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Chapter 6 Key Issue 1

Name: Christine Young Period: 1rst

Date: 12/8/14

Branch A large fundamental division within a religion.

Denomination a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations.

Sect a relatively small group that has broken away from establish denomination.

Christianity The most widespread religion. It has 3 major branches, Roman Catholics, Protestant, and
Eastern Orthodox. 90% of people in the western hemisphere are Christian. Although there are 3 major
branches, there are also other smaller branches of Christianity such as the Armenian, Coptic, and
Ethiopian Church.

Islam This is the religion of 1.3 billion people and is the predominant religion of the Middle East from
North Africa to Central Asia. Islam is divided into 2 important branches. The first on is Sunni, from the
Arabic word orthodox and Shitte, from the Arabic word for sectarian. Sunni comprises of 83% Muslim
and are the largest branch in most Muslim countries. 16% of Muslims are Shiite and nearly 40% of all
Shiites live in Iran. 15% in Pakistan, 10% each for Iraq and Turkey.

Buddhism - The third largest universalizing religion. It has about 365 million practices. It is most
common in China and parts of Southeast Asia. It revolves around four noble truths. These truths
are: 1. All living beings must endure suffering. 2. Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads
to reincarnation. 3. The goal of life is to escape the endless cycle of suffering and reincarnation
Nirvana. 4. Nirvana is attained through an Eightfold Path, which includes rightness of belief, resolve,
speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.
Sikhism A universalizing religion that is located primarily in India. It has about 23 million
practices. They worship gurus (teachers). It was the path of practice and spiritual
development that lead to insight into the true nature of reality.
Bahai A very new universalizing religion that consists of 7 million practices. It was
founded in Iran. It was created to be a religion that would get rid of racial, class, and
religious prejudice.
Hinduism The largest ethnic religion. Practiced mostly in India. It does not have one set
holy book or god. Practitioners choose the path that they want to follow to reach nirvana.
This involves worshipping mainly one or a few gods.

Confucianism Created by Confucius in China. It was designed as a religion that


emphasizes the ancient Chinese tradition of li. It contains the means by which the Chinese
people should live their daily lives.
Daoism This was a contemporary of Confucius. This type of religion emphasizes the
mysterious and magical aspects of life rather than the importance of public services.
Daoists seek dao or the way or path to draw power from being absorbed in the dao. Dao
cannot be comprehended by reason and knowledge because not everything is knowable.
Taoism splits into many sects, some acting like secret societies, and followers embrace
elements of magic.

Shintoism A distinctive ethnic religion of Japan. Ancient shintoist considered forces of


nature to be divine especially in the Sun and Moon. This was eventually introduced into
Chinese writing facilitated into the recordings of ancient rituals and prayers. This religion still
thrives in Japan.
Judaism This religion plays a role in Western civilization than its number of adherents
would suggest. Christianity and Islam find some roots in this religion. Judaism plays a more
substantial role in Western civilization than its number of adherents would suggest. This
religion is based in the lands bordering the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. This
religion believes in the one all-powerful God
Monotheism Belief that there is only One God.
Polytheism People who believe and worship in a collection of gods.
Animism This religion believes that such inanimate objects such as plants and stones etc,
are animated or have discrete spirits and conscious life. This is a type of African religion
that 10% of Africans follow. In 1980 200 million African were classified to believe in this
religion. Later on the religion declined and was overtaken by Christianity in which now 50%
of Africa is Christian.