Questions on EM waves

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Questions on EM waves

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Problem 32.2

Description: TV Ghosting. In a TV picture, ghost images are formed when the signal from the transmitter travels to the receiver both directly and

indirectly after reflection from a building or other large metallic mass. In a 25-inch set, the ghost is about 1.0 cm...

TV Ghosting. In a TV picture, ghost images are formed when the signal from the transmitter travels to the receiver both directly and indirectly after

reflection from a building or other large metallic mass. In a 25-inch set, the ghost is about 1.0 cm to the right of the principal image if the reflected signal

arrives 0.700s after the principal signal.

Part A

In this case, what is the difference in path lengths for the two signals?

Use 3.00108m/s for the speed of light in a vacuum.

ANSWER:

= 210 m

Problem 32.7

Description: Radio station WCCO in Minneapolis broadcasts at a frequency of f. At a point some distance from the transmitter, the magnetic-field

amplitude of the electromagnetic wave from WCCO is B_max. (a) Find the wavelength. (b) Find the wave number. (c)...

Radio station WCCO in Minneapolis broadcasts at a frequency of 830kHz . At a point some distance from the transmitter, the magnetic-field amplitude of

the electromagnetic wave from WCCO is 4.091011 T .

Part A

Find the wavelength.

Use c = 3.00108m/s for the speed of light in a vacuum.

ANSWER:

= 361 m

Part B

Find the wave number.

ANSWER:

= 1.74102

m 1

Part C

Calculate the angular frequency.

ANSWER:

= 5.22106 rad/s

Part D

Calculate the electric-field amplitude.

ANSWER:

= 1.23102 V/m

Poynting Flux

Description: Given an expression for the electric field of an EM wave (travelling, in vacuum), choose the correct form of the magnetic field and

compute the Poynting vector. Very simple.

An electromagnetic wave is traveling through vacuum. Its electric field vector is given by

where ^

j is the unit vector in the y direction.

Part A

If B is the amplitude of the magnetic field vector, find the complete expression for the magnetic field vector B of the wave.

In free space, the electric and magnetic field vectors of an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to each other. This follows from Maxwell's

equations.

Hint 2. Orientation of

In free space, the electric and magnetic field vectors of an electromagnetic wave are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the

wave. This follows from Maxwell's equations.

In what direction is this wave propagating?

Express your answer in terms of ^

i , ^j , and ^k.

The point that has the same phase as (x, t), that is, phase

ANSWER:

E and B

In free space, the electric and magnetic field vectors of an electromagnetic wave are exactly in phase. This follows from Maxwell's equations.

ANSWER:

B 0 sin(kx t)^i

B 0 sin(kx t)j^

B 0 sin(kx t)^k

B 0 cos(kx t) ^i

B 0 cos(kx t) j^

B cos(kx t) ^k

0

Part B

What is the Poynting vector S(x, t), that is, the power per unit area associated with the electromagnetic wave described in the problem introduction?

Give your answer in terms of some or all of the variables E0 ,

unit vectors ^

i, ^

j , and ^

k as appropriate.

The Poynting vector S of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum is given in terms of the electric field vector E and the magnetic field vector B by

the relation

S =

1

0

E B .

ANSWER:

S(x, t) =

Also accepted:

Problem 32.10

Description: An electromagnetic wave with frequency 65.0 Hz travels in an insulating magnetic material that has dielectric constant 3.64 and relative

permeability 5.18 at this frequency. The electric field has amplitude 7.20 * 10^( - 3) V/m. (a) What is the speed ...

An electromagnetic wave with frequency 65.0 Hz travels in an insulating magnetic material that has dielectric constant 3.64 and relative permeability 5.18 at

this frequency. The electric field has amplitude 7.20 103 V/m .

Part A

What is the speed of propagation of the wave?

ANSWER:

6.91107 m/s

Part B

What is the wavelength of the wave?

ANSWER:

1.06106 m

Part C

ANSWER:

1.041010 T

Part D

What is the intensity of the wave?

ANSWER:

5.75108

W/m 2

Problem 32.18

Description: A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave emitted by a cellular phone has a wavelength of lambda and an electric-field amplitude of E_max at a

distance of x from the antenna. (a) Calculate the frequency of the wave. (b) Calculate the magnetic-field...

A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave emitted by a cellular phone has a wavelength of 36.1cm and an electric-field amplitude of 5.00102V/m at a distance

of 290m from the antenna.

Part A

Calculate the frequency of the wave.

Use 3.00108m/s for the speed of light in a vacuum.

ANSWER:

= 8.31108 Hz

Part B

Calculate the magnetic-field amplitude.

ANSWER:

= 1.671010 T

Part C

Find the intensity of the wave.

Use 3.00108m/s for the speed of light in a vacuum and 8.851012 for the permittivity of free space.

ANSWER:

= 3.32106

W/m 2

Problem 32.40

Description: A plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in air has a wavelength of 3.84 (cm) and an E_vec-field amplitude of 1.35 (V/m). (a) What is the

frequency? (b) What is the B_vec-field amplitude? (c) What is the intensity? (d) What average force does this...

A plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in air has a wavelength of 3.84

Part A

What is the frequency?

ANSWER:

f = 7.81109 Hz

Part B

What is the

B -field amplitude?

ANSWER:

B max = 4.50109 T

Part C

What is the intensity?

ANSWER:

I = 2.42103 W/m 2

Part D

What average force does this radiation exert on a totally absorbing surface with area 0.240 m 2 perpendicular to the direction of propagation?

ANSWER:

Fav = 1.931012 N

Problem 32.29

Description: A standing electromagnetic wave in a certain material has a frequency of f. The nodal planes of B_vec are separated by a distance of

Deltax. (a) Find the wavelength of the wave in this material. (b) Find the distance between adjacent nodal planes of ...

A standing electromagnetic wave in a certain material has a frequency of 2.701010Hz . The nodal planes of

Part A

Find the wavelength of the wave in this material.

ANSWER:

= 6.90 mm

Part B

Find the distance between adjacent nodal planes of the

ANSWER:

= 3.45 mm

Part C

Find the speed of propagation of the wave.

ANSWER:

E field.

= 1.86108 m/s

Problem 32.47

Description: (a) A circular loop of wire can be used as a radio antenna. If an antenna with a diameter of d is located a distance of r away from a from a

source with a total power of P at a frequency of f, what is the maximum emf induced in the loop? (Assume...

Part A

A circular loop of wire can be used as a radio antenna. If an antenna with a diameter of 17.0 cm is located a distance of 2.30km away from a from a

source with a total power of 61.0kW at a frequency of 101MHz , what is the maximum emf induced in the loop? (Assume that the plane of the

antenna loop is perpendicular to the direction of the radiation's magnetic field and that the source radiates uniformly in all directions.)

Use 3.00108m/s for the speed of light in a vacuum and 1.26106N/A2 for the permeability of free space.

ANSWER:

= 4.00102 V

Description: The GPS network consists of 24 satellites, each of which makes two orbits around the earth per day. Each satellite transmits a 50.0- W

(or even less) sinusoidal electromagnetic signal at two frequencies, one of which is 1575.42 MHz. Assume that a...

The GPS network consists of 24 satellites, each of which makes two orbits around the earth per day. Each satellite transmits a 50.0 W (or even less)

sinusoidal electromagnetic signal at two frequencies, one of which is 1575.42 MHz . Assume that a satellite transmits half of its power at each frequency

and that the waves travel uniformly in a downward hemisphere.

Part A

What average intensity does a GPS receiver on the ground, directly below the satellite, receive? (Hint: First use Newton's laws to find the altitude of the

satellite.)

ANSWER:

I = 9.751015 W/m2

Part B

What is the amplitude of the electric field at the GPS receiver in part (a)?

ANSWER:

Part C

What is the amplitude of the magnetic field at the GPS receiver in part (a)?

ANSWER:

B max = 9.031015 T

Part D

How long does it take the signal to reach the receiver?

ANSWER:

t = 6.73102 s

Part E

If the receiver is a square panel 1.00cm on a side that absorbs all of the beam, what average pressure does the signal exert on it?

ANSWER:

Pav = 3.251023 Pa

Part F

What wavelength must the receiver be tuned to?

ANSWER:

= 0.190 m

Solar Sail

Description: Find the force due to radiation pressure on a solar sail. Then, find the area density needed for effective propulsion.

A solar sail allows a spacecraft to use radiation pressure for propulsion, similar to the way wind propels a sailboat. The sails of such spacecraft are made

out of enormous reflecting panels. The area of the panels is maximized to catch the largest number of incident photons, thus maximizing the momentum

transfer from the incident radiation.

If such a spacecraft were to be simply pushed away from a star by the incident photons, the force of the radiation pressure would have to be be greater

than the gravitational attraction from the star emitting the photons. The critical parameter is the area density (mass per unit area) of the sail.

Part A

Consider a perfectly reflecting mirror oriented so that solar radiation of intensity I is incident upon, and perpendicular to, the reflective surface of the

mirror. If the mirror has surface area A, what is Frad , the magnitude of the average force due to the radiation pressure of the sunlight on the mirror?

Express your answer in terms of the intensity I , the mirror's surface area A , and the speed of light c.

Radiation pressure arises from the photon momentum transfer as the photons strike the mirror. Thus, if you find an expression for the total

momentum transferred to the mirror by the photons that strike it, you can determine the average force exerted on the mirror. Notice that when

writing an expression for the momentum transfer you'll need to take into account the fact that the mirror reflects the photons, rather than absorbs

them.

What is the total momentum p transferred to the mirror by the photons in a time interval t ?

Express your answer in terms of the time interval t , the intensity I , the mirror's surface area A, and the speed of light c.

The momentum

p=

U

c,

where c is the speed of light in vacuum. This ratio also holds for the total momentum and energy of the photons striking the mirror.

The total energy of the photons striking the mirror during a time interval t is given by

U = IAt ,

where I is the intensity of the radiation and

When an object absorbs a photon of energy U , it receives momentum equal to

object must not only stop the photon (as is the case when the photon is absorbed) but also send it back in the opposite direction. Thus,

the total momentum transfer for photon reflection is twice as much as in the case of photon absorption.

ANSWER:

p =

Let

p be the total momentum transferred to the mirror by the photons that strike the mirror during a time interval t . Then the magnitude of

F rad =

p

t

ANSWER:

Frad =

To solve the second part of this problem you will need to know the following:

the mass of the sun,

Isun (R) =

and

the gravitational constant G

3.21025 W

,

R2

Part B

Suppose that the mirror described in Part A is initially at rest a distance R away from the sun. What is the critical value of area density for the mirror at

which the radiation pressure exactly cancels out the gravitational attraction from the sun?

Express your answer numerically, to two significant figures, in units of kilograms per meter squared.

Suppose the mirror has mass M . Find a general expression for

Fgrav , the magnitude of the gravitational force due to the sun that acts on the

mirror.

Express your answer symbolically in terms of the gravitational constant G, the mass of the sun, Msun , the mass of the mirror, M , and

the mirror's distance from the sun,

R.

ANSWER:

Fgrav =

Also accepted:

By equating the force due to the sun's radiation (Frad found in Part A) and the force due to the sun's gravitational pull, you should be able to

1/

solve for the area density of the mirror. Note that the expression for the intensity, given in the problem, has a factor of

expression for the gravitational force, so the critical value of the area density turns out to be independent of R .

ANSWER:

mass/area = 1.60103

kg/m 2

In selecting the material for a solar sail, area density, strength, and reflectivity are the principal concerns. Given a representative thickness of the

sail of 1 m , one of the few currently existing materials with a sufficiently low density and high strength can be made from carbon fibers. These

have a density of 1.60 g/cm 3 , roughly one-fifth that of iron.

Problem 32.48

Description: A source of sinusoidal electromagnetic waves radiates uniformly in all directions. At d from this source, the amplitude of the electric field

is measured to be E. (a) What is the electric-field amplitude at a distance of r from the source?

A source of sinusoidal electromagnetic waves radiates uniformly in all directions. At 15.0 m from this source, the amplitude of the electric field is measured

to be 1.30N/C .

Part A

What is the electric-field amplitude at a distance of 30.0cm from the source?

ANSWER:

Emax =

= 65.0

N/C

Problem 32.52

Description: The 19th-century inventor Nikola Tesla proposed to transmit electric power via sinusoidal electromagnetic waves. Suppose power is to be

transmitted in a beam of cross-sectional area 100 m^2. (a) What electric-field amplitude is required to transmit...

The 19th-century inventor Nikola Tesla proposed to transmit electric power via sinusoidal electromagnetic waves. Suppose power is to be transmitted in a

beam of cross-sectional area 100 m 2 .

Part A

What electric-field amplitude is required to transmit an amount of power equal to that handled by modern transmission lines (that carry voltages and

currents of 500 kV and 1000 A)?

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the amplitude of the magnetic field in the wave?

ANSWER:

B max = 2.05104 T

Description: Short conceptual questions about the direction the electromagnetic wave, electric field, and magnetic field vectors point.

Part A

The electric and magnetic field vectors at a specific point in space and time are illustrated.

Based on this information, in what direction does the electromagnetic wave propagate?

In an electromagnetic wave, the electric and magnetic field vectors are perpendicular to each other. The wave propagates in a direction

perpendicular to both of the field vectors. Since the two field vectors define a two-dimensional plane, there are two distinct directions that are

perpendicular to the plane. The right-hand rule specifies in which of these two directions the wave travels.

To employ the right hand rule, do the following:

1. Point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the electric field vector.

2. Rotate your hand until you can curl your fingers in the direction of the magnetic field vector.

The direction of your thumb is then the direction of the velocity of the electromagnetic wave.

If the electric and magnetic field vectors at a specific point in space and time are as shown below, applying the right-hand rule should result in

your thumb pointing downward, in the y direction. Therefore, the velocity of the electromagnetic wave is in the y direction.

ANSWER:

+x

x

+y

y

+z

z

at a +45 angle in the xy plane

Part B

The electric and magnetic field vectors at a specific point in space and time are illustrated. (

E and B are in the xy plane. Both vectors make 45 angles with the + y axis.) Based on

this information, in what direction does the electromagnetic wave propagate?

ANSWER:

+x

x

+y

y

+z

z

at a 45 angle in the xy plane

Part C

The magnetic field vector and the direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave are illustrated. Based on this information, in what direction does

the electric field vector point?

Since the velocity of the wave is given, the orientation of your right thumb is known. Placing your right thumb along the +x axis should inform you

that the electric field vector must be in the yz plane. Since the electric field must also be perpendicular to the magnetic field, and be "curlable"

into the magnetic field, only one option remains for the orientation of the electric field vector.

ANSWER:

+x

x

+y

y

+z

z

at a +45 angle in the xz plane

Part D

The electric field vector and the direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave are illustrated. (E is in xz plane and makes a 45 angle with the

x axis.) Based on this information, in what direction does the magnetic field vector point?

Since the velocity of the wave is given, the orientation of your right thumb is known. Placing your right thumb along the +z axis should inform you

that the magnetic field vector must be in the xz plane. With your fingers in the direction of the electric field, there is only one orientation of the

magnetic field that your fingers can "curl" into.

ANSWER:

+x

x

+y

y

+z

z

at a 45 angle in the xz plane

Description: Understand the standard formula for a traveling E&M wave

Learning Goal:

To understand the formula representing a traveling electromagnetic wave.

Light, radiant heat (infrared radiation), X rays, and radio waves are all examples of traveling electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves comprise

combinations of electric and magnetic fields that are mutually compatible in the sense that the changes in one generate the other.

The simplest form of a traveling electromagnetic wave is a plane wave. For a wave traveling in the x direction whose electric field is in the y direction, the

electric and magnetic fields are given by

E = E0 sin(kx t)^

j,

=

sin(kx t)^

B = B 0 sin(kx t)^

k.

This wave is linearly polarized in the y direction.

Part A

In these formulas, it is useful to understand which variables are parameters that specify the nature of the wave. The variables

Choose the best answer to fill in the blank.

Parameters are variables in any function that determine the characteristics of a particular wave. For a wave these can include the amplitude,

frequency, wavelength, period, velocity, etc. of the wave, depending on the particular mathematical formulation.

ANSWER:

maxima

amplitudes

wavelengths

velocities

Part B

The variable is called the __________ of the wave.

Choose the best answer to fill in the blank.

ANSWER:

velocity

angular frequency

wavelength

Part C

The variable k is called the __________ of the wave.

Choose the best answer to fill in the blank.

ANSWER:

wavenumber

wavelength

velocity

frequency

Part D

What is the mathematical expression for the electric field at the point

ANSWER:

x = 0, y = 0, z at time t?

E = E0 sin(t)j^

E = E sin(t)^k

0

E = 0

E = E0 sin(kz t)^i

E = E sin(kz t)j^

0

Part E

For a given wave, what are the physical variables to which the wave responds?

The independent variables are those that may be freely varied over the defined range of the function to control its value. The formula would

ordinarily be plotted as a function of these variables, one of which would be across the x axis in a typical plot.

ANSWER:

x only

t only

k only

only

x and t

x and k

and t

k and

This is a plane wave; that is, it extends throughout all space. Therefore it exists for any values of the variables y and

function of

x, y, z , and t. Being an infinite plane wave, however, it is independent of these variables. So whether they are considered independent

When you appreciate this you will understand the conundrum facing the young Einstein. If he traveled along with this wave (i.e., at the speed of

light c ), he would see constant electric and magnetic fields extending over a large region of space with no time variation. He would not see any

currents or charge, and so he could not see how these fields could satisfy the standard electromagnetic equations for the production of fields.

Part F

What is the wavelength of the wave described in the problem introduction?

Express the wavelength in terms of the other given variables and constants like

The wave described in the introduction is sinusoidal. If we let

wavelength is defined to be the length in the x direction within which the wave repeats itself. Mathematically, we require

sin(kx) = sin(kx + k). To find , recall that the sine function repeats itself when its argument changes by 2 : sin()

ANSWER:

Part G

What is the period T of the wave described in the problem introduction?

= sin( + 2) .

ANSWER:

T=

Part H

What is the velocity

Express the velocity in terms of quantities given in the introduction (such as and k ) and any useful constants.

You have found the wavelength and the period of this wave. Express the velocity in terms of these two quantities: v

= /T .

ANSWER:

v=

If this electromagnetic wave were traveling in a vacuum its velocity would be equivalent to c, the vacuum speed of light.

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