed in Sections 11, 12, or 14, it shall also comply with the applicable
Clauses of those Sections.

23.3.3 Approved Transformers .


.(1) Where transformers or other devices supply current to a communication circuit. from an>
electric supply circuit, the transfomiers or other devices shall be of a type approved for the
service.

23.4

INSIDE CONDUCTORS

23.4.1. Conductors Arrangement


(1) Conductors shall
be neatly
arranged and'secured in place in aconvenient and workmanlike
.
.
manner.

. (2) Raceways for communication circuits'shall be installed in accordance with the requirements
of Section 10 and, in case of metal, they shall be earthed in accordance with the provisions of .
Section 7.

23.4.2 Insulation
(1) Wire and cable used for communication system in a building shall be of the approved types
as specified in Annex B, Section 4 of this Standard.

; 23.4.3 Earthing Conductors with an Outer Metal Covering


(1) Where a conductor or cable is equipped with an outer metal covering, the covering shall be
earthed.

23.4.4 Separation from Other Conductors


(1) The conductors of an electrical communication system in buildings shall be separated at least

. SO.Omm from any insulated conductor of a Class 1 circuit or an electric light or power system

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SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATJON SYSTEMS

operating at 380.0V or less, and shall be separated at least 600.0mm from any insulated
conductor or an electric light or power system operating at more than 380.0V unless:
a) one system is in earthed metal raceways, metal sheathed cable, or earthed armoured
cable,
'b) the Class 1 circuit or electric light or power system operating at 380.0V or less utilizes
a nonmetallic sheathed cable or hard-usage or extra-hard-usage flexible cord, or
c) both systems are permanently separated by a continuous, firmly fixed non-meta! raceway
in addition to the insulation of the conductors.
(2) Where the light or power conductors are bare, all communication conductors in the same
room or space shall be enclosed in an earthed metal raceway and. no opening, such as an outlet
box, may be located within 2.0m of bare conductors of up to and including 15.0kV or.within
/
3.0m of bare conductors above 15.0kV.
(3) The conductors of an electrical communication system shall not be placed in any outlet box,
junction box, raceway, or similar fitting or compartment which contains conductors of electric
light or power systems or of Class 1 circuits (as defined in Section 10) unless:
a) the communication conductors are separated from the other conductors by an acceptable
partition, or
b) the power or Class 1 conductors are placed solely for the purpose of supplying power
to the communication system, or for connection to remote control equipment.
(4) The conductors of an electrical communication system in a building shall not be placed in
a shaft with the conductors of an electric light or power system unless:
a) the conductors of all systems are insulated and are separated by at least 50.0mm, or
b) the conductors of either system are encased in noncombustible tubing.

23.4.5 Penetration of a Fire Separation


(1) Conductors of communication circuits extending through a fire separation shall be installed
so as to limit the spread of fire.

23.4.6 Communication Cable in Hoistways


(1) Special permission shall be required to install communication conductors in hoistways.

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(2) All conductors, except travelling cables, shall be totally enclosed in continuous metal
raceway.
(3) Pullboxes required for communication interconnection shall be located outside the hoistway.
23.4.7 Communication Conductors in Ducts and Plenum Chambers
(1) .Communication conductors shall not be placed in ducts or plenum chambers except as
permitted by relevant Clauses of Section 8.
23.4.8 Data Processing Systems
(1) The interconnecting' cables used in data processing systems shall be permitted to contain
power and communication conductors where such cables are specifically approved for the
purpose.

23.4.9 Conductors under Raised Floors


(1) Conductors or communication circuits shall be allowed to be installed, without additional
mechanical protection, under a raised floor provided that:
a) the raised floor is of suitable noncombustible construction;
b) at least a 50.0mm separation is provided and maintained where the conductors are used
to serve data processing systems and are placed parallel to any other power supply
wiring; and
c) the conductors serve the equipment located only on the floor above the raised floor,
. where the space under the raised floor is used as an air plenum.
23.4.10

Conductors in Concealed Installations

(1) Where the ends of cables or conductors are not terminated on a device, they shall be capped
or taped.

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SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

23.4.11

Type CFC Under-Carpet Wiring System

23.4.11.1 General
(l) The provisions of Clause 23.4.11 apply to the installation of communication flat-cable-type
(CFC) systems which, together with the connecting devices, shall be approved or acceptable for
the purpose.

23.4.11.2 Use permitted


(1) Type CFC system wiring shall be permitted to be used:
a) only under carpet squares not exceeding 750.0mm, and any adhesive used shall be of
release type;
b) as an extension of conventional wiring to serve areas or zones, and each run of wiring
from the transition point shall not exceed 15.0m;
c) on hard, smooth, continuous floor surface made of concrete if sealed, ceramic or
composition flooring, wood, or similar material; .
d) in dry or interior damp locations;

e) on floors heated in excess of 30C only, if approved and identified for that purpose.

23.4.11.3 Use prohibited


(l) Type CFC system wiring shall not be used:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

outdoors or in wet locations;

where subject to corrosive vapours or liquids;

in hazardous locations;

in dwelling units;

in hospitals or institutional buildings except in office areas;

f) on walls except when entering the transition point;

g) under permanent type partitions or walls.

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23.4.11.4 Floor protective coverings


(l) Type CFC system wiring shall be covered with abrasion resistant tape, secured to the floor
so as to completely cover all cables, comers, and bare conductor ends.

23.4.11.5 Coverings
(l) Type CFC system wiring shall be permitted to cross over or under each other, and over or
under power supply system wiring provided there is a layer of earthed metal shielding between
the CFC and the power supply system cables.

23.4.11.6 System height


(l) Type CFC system wiring shall not be stacked on top of each other except as required to
enter the transition point.

23.4.11.7 Earthing of shields


(1) Type CFC system wiring equipped with.a metal shield shall be earthed.'

23.5

EQUIPMENT

23.5.1 Communication Equipment in Bathrooms


(1) Communication equipment located in a bathroom shall be permanently fixed on the wall,
and shall be located so that no part may be reached or used from the bath or from the shower
enclosure; however, it shall be permitted to be actuated by means of a cord with an insulating
link. ,
(2) Communication jacks shall not be located in a bathroom.

23.5.2 Equipment in Air Ducts, Plenums, or Suspended Ceilings


(1) Communication equipment and terminals shall not be placed in ducts, plenums, or hollow
spaces which are used to transport air nor in suspended ceiling areas except where a duct,
plenum, or hollow space is created by a suspended ceiling having lay-in panels or tiles;
connecting blocks which are a non-protective type may be installed provided they are placed in
an accessible enclosure.

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SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

23.5.3 Exposed Equipment and Terminations


(1) Exposed communication equipment and/or associated terminations shall be located in a
suitable room separate from electrical light or power installations, except where necessary to
place them in a joint-use room in which case a minimum separation of900.0mm from electrical
equipment requiring adjustment and maintenance shall be provided and maintained.

23.5.4 Earth Circuits


(l) Communication circuits connected to a telecommunication network and having return path
via local earth or other circuitry which similarly could present a fire hazard, shall be provided
with a current-limiting device installed in or adjacent to the equipment of a type recommended
by the equipment manufacturer as suitable for the application, which will limit the current under
normal operating conditions and under fault conditions, to prevent fire hazards.

23.5.5 Communication Systems in Hospitals


(1) Exposed non-current-carrying metal parts, if they could become. energized, of
communications equipment, other than telephone sets, installed in general, intermediate, and
critical care areas. of hospitals shall be earthed to conform with the requirements of
Clause 14.4.2(5).

23.6

OUTSIDE CONDUCTORS

23.6.1 Overhead Conductors on Poles


(1) The installation of overhead communication conductors on poles in proximity with power
conductors shall be established in conformity with the rules and regulations of the Ethiopian
Electric Light & Power Authority (EELPA).

23.6.2 Overhead Conductors on Roofs


(I) Communication conductors passing over buildings shall be kept at least 205m above any roof
which may readily be walked upon.
(2) Communication conductors shall not be attached to the upper surfaces of roofs or be run
.within 2.0m, measured vertically, of a roof without special permission.

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23.6.3 Lightning Conductors


(1) Separation of at least 2.0m shall, where practicabl~, be maintained between conductors of
communication circuits on buildings and lightning conductors.

23.6.4 Swimming Pools


(1) Where wires or cables are installed over or adjacent to swimming pools, they shall be paced
in accordance with the provisions of Clauses 25.4.2 and 25.4.3 of Section 25.

23.7

UNDERGROUND CIRCUITS

23.7.1 Direct Buried Systems


(1) Where communication conductors or cable assemblies are direct buried, the sheath shall be
suitable for direct burial and the conductor or cable assembly shall:
a) not be installed in the same vertical plane with other underground systems, except when
installed in accordance with (g) below;
b) maintain a minimum horizontal separation of 300.0mm from other underground systems,
except when installed in accordance with (g) below;
c) not be less than 600.0mm deep, unless rock bottom is encountered at a shallower depth
in which case a minimum depth of 4S0.0mm shall be permitted, except that for service
wire under parkways and lawns, the depth may be reduced to 4S0.0mm;
d) be placed with a layer of sand 7S.0mm deep, both above and below the cable, if in rocky
or stony ground;
e) not be less than 900,Omm deep under an area which is subject to vehicular traffic, except
that the depth may be reduced to 600,Omm when mechanical protection is provided,
. which shall consist of:
i) treated plank at least 38.0mm thick or other acceptable material which shall be placed
over the conductor or cable after first backfilling with 7S.0mm of sand or earth
containing no rocks or stones, or
ii) a conduit suitable for earth burial placed to facilitate cable replacement and to
minimize traffic vibration damage;

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SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

f) not be placed in a common trench involving random separation with power supply cables

or wires operating at over 750.0V; and


g) have a metal sheath when placed in a common trench involving random separation with
power supply cables or wiring operating at 750.0V or less, in which case the
communication conductor or cable assembly shall not cross under the supply cables,

23.7.2 Underground Raceway


(1) Where communication conductors or cable assemblies are placed in underground raceway
systems:
a) the raceway, including laterals, shall be separated from those used forthe electric power
system by not less than 50.0mm of concrete or 300.0mm of well-tamped earth;
b) the raceway shall be located to maintain minimum depth of 600.0mm in areas subject
to vehicular traffic and, 450.0mm in all other areas, except that where rock bottom is
encountered at a shallower depth, the raceway shall be encased in concrete;
c) the raceway shall not terminate in the same .manhole, and the conductors or cable
assembly shall not be placed in the same manhole used for electric power system;
d) the cables shall not be placed in the same raceway containing electric lighting or power
supply cables; and
e) the cable sheath shall be suitable for wet locations.

23.8

EARTHING

23.8.1Bon~ing

of Cable Sheath

(1) Where cables, either overhead or underground, enter buildings, the metal sheath or shield
of the cable shall be bonded to earth as close as practicable to the point of entrance or shall be
interrupted as close as practicable to the point of entrance by an insulating joint or equivalent
device.

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23.8.2 Cable-Sheath Bonding Conductor


(1) The cable-sheath bonding conductor required by Clause 23.8.1 shall have an ampacity equal
to or greater than that of the outer conductive sheath of the exposed cable except that the
bonding conductor shall not be required to be larger than 10.0mm 2 copper.
23.8.3 Earthing Electrode
(1) Earthing conductor shall preferably be connected to a water-pipe earthing electrode as close
to the point
entrance as possible.

of

(2) Where waterpipe is not readily available and the earthing conductor of the power
consumer's service is connected to the water pipe at the building, the communication system
earthing conductor may be connected to the metal conduit, service equipment enclosures, or to .
.
.
the earthing conductor of the power consumer's service.
\

(3) In the absence of waterpipe, the communication earthing conductor may be connected to
an effectively earthed metal structure or toan earth rod or pipe driven into. permanently damp
earth; but:
a) steam, gas, or hot water pipes or lightning rod conductors shall not be used as earthing
electrodes; and
b) a driven rod or. pipe used for earthing power circuits shall not be used as a:
communication earthing electrode unless it is connected to the earthed conductor of a
multi-earthed power neutral.
(4) Where a driven earth rod or pipe is used as an earthing electrode for an electrical
communication system, it shall be separated by at least 2.0m from any other electrodes,
including those used for power circuits, radio, lightning rods, or for any other purpose and shall
be bonded only to that of the power circuits in accordance with applicable Clauses of Section 7.
(5) The nonnallength of driven earth rod used as the earthing electrode for a communication
system is 15m; but, where the normal rod would not reach moist soil when installed, a rod of
suitable additional length shall be used.

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SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

23.8.4 Earthing Electrode Connection


(1) The earthing conductor shall be attached to an earthing electrode by means of an approved
bolt clamp except that, in the case of an earth rod, a wire lead may be permanently connected
to the rod.
_(2) Where a bolt clamp is used, the earthing conductor shall be soldered or otherwise acceptably
connected to the clamp in an effective manner.
23.8.5 Bonding of Electrodes
(l) A copper conductor not smaller than 10.0mm2 shall be connected between communication
and power earthing electrodes when separate artificial earthing electrodes are required as
described per Clause 23.8.3.

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SECTION

24

COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLATION


FOR RADIO AND TELEVISION
RECEPTION

24.1.

SCOPE

(l) This Section applies to the installation of:

a) community antenna assembly,


b) head station (amplifier and other power sources), and
c) distribution network (conductors, branching boxes and antenna or feeder outlets).

24.2

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

(l) The following references contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of the Ethiopian Building Code Standard on Electrical Installation of Buildings:

a) C22.1:1990

.Canadian electrical Code, Part 1, Safety Standard for Electrical


Installations, Sixteenth Edition.

b) IEC 597

Aerials for the Reception of Sound and Television Broadcasting in


the Frequency Range 30.0MHZ to 1.0GHZ:

i) Part 1-1977, Electrical and mechanical characteristics.


ii) Part 2-1977 Methods of measurement of electrical performance parameters.
. iii) Part 3-1983 Methods of measurement of mechanical properties, vibration and
environmental tests.
iv) Part 4-1984 Guide for the preparation ofaerial performance specification, detailed
specification sheet format.

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SECTION 24: COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLATION

c) IEC 728: 1982

24.3

Cabled Distribution System Primarily Intended for Sound and


Television Signals Operating between 30.0MHz and I.OGHz.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

24.3.1 Mechanical
(I) A community antenna shall comply with- all mechanical properties or requirements outlined

in the IEC 597 and IEC 728.


24.3.2 Electrical
(I) A community antenna shall:

a) be designed for the reception of signals within the permitted bandwidth for sound and
television broadcasting;
b) be immune to extraneous signal interference; and
c) comply with all ether necessary electrical parameters that are required for the satisfactory
operation of the system (see IEC 597 and IEC 728).

24.4

EQUIPMENT

24.4.1 Community Antenna Distribution Amplifiers and Other Power Sources


(l) Amplifiers and other devices which supply current to a community antenna distribution
circuit from an electric supply circuit shall be approved for the purpose.

(2) Where amplifiers and other power devices are connected to an electric supply circuit and
enclosed in a cabinet, the cabinet shall be so .located as to be readily accessible and shall be
adequately ventilated.
(3) The chassis and cabinets of the community antenna distribution amplifier or other power
sources, the outer conductive shield of the coaxial cables, and the metal conduit or the metal
cable sheath enclosing the electric supply conductors shall all be connected to the system earth
with a minimum of 16.0m2 copper conductor.

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(4) Where a cabinet containing an amplifier or other power device is mounted accessible to the
public, it shall be provided with a lock or similar closing device.

24.4.2 Exposed Equipment and Terminations


(1) Exposed community antenna distribution equipment and/or associated terminations shall be
located in a suitable room or similar area, separate from electrical light or power installations,
except where necessary to place them in a joint-usc room in which case a minimum separation
of 900.0mm from electrical equipment requiring adjustment and maintenance shall be provided
and maintained.

24.4.3 Equipment Earthing


(1) Non-powered equipment and enclosures or equipment powered exclusively hy the coaxial
cable shall be considered earthed when they are effectively connected to the earthed outer
conductive coaxial cable shield.

24.5

COMMUNITY ANTENNA DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

24.5.1 Conductor
(1) The conductors used in the distribution network shall consist of coaxial cable having inner
conductor and an outer conductive shield of circular cross-section.'
(2) Conductors placed within buildings shall be of the approved types as specified in Annex B,
Section 4, of this Code.
(3) Conductors placed outside of buildings shall be of the types that are acceptable for the
application.

24.5.2 Voltage Limitation


(1) The coaxial cable shall be permitted to deliver low energy power to equipment directly
associated with the community antenna distribution circuits if the voltage is not over 60.0V and
if the current supply is from an approved amplifier, transformer, or other device having energy
limiting characteristics.

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24.5.3 Hazardous Locations

(1) Where the circuits or equipment within the scope of this Section are installed in hazardous
locations, they shalt also comply with the applicable Clauses of Sections 12, 13 and 14.
24.5.4 Supports
(l) Where conductors are attached to or supported on buildings, the attachment or supporting

fixtures shall be acceptable for the purpose.


24.5.5 Earthing of Outer Conductive Shield of a Coaxial Cable
(l) Where coaxial cable is exposed to lightning or to accidental contact with lightning arrester

conductors or power conductors operating at voltage exceeding 380.0V-to-earth, the outer


conductive shield of the coaxial cable shall be earthed at the building as close to the point of
cable entry as possible.
(2) Where the outer conductive shield of a coaxial cable is earthed, no other protective device
shall be required.
(3) Earthing of a coaxial cable shield by means of a protective device shall be permitted
provided that the device does not interrupt the earthing system within the building.
24.5.6 Earthing Conductor
(l) The earthing conductor for the outer conductive shield of a coaxial cable shall have rubber

insulation not less than O.8mm in thickness, and shall be covered by a substantial fibrous
covering except that conductors acceptable for the purpose, having less than O.8mm rubber
insulation, or having other kinds of insulation, may be used.
(2) The earthing conductor shall be of copper.
(3) The earthing conductors shall be not smaller than 2.5mm2
(4) The earthing conductor shall have an ampacity equal to or greater than that of the outer
conductive sheath of the exposed coaxial cable.

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(5) Where two or more coaxial cables, which have outer conductive shields differing in size and
ampacity, join at a common connection to the earthing conductor, the ampacity of the earthing
conductor shall be equal to or exceed the ampacity of the largest coaxial outer conductive shield.
(6) The earthing conductor shall be fun from the coaxial cable shield to the earthing electrode
in as straight a line as possible.
(7) The earthing conductor shall be protected in situations where it is or can be exposed to
mechanical damage.
24.5.7 Earthing Electrode
(1) Earthing electrodes shall conform to the requirements of relevant Clauses of Section 7.

(2) Where artificial earthing electrodes are installed, they shall be in accordance with applicable
Clauses of Section 7 except that the minimum driven length of the rod electrode shall be 2.0m.
(3) Artificial earthing electrodes for community antenna distribution shall be spaced and bonded
with other electrodes in accordance with relevant Clause of Section 7.
24.5.8 Earthing Electrode Connection
(1) The earthing conductor shall be attached to an earthing electrode by means ofan approved
earth clamp except, in the case of an earth rod, a wire lead may be permanently connected to
the rod and the wire lead connected to the earthing conductor by means of pressure connector
or other acceptable means.

(2) Where an earth clamp is used, the earthing conductor shall be acceptably connected to the
clamp in an effective manner.
24.6

CONDUCTORS WITHIN BUILDINGS

24.6.1 Separation from Other Conductors


(1) Conductors of community antenna distribution circuits shall be separated at least 50.0mm
from insulated conductors of electric lighting, power, or Class 1 circuits operating at 380.0V or
less, and shall be separated at least 600.0mm from any insulated conductor of an electric

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SECTION 24: COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLATION

lighting, power, or Class 1 circuit operating at more than 380.0V unless effective separation is
afforded by use of:
a) earthing metal raceways for the community antenna distribution circuits, or for the
electric lighting, power and Class 1 circuits,
b) earthed metal sheathed or armoured cable for the electric lighting, power, and Class 1
conductors,
c) nonmetallic sheathed cable for the electric lighting, power, and Class 1 circuits operating
at 380.0V or less, or
d) raceways of a non-metal type as permitted in Section 8 in addition to the insulation on
the community antenna distribution circuit conductors, or the electric lighting power, and
Class 1 circuit conductors.
(2) Where the electric lighting or power conductors are bare, all community antenna distribution
conductors in the same room or space shall be enclosed in an earthed metal raceway and no
opening, such as an outlet box, shall be located within 2.0m 'of bare conductors of up to and
including 15.0kV or within 3.0m of bare conductors above 15.0kV.
(3) The conductors of a community antenna- distribution circuit shall not be placed in any
raceway, compartment, outlet box, junction box, or similar fitting which contains conductors of
electric light, power, or Class 1 circuit unless:
a) the conductors of the community antenna distribution circuit are separated from the
electric light, power, or Class 1 circuit conductors by an acceptable barrier, or
b) the power or Class 1 conductors .are placed solely for the purpose of supplying power
to the community antenna distribution circuit.

24.6.2 Conductors in a Vertical Shaft


(1) Conductors of a community antenna distribution circuit in a vertical shaft shall be in a
totally enclosed noncombustible raceway.

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24.6.3 Penetration of a Fire Separation


(l) Conductors of a community antenna distribution circuit extending through fire separation
shall be so installed as to limit fire spread.
24.6.4 .Community Antenna Distribution Conductors in Ducts and. Plenum Chambers
(1) Community antenna distribution conductors shall not be placed in ducts or plenum chambers
except as permitted by relevant Clauses of Section 2 and Section 8 of this Code.
24.6.5 Raceways
(1) Raceways shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 8.
24.7

CONDUCTORS OUTSIDE OF BUILDINGS

24.7.1 Overhead Conductors on Poles


(1) The installation of overhead community antenna distribution conductors in proximity with
power conductors on poles and in aerial spans between buildings, poles, and other structures
shall be established in conformity with rules and regulations of EELPA .
24.7.2 Overhead Conductors on Roofs
(l) Community antenna distribution conductors 'passing over buildings shall be kept at least
2.5m above any roof which may be readily walked upon.
(2) Community antenna distribution conductors shall not be attached to the upper surfaces of
roofs or be run within 2.5m, measured vertically, of a roof without special permission.
24.7.3 Conductors on Buildings
(l) Community antenna distribution conductors on buildings shall be separated from insulated
light or power conductors not in cable or conduit by at least 300.0mm unless, in addition to the
insulation on the conductors, they are permanently separated by a continuous and firmly fixed
non-metal type raceway as permitted in Section 8 .

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SECTION 24: COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLAT10N

(2) Community antenna distribution conductors subject to accidental contact with light or power
conductors operating at voltages exceeding 380.0V and attached exposed to buildings shall be
separated from combustible material by being supported on glass, porcelain, or other insulating
material acceptable for the purpose, except that such separation is not required where the outer
conductive sheath of the coaxial cable is earthed.
(3) Community antenna distribution conductors attached to buildings shall not conflict with
other communication conductors attached to the. same building and sufficient clearance shall be
provided so that there will not be unnecessary interference to maintenance operations; and in no
case should the conductors, strand, or equipment of one system cause abrasion to the conductors,
strand, or equipment of the other system.

24.7.4 Conductors Entering Buildings


(1) The community antenna distribution conductors shall enter the building either through a
noncombustible, non-absorptive insulating bushing or through a metal raceway except that the
insulating bushing or raceway may be omitted where" the"entering conductors pass through
masonry or are acceptable for the purpose.
24.7.5 Swimming Pools

(1) Where conductors are installed over or adjacent to swimming pools, they shall be placed in
accordance with the provisions of Clauses 25.4.2 and 25.4.3, Section 25 of this Code.

24.8

UNDERGROUND CONDUCTORS

24.8.1 Direct Buried Systems


(1) Where community antenna distribution conductors are direct buried, the sheath shall be
suitable for direct burial and the conductor shall be:
a) installed outside of the same vertical plane which contains differing underground
conductors other than communication conductors, except when installed in accordance
with (f) below;
b) maimtained at a minimum horizontal separation of 300.0mm from differing underground
conductors other than communication conductors, except when installed in accordance
with paragraph (f) below;
I" ;

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ELECTRICAL INSTALl ATION OF BUILDINGS

c) placed at a minimum depth of 600.0mm, unless rock bottom is encountered at a


shallower depth, in which case a minimum depth of 450.0mm shall be permitted, except
that for service wires under parkways and lawns, the depth may be reduced to 450.0mm;
d) placed with a layer of sand 75.0mm deep, both above and below the cable, if in rocky
or stony ground;
e) placed at a minimum depth of 900.0mm under an area which is subject to vehicular
traffic, except that the depth may be reduced to 600.0mm when mechanical protection
is provided which shall consist of:
i) treated plank at least 38.0mm thick or other acceptable material which Shall be placed
over the conductor or cable after first back-filling with 75.0mm of sand or earth
containing no rocks or stones; or
ii) a conduit suitable for earth burial placed to facilitate cable replacement and to
minimize traffic vibration damage; and
f) equipped with a metal shield when placed in a common trench involving random

separation with power supply cables or wiring operating at 750.0V or less, in which case
the community antenna distribution conductors shall not cross under the supply cables.
24.8.2 Underground Raceway
(1) Where community antenna distribution conductors are placed in underground raceway
systems:

a) the raceway, including materials, shall be separated from those used for the electric
power system by not less than 50.0mm of concrete or 300.0mm of well-tamped earth;
b) the raceway shall be located to maintain a minimum depth of 600.0mm in areas subject
to vehicular traffic and 450.0mm in all other areas except that, where rock bottom it
encountered at shallower depth, the raceway shall be encased in concrete;
c) the raceway shall not terminate in the same manhole and the conductors or cable
assembly shall not be placed in the same manhole, used for electric po~er system;
d) the conductors shall not be placed in the same raceway containing electric lighting,
power or Class 1 circuit conductors; and
e) the cable sheath shall be suitable for wet locations..

428

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SECTION 24: COMMUNrlY ANTENNA INSTALLATION

24.8.3 Underground Block Distribution


(1) Where the entire street circuit is run underground and the circuit is placed so.that it is,not
liable to be in contact with electric lighting, power, or Class I circuits of more than 380.0V,
insulating bushings or raceways shall not be required where the circuit conductors enter a
building.

24.9

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS FOR RECEIVING STATIONS

24.9.1 Lightning Arrester


(1) A lightning arrester shall:

a) be provided for each lead-in conductor from an outdoor antenna to a receiving station
except where such lead-in conductor is protected by a continuous earthed metal shield
between the antenna and the point of entrance to the building;
b) be located outside the building or inside the building between the point of entrance or
the lead-in and the radio set or transformer, and as near as practicable to the entrance to
the conductors to the building; and .'
c) not be located near combustible material nor in a hazardous location.

24.9.2

Earthing Conductor

24.9.2.1

Material

(1) The earthing conductor shall be of copper, aluminium alloy, copper-clad steel, bronze, or
other corrosion-resistant material unless otherwise specified.

24.9.2.2

Insulation

(1) The earthing conductor may be uninsulated,

24.9.2.3

Support

(1) The earthing conductor shall be securely fastened in place and may be directly attached to
the supporting surface without the use of insulating supports.

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24.9.2.4

Mechanical protection

(1) The earthing conductor shall be protected where

24.9.2.5

l:XPOSl:U

to mcchunicul injury.

Earthing conductor to be run in a straight line

(1) The earthing conductor shall be run. in as straight a line as is practicable from the lightning
arresters of antenna mast, or both, to the earthing electrode.

24.9.3

Earthing Electrode

24.9.3.1

Earthing electrode

(1) The earthing conductor shall be connected to an earthing electrode as specified in Section 7.

24.9.3.2

Earthtng conductors

(1) The earthing conductor may be run either inside or outside the building.

24.9.3.3

Size ofprotective earth

(1) The size of protective earthing conductor for receiving stations providing earth connection
for mast and lightning arresters shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.

24.9.3.4

Common earth

(1) A single earthing conductor may be used for both protective and operating purposes; but it
must be installed so that disconnection of the operating earth will not be after the protective
earth circuit.

\
\

<..,

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ANNEX

A (INFORMATIVE)

ANTENNA (AERIAL) SYSTEMSt

A.I

GENERAL

A.I.!

Introduction

An efficient antenna installation is one of the prerequisites for interference-free reception of


radio and television transmission. This can be expected to perform satisfactorily only if it has
been competently desinged and constructed.

A.I.2 Terminology

individual antenna,

antenna installations that supply radio and television signals to


a single household. Modem household are provided with a
number of antenna sockets. To make an adequate signal level
available at each socket, amplifiers may also be required in
some individual antenna installations (see Figure A.I).

community antenna system

antenna installations that supply radio and television signals to


households in one or more buildings. They consists of an
antenna assembly, a head station (amplifier unit) and the
distribution network including the cables, branch-in units,
antenna sockets and the associated receiver connection cables
(see Figure A.3).
It is usual nowadays to install community aerial systems in
apartment buildings. They are considerably more satisfactory

than large number of individual antennas because mutual


interference is eliminated and the most suitable position on the
roof can be chosen for the antenna.

See Siemens' Electrical Installation Handbook, Part 3, 1979, Siemens.

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

private wide-band system

a special form of the community antenna installation. The


signals to be received are fed to the private wide-band system
from a primary cable network (see Figure A.2).

A.l.3 Regulation and Specification

Broadcast receiving antenna installations must comply with the requirements and regulations of
the Ethiopian Telecommunication Authority, if any, or shall meet the technical requirements
outlined in any applicable international standard.
A.2

PLANNING

Before the planning of a system is started, an accurate survey of the site should be carried out.
In the process, the following data should be collected with the aid of the building plans <;>r from
the direct observation:
Number and position of antenna sockets - Modem antenna system should be equipped with at
least two, and preferably three or four, antenna sockets per apartment. The number and position
of the sockets must be known for planning purposes.
Sound and television broadcast transmissions - The choice of transmission that are worth
receiving depends on the reception conditions. If these are not known, measurement must be
undertaken with a suitable signal-strength meter.
Position of antenna - The antenna should be erected in the most satisfactory position for
reception and be as far positioned as possible from chimney and power cables.
Amplifiers, frequency-converters and power-supply units - A readily accessible location should
be determined for the head station under the roof. It must also be confirmed that a connection
to the electricity supply is available, or can be provided, close to the head unit. (see,
Figure A.3)
Quality of reception - To assess the quality of reception, it is necessary to make measurement
with a suitable signal strength meter. The measurement point is determined by the antenna
location appropriate to the building. If a different location is more satisfactory from the point
of view of reception, it should be adopted after consultation with the building owner or the
architect.

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SECTION 24: COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLATION

A.3

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

A.3.t

General

The distribution system begins at the output of the head station and ends at the antenna socket
outlets. Its purpose is to prov ide reliable transmission of the signal from the head stations
through the sockets to the radio and television receivers.
A.3.2 Junction Boxes

Distribution boxes and branching boxes are generally referred to by the term "junction boxes".

Distribution boxes are advantageous where main feeders are run close together, e.g. in apartment

blocks and high-rise buildings, in which no long feeder lines are necessary.

In long buildings or terrace houses, the use of branching boxes is more satisfactory.

Examples of different types of junction boxes are shown in Figure A.4.

A.3.3 Antenna Sockets

Antenna socket outlets are distinguished according to their mode of application in the distribution
network and their transmission characteristics. Depending on the application, there are available
through-wired sockets, which are used in network arranged on the loop-through principle
(socketsfed in series, Figure A.5) and spur sockets which are intended for main-feeder networks
arranged in the spur-line pattern (sockets fed in parallel, Figure A.6).
A.3.4 Combined Distribution Method
In a combined distribution method, the sound radio and television signals are carried over the
same main reeders, The antenna socket outlets incorporate a socket for the sound radio and .
another for the television.
Figure A.7 shows the combined distribution method applied to a community antenna system with
three television channels. Figure A.8 provides a similar arrangement with six television channels.

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A.3.5 Private Wide-Band System


Private wide-band cable-network systems supply subscribers on demand with radio and television
transmissions. These arc comparable in terms of design to large community antenna systems.
The transmissions are obtained from a broadcast receiving station and relayed via cables and
amplifiers to system connection points on the perimeters of the private properties. Following
this, the received signals are amplified and fed to the antenna sockets (see Figure A.9).
A.4

PROTECTION

As a protection against accidental voltage transfer from the electrical installations, all inactive
conductive parts of the antenna system, such as the antenna post, housings, junction boxes and
amplifiers, outer conductors and metallic sheaths of the antenna cables should be connected
together and earthed, or included in the potential equalization system.
For potential equalization, a permanent connection must be made between the antenna system
and the main equipotential conductor (see Figure A.I 0).
A.5

CONSTRUCTION OF A RECEIVING-ANTENNA SYSTEM

A.5.l

General

Reliable performance by radio and television receivers is dependent upon the careful planning
and competent construction of the aerial installation. Information relative to the length and
design of the antenna post is presented in Figure A.ll and A.I2.
A.5.2 Length of Aerial Post
The necessary length and strength of the post is determined by the number and separation of the
antennas. The upper end of the tubular post is usually closed by the LFIMF/HF and USW
antennas. The order of the other antennas is immaterial in itself. It is appropriate, however, to
mount the antennas that present a high wind load near the bottom so long as higher placing is
not called for on grounds of efficient reception.

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A.5.3

Minimum Antenna Separation

Guidance values for the minimum separation "a" in centimeters, between the antennas on the
post are given in Table AI. The separation should be increased for antennas with a larger

number of elements, particularly if they are aimed in the same direction.

The separation between the lowest antenna unit and the roof should be at least 1.Om.

Table A.1 Guidance values for the minimum separation "a" [em] between antennas on the spot

A.5.4

Reception Band

TVI

USW

TVIH

TV IV

TVV

TVI

250

140

140

80

80

USW

140

110

80

80

80

TV III

140

80

80

80

80

TV IV

80

80

80

60

50

TVV

80

80

80

50

50

Wind load and Bending Moment

The bending moment in the tubular antenna post is calculated from:

M,

W1xL 1 + W2xL2 + .... (Nm)

(AI)

where, L is length [m ] and W is windload [N].


A post should be chosen where permissible bending moment (from the manufacturer's data) is
at least equal to the calculated bending moment M, in Equation (AI).
The capacity of the structural parts (buildings) to withstand the forces produced in the antenna
installation shall be verified.

A.5;5

Mounting of the Headstation

The headstation is best mounted under the roof in the immediate vicinity of the antenna post
(Figure AI3). It should be ensured that a loop is formed in the cable (a water trap) before it

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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

enters the head station to prevent condensate from running out of the tabular post into the
amplifier (Figure A.14).
Attention should be paid to good accessibility in consideration of subsequent maintenance. If
there is no suitable wall on which to mount the headstation, it can be mounted on a wooden
board or frame. Where headstations are mounted in public-accessible places such as, for
example, in stair walls, they should preferably be accommodated in lockable cabinets.
A.6

COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE

A.6.1 Measurement on Commissioning


Such measurements should be carried out in commissioning as are necessary to prove the
technical performance of the aerial system.
Table A.3 shows a measurement schedule, representing a community antenna system in tabular
form, in which the test points and the required measurements are detailed and the results record.
To assess picture quality, the assessment symbols given in Table A.2 should be entered in the
measurement schedule.
Table A.2 Assessment grades for interference according to prescribed assessment
criteria

Assessment criteria
Assessment of
interference

Assessment grades

Viewing .distance
relative to picture
height

For common
channel
interference (G)

For reflected
signal
interference
(R)

For
interference
(8)

Not visible

one half

GO

RO

SO

Not visible

5 times

G1

R1

S1

Just visible

5 times

G2

R2

S2

Clearly

5 times

G3

R3

S3

visible

436

EBCS-10 1995

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

SECTION 24: COMMUNITY ANTENNA INSTALLATION

A.6.2 Measurement of Amplifier Output Signal Level


In recording the amplifier output signal level in the headstation, the signal levels from the
individual band amplifiers (LF/MF/HF, USW, VHF, UHF) are measured using a calibrated
receiver and compared with the maximum permissible output signal levels of the amplifiers
according to the manufacturers' data. In this process, the manufacturer's instructions for the
measurements and for the proper adjustment of the amplifiers should be followed.

A.6.3 J1aintenance
Trouble-free operation of the aerial system is assisted by regular checking of the mechanical and
electrical components .
. The following routine checks should be carried out during maintenance;
a) Aerial structure:

- Orientation of aerials,

- Fixing clamps,

- Sealing of roof lead-in,

- Seating of earthing clamps.

b) Headstation:
- Measurements as for commissioning at test points TP 1 and TP2.
- The checking and measurement results from each maintenance operation should be
recorded in a suitable schedule Table AA for comparison with other tests.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

EBCS-10 1995

437

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF BUILDINGS

Tobie A.3 Measurements on eommisslonlng (entries in the measurement schedule)

Recommended additional measurements

Measurements of commissioning

Difference
between vision
and soun