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Apa saja perbedaan antara layanan data UMTS yang biasa disebut R99 dengan HSDPA? berikut ini
beberapa perbandingannya (klik pada masing-masing gambar agar lebih jelas):

R99 adalah koneksi yang dedicated, dimana 1 code dialokasikan untuk 1 user, dan akan teralokasi untuk user tersebut hingga koneksinya
berakhir. HSDPA tidak dedicated/shared, pada gambar diatas 5 code dishare untuk 5 user namun setiap user mendapatkan alokasi code
yang tidak tetap setiap waktunya.

R99 menggunakan Power Control, yaitu NodeB mengatur powernya sedemikian rupa untuk memenuhi besar Ec/No tertentu agar user
bisa mendapatkan throughput yang relatif tetap. Sedangkan HSDPA menggunakan Rate Control, dimana power yang dikeluarkan NodeB
tetap namun setiap waktu akan mengubah rate/throughputnya untuk memenuhi besar Ec/No tertentu.

Gambar diatas merupakan ilustrasi dari CN Code tree, warna biru menandakan code yang dapat dialokasikan untuk user, sedangkan
warna merah tidak dapat dialokasikan. R99 dapat memberikan alokasi code untuk user dari code dengan SF=4 hingga SF=512. HSDPA
hanya dapat mengalokasikan code dengan SF=16 saja.


WCDMA code tree fragmentation and what to do about it

Managing the downlink code tree in WCDMA is an important Radio Resource Management
function. As a WCDMA system starts accepting traffic, various branches of the code tree will
be blocked. Ensuring that the code tree is as compact as possible enables the system to
freely allocate higher branches (lower SF). For HSDPA heavy networks this is key in
ensuring the scheduler has at any TTI the maximum SF16 available.
Most UTRAN vendors manage this during the set-up phase. So for example a CS12.2kbps
voice call (SF128) will get the left most SF128 available. This ensures that the right hand
side of the code tree can be allocated to HSDPA. In high traffic situations however, as calls
continuously get set up and released, even this approach might lead to fragmentation. As
an example assume that at time X, SF128,48 was the left most SF128 available and this get
allocated to a UE. At time X+1 however, it might be that a number of connections have

been released and SF128,30 is now available. If however the original call on SF128,48 is
still ongoing that space between 48 and 30 cannot be utilised.
A solution to this problem is to use dynamic code tree management which is what this
network is using. As the trace extract shows at RRC Radio Bearer Setup that UE was
allocated SF128-37.

Then as time progresses, a number of calls get released and the RNC instructs the UE to
switch to SF128-30 as this is the left most SF128 available. This switch is signalled to the
UE using the RRC Physical Channel Reconfiguration message, as the spreading operation in
WCDMA is covered by the physical layer.

This procedure can then further repeat itself, depending on how much traffic there is and
how long the connection lasts.


How often does it happen that

people ask you questions you know the answer to but cant recall the complete details. A similar thing
happened when a colleague asked me about why only 15 codes why HS-PDSCH and what happens to the
16th code.
Here is a picture which is from Qualcomm Whitepaper (available here) which is self explanatory.



By Jeanette Wannstrom
High Speed Packet data Access (HSPA) has been an upgrade to WCDMA networks (both FDD, and TDD) used to increase
packet data performance. The introduction was done in steps; High Speed Down Link (DL) Packet data Access (HSDPA), was
introduced in 3GPP Release 5, and Enhanced Up Link (UL), also referred to as High Speed UL Packet data Access (HSUPA),
came in Release 6.
The combination of HSDPA and Enhanced UL is referred to as HSPA. HSPA evolution (also known as HSPA+ and evolved
HSPA) came in Release 7 with further improvements in later releases.
Since UMTS was introduced in 3GPP Release 99 (R99) the need for improved support for Download data services has increased.
Higher bitrates and lower delays were strong driving forces for the introduction of HSDPA in Release 5, at which point it was
also decided that node changes should be kept to a minimum, and both R99 as well as HSDPA mobiles should be served in the
same network.
To be able to make fast decisions on radio channel allocation, adapt to varying channel quality, and to reduce delays some
functions had to be added closer to the radio interface, i.e. in NodeB:
Scheduling, select which UE(s) is/are to use the radio resources at each Transmission Time Interval (TTI), where one TTI is 2
Link adaptation, setting of channel coding rate and modulation (QPSK or 16QAM), in order to utilize the resources effectively
Decisions are based on Channel Quality Information (CQI) provided by the UE, UE category, as well as the type of services.
Exactly one Transport Block (TB) is delivered in each TTI, see figure 1.

Figure 1. HSDPA scheduling and link adaptation are performed in NodeB

In R99 the RNC is in charge of everything relating to handling of radio resources; scheduling as well as selection of transport
format and setting of target for power control (outer loop power control) in order to provide the data rate required for the specific
service for the connected UEs. The Transport format indicates the number of TBs as well as size of TBs per TTI, which in R99 is
10ms. Note that in R99 resources are allocated for the duration of the service a connection is set up, even though channel
switching is possible, while in HSDPA resources are allocated per TTI.
HSDPA user data is carried on the new shared transport channel, High Speed-DL Shared Channel (HS-DSCH), which in turn is
carried by one or more High Speed-Physical DL Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH), each using a channelization code with SF=16.
The number of HS-PDSCH can range from 1 to a maximum of 15. In R99 the physical channel carrying user data can be
allocated a channelization code with SF ranging from 4 to 512. R99 and HSDPA will use channelization codes from the same
code tree, see figure 2. Therefore all the DL channels within one cell are orthogonal at the point of transmission; at point of
reception there will however be some interference, mainly due to multi-path fading.

Figure 2. Channelization code tree, the code tree is shared between R99 and HSDPA services. All the codes with SF=16, except
one, may be used for HSDPA if no R99 services are in use. In this picture the branch with CC4,0 is used for R99 and control
signalling, hence in this example there are 12 available HS-PDSCH each with SF=16.

A major feature in HSDPA is that the channelization codes can be shared not only through code multiplexing, as in R99, but also
using time multiplexing. In time multiplexing one UE is allocated all the channelization codes available for HSDPA in one TTI
and another UE may use all the resources in the next TTI. Through time multiplexing the radio resources may be more efficiently
utilized than with code multiplexing since in each TTI the resources can be allocated to the UE experiencing the best radio
channel. Of course if the data to be delivered does not require all available codes, then code multiplexing can be used.

The maximum channel rate for HSDPA is 14.4 Mbps, with a peak user data rate of 13.4 Mbps (on MAC level), compared with a
maximum user data rate of 384 kbps for R99.
In R99 it is possible to use retransmission, ARQ, on the RLC protocol layer, between UE and RNC, but in HSDPA Hybrid ARQ
(HARQ) is introduced enabling retransmission on the physical layer between UE and NodeB. ARQ relies on error detection only,
while HARQ uses both forward error detection and correction. In HSDPA also soft combining is used, meaning that a received
faulty TB will be stored in a receiving buffer and recombined with the retransmitted TB, in order to enhance likelihood of correct
decoding. HARQ also works much faster than ARQ, since HARQ is used per TB and on the physical layer, and ARQ is used per
RLC PDU, including data for possibly many TBs and more protocol layers are involved. HARQ is used for both non-real-time as
well as real-time services. ARQ is still useful for non-real-time services when HARQ fails. In order to avoid stalling due to data
processing times and possible retransmissions, up to 8 HARQ processes can work in parallel, see figure 3.

Figure 3. ARQ, between UE and RN, and HARQ between UE and NodeB. The number of possible HARQ retransmissions can
be configured. If the maximum number of HARQ retransmissions are done without successful decoding of the contents, then the
ARQ procedure will take over. In order to avoid queuing a number of HARQ processes work in parallel, in this simplified
picture there are two HARQ processes. In TTI #1 HARQ process #0 successfully receives TB #0, and sends an ACK, In TTI #2
HARQ process #1 fails in decoding TB #1, hence sends a NACK, thereby asking for a retransmission. While HARQ process #1
waits for the retransmission, HARQ process #0 successfully receives the next TB, #2, in TTI #3. Eventually, here in TTI #4
HARQ process #1 successfully receives TB #1.

In HSDPA the resources shared between DL R99 transport channels and HSDPA transport channels are power and
channelization codes. When HSDPA services are active, DL power from the NodeB the sender - is normally kept constant and
shared between R99 channels and the new HSDPA specific channels, power not used for R99 can be used for HSDPA, see figure

4. If there is no HSDPA traffic, then the power will fluctuate, depending on the R99 usage.

Figure 4. Power sharing between R99 and HSDPA

A new MAC protocol, MAC-hs, is introduced in NodeB to handle scheduling and link adaptation, see figure 5.

Figure 5. New MAC-hs protocol sublayer.

Figure 5. New MAC-hs protocol sublayer

Soft handover is not used for the HS-PDSCH, but is still used for both DL and UL R99 channels.

Enhanced UL
In order to fulfil the need for improvement also for UL packet data, Enhanced UL also called HSUPA was introduced in
3GPP Release 6.
A major difference between DL and UL is that for DL there is ONE transmitter per cell, NodeB, whilst for the UL there might be
MANY transmitters, each UE with an active UL, each moving and sending independently. Hence, the DL physical channels will
all be orthogonal- at least at the point of transmission, having channelization codes from the same code tree, and they will be
sharing the available power in the NodeB. In the UL it is not possible to get perfect orthogonality since the senders, UEs, are
moving independently. Every UE has its own channelization code tree and its own battery. As in R99 long scrambling codes,
with low correlation, are used to separate between channels from different transmitters, i.e. NodeBs DL and UEs UL.

In HSDPA the data to different UEs is carried on a shared channel, while in Enhanced UL the data from different users will be
carried on a dedicated channel; transport channel Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) mapped onto the physical channel EDCH-Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) for high data rates more than one E-DPDCH will be used. The E-DPDCH
can use a channelization code with a minimum value of SF = 2. In Release 6 the maximum channel rate for Enhanced UL is 5.8
Mbps, with a peak data rate of 5.4 Mbps, this value is valid for the MAC layer. For Enhanced UL there are two options for TTI, 2
ms or 10 ms.
For Enhanced UL scheduling is still carried out by the NodeB, now the receiving node, while transport format selection is done
by the scheduled UEs, see figure 6. The NodeB will measure the interference level on the UL and receive information about
buffer status in the UEs, and make a decision about which UEs that are to be scheduled. Information about scheduling decision is
delivered in scheduling grants, which also provides information about how much power the UE(s) may use when transmitting.
The higher the power the higher the bitrate, and the interference! In the DL the shared resources are channelization codes and
power, in the UL the shared resource is contribution to the intra-cell interference.

Figure 6 Scheduling, transport format selection and HARQ for Enhanced UL

For Enhanced UL channels soft handover will be used in basically the same way as for R99.
To handle these functions new MAC protocol sublayers are added, MAC-e in NodeB is responsible for scheduling and HARQ,
and MAC-es in RNC to handle reordering of received data from multiple NodeBs in case of soft handover, see figure 7.

Figure 7 New MAC protocols for Enhanced UL

To further increase bitrates in the evolution of HSPA, referred to as HSPA+, new functions are added; for example higher order
modulation 64QAM (DL) and 16QAM (UL) as well as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), used only in the DL.
Maximum channel rate DL, using 64QAM and 15 codes, is 21 Mbps and UL using 16QAM is 11 Mbps.
MIMO, e.g. Spatial Multiplexing, is used to increase the overall bitrate through transmission of two (or more) different data
streams on two (or more) different antennas - using the same channelization codes at the same time, separated through use of
different data precoding and different pilot channels transmitted from each Tx-antenna - to be received by two or more Rxantennas, see figure 8. In 3GPP Release 7 for HSPA there will be 2 Tx and Rx-antennas (2x2 MIMO).

Figure 8. Simplified illustration of 2x2 MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing). Two TBs are precoded onto two data streams, then
transmitted on two TX antennas and received by two RX antennas.

In 3GPP Release 7 MIMO can not be used in combination with 64 QAM, but it will be possible in Release 8. New maximum
channel data rates when MIMO is used are 28 Mbps in combination with 16QAM (R7) and 42 Mbps when used with 64QAM
Other functions have been added to HSPA+ in later releases for example in Release 8 Dual Cell-HSDPA (also referred to as Dual
Carrier-HSDPA, DC-HSDPA), where carrier aggregation of two adjacent 5 MHz bands, covering the same area, is used to
increase the performance see figure 9.

Figure 9. DC-HSDPA

In releases after Release 8 dual carrier will also be introduced for Enhanced UL and also the number of aggregated carriers will
be increased leading to Multi Carrier-HSPA.