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Hydrogen Vehicle

Event 2015
DD3000 - Joe Shorrocks

Shaiful Amin - Futureworks

Contents
European Fossil Fuel Use........................................................................................................................ 2
Automotive Vehicles .............................................................................................................................. 2
The Environment................................................................................................................................. 3
Oil Politics............................................................................................................................................ 3
Health .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Fossil Fuel Dependency....................................................................................................................... 4
What can fuel cells offer? ...................................................................................................................... 5
Why Hydrogen? .................................................................................................................................. 5
How Hydrogen is Being Made? ........................................................................................................... 6
Cheaper way to Produce Hydrogen .................................................................................................... 6
Auto Industry Transition ..................................................................................................................... 7
Toyota Mirai Hydrogen 2015 .............................................................................................................. 8
Toyota Cold Weather Test -20 Centigrade ......................................................................................... 9
Fuel Comparison ................................................................................................................................. 9
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Function .................................................................................................. 9
Hydrogen Market growth 2015-2020 ............................................................................................... 10
Government funding Hydrogen filling stations ................................................................................ 11
Theory of Hydrogen.............................................................................................................................. 12
Hydrogen Cut-Down Funding............................................................................................................ 13
Flammability Range........................................................................................................................... 13
What Does the Future Bring? ........................................................................................................... 14
Speculative Game Design ..................................................................................................................... 16
Design Implication............................................................................................................................. 16
Appendix............................................................................................................................................... 18
Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................... 20

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European Fossil Fuel Use


The humanities have been relying on fossil fuel for the past centuries to help the world to grow
better and to be more civilised. As the world continues to develop, but there are two facts that
affect the world, and that is resources and environment.

Figure 1 Source: Fossil Fuel Usage

An increasing global population, rising standards of living and more industrial production mean the
amount of energy the world consumes could rise by 50-60% over the next 25 years.
Today, the biggest forms of energy are fossil fuels - oil, gas, coal. But that is set to change in the
future for at least two reasons:

"easy" oil and gas sources are declining


emissions of greenhouse gases related to fossil fuels are rising to an unacceptable level
(Guy, 2007)

Keith explains that the fossil fuel is increasing its consumption because the global population is
growing rapidly, which will raise the energy usage of 50-60% after 25 years. Also, greenhouses gases
are responsible for climate change that can affect the air quality and cause pollutants.

Automotive Vehicles
Back in the 20th century, investor known as Hendry Ford that developed the first internal combustion
engine. The first engine used to power the first Model T more than 100 years ago. It became a
success, and it increased the market for modern travelling. It changed the world, and a lot of
consumers are using vehicles to reach their destination.
Gasoline use has major implications for the environment, health, dependency on fossil fuels, and the
political stage that might be dissipated if the automobile industry could use an alternate fuel source
(Bryan Cohen, 2014).

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The use of gas is affecting the climate, civilians health and low on fossil fuels, and force to change
the politics in the automobile industry.

The Environment

Figure 2 Source: Carbon Cycle

The carbon cycle known as the biogeochemical cycle it exchange among the biosphere and
atmosphere of the Earth.
In recent years, fuel efficiency is to be improved to reduce toxic emissions in cars and emissions to
increase steadily over the past two decades. When gasoline burns, it leaves byproduct of carbon
dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which can affect to climate changes.

Oil Politics

Figure 3 Source: Oil Development companies

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The cars could have political implications because most the oil originated from the Middle East that
holds to its degree of dependency on the oil. The war has been going for few past for decades and
heavily relying on oil. Finding an alternative energy source can be reliable and sustainable
manageable without importing the oil which can partially decimate the war.

Health

Figure 4 Source: Symptoms by Rionnovisiti

Gasoline is not reliable to isolate or contain it as it can expose from filling in the tank, from a gas leak
in the engine or general spills and accidents.
Gasoline can contaminate drinking water or nearby soil if you have a well system or soil near your
driveway. High levels of gasoline chemicals taken in from day-to-day exposure to benzene may cause
cancer, according to the Illinois Department of Public Health. The long-term effects of occasional
contact with gasoline are not as widely known, but inhalation of the fumes can lead to dizziness,
headaches, confusion and breathing difficulties (Bryan Cohen, 2014).
Many cars are on the road releases its fumes into the atmosphere and dangers to publics health for
inhaling the toxic that can lead several types of disease.

Fossil Fuel Dependency

Figure 5 source: Fossil Fuel remaining supply

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It is a fact that the earth is running low on fossil fuels; coal usage consumes the most.
Even though the estimates of geologists and oil companies predict that there is a limited amount of
oil remaining, their estimates may still be large exaggerations according to Common Dreams. Since
gasoline may run out in the next century, it is imperative to begin making changes in the world fuel
type (Bryan Cohen, 2014).
The future of the vehicles can no longer rely on fossil fuel, and it is important to find another
alternative source that can be clean, efficient and renewable.

What can fuel cells offer?


Todays high-tech fuel cells show resemble their forefathers, the research of fuel cells known to
science for more than 100 years. The first fuel cell called gas battery, and created by William
Robert Grove in 1839, after 39 years another battery developed by Alessandro Volto and decided to
call it voltaic cell.
Although fuel cell became unsuccessful which was developed by Grove, because the materials that
Grove used were unstable, and public interest lessen. Up until the 1960s the fuel cell technology was
revived for the use on space flights by NASA. The only reason of that fuel cell is reliable, inexpensive
and clean energy.
Produce water as a by-product; NASA developed fuels cells as the ideal supply of both power and
drinking water for the astronauts. Moreover, when used in the electrolysis mode, fuel cells have the
added benefit of producing breathable oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel (Alan, 2014).
NASA is trying to achieve the potential of clean energy, reducing the resource cost and better
performance.

Why Hydrogen?
Hydrogen (H2) is an infinite renewable element in the universe. Hydrogen can never run out of its
supply, and it is called renewable energy. Hydrogen has excellent electrochemical reactivity and
clean burning that leaves no carbon behind.
To get hydrogen is to use a fuel reformer (it separates hydrogen from a hydrocarbon fuel). The fuel
cells can operate many types of fuels, such as natural gas, propane, gasoline and coal gas. When
using the hydrocarbon as a fuel, it can produce small amounts of pollutants.

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How Hydrogen is Being Made?

Figure 6 Source: Creating Hydrogen

Cheaper way to Produce Hydrogen


Daniel Nocera, a chemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has developed a catalyst
made from cobalt and phosphorus that can split water at room temperature, a technique he
describes in the journal Science. "I'm using cheap, Earth-abundant materials that you can massmanufacture. As long as you can charge the surface, you can create the catalyst and it doesn't get
any cheaper than that" (Jha, 2008)

It is essential to understand how to create hydrogen by using steam reformer. Most hydrogen is
from natural gas by using superheated system and a catalyst. It will force the molecules to expand, it
will separate the hydrocarbon and water molecules. It extracts the loose oxygen and carbon (carbon
dioxide), leaving the hydrogen molecules free. Most of hydrogen is produced at central plants and its
delivered via tanker truck as a compressed gas.

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Figure 7 Source: Road Casualties

In the 1980s, the vehicles on the roads there were less cars and capable to drive with increase speed
which leads to a vulnerable to accidents and road casualties. Throughout the future speed bumps
were added for a family of traffic calming to slow motor-vehicle to improve safety condition. Speed
cameras are mostly on highway for not breaking the law of road traffic act. This reduces the
casualties on road but the main problem is not solved. Most of vehicles operate petrol/diesel which
leaves carbon footprints and is dangerous to pedestrian health. Hydrogen can not only save their
health but it can improve the climate and natural resources.

Auto Industry Transition

Figure 8 Source: USCAR Propulsion

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The automobile industry is evolving from dependence on vehicles powered by internal combustion
engine to emission-free vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells.

Toyota Mirai Hydrogen 2015

Figure 9 Source: Perspective View

Toyota will announce new FCV for sale next year, at a press event opening of the massive consumer
electronics show in Las Vegas. Hydrogen fuel cells are designed to power electric motors much the
way batteries do. But instead of storing their energy in a battery pack that takes hours to recharge,
the fuel-cell vehicles store hydrogen gas in an onboard tank that can be refilled in minutes, just like a
gasoline tank (FLEMING, 2014)
The word Mirai from Japanese means future, the vehicle has fuel cell combined with the
hydrogen in order to run efficient, clean energy without leaving by-product behind out of the
exhaust.

Figure 10 Source: Design Structure

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Mirai offers a fusion of fuel cell combined with hybrid technology. The system provides better
energy efficiency than the traditional internal combustion engines, with incredible environmental
performance with free emission of CO2 while driving.

Toyota Cold Weather Test -20 Centigrade


In the early prototype Toyota hydrogen has been tested to drive in the cold climate of East
California, Death Valley. Some of the Issues were minor for noise, crackling due to driving and
tackling each issue in order to get the best performance for Mirai. It is being analysed and tested
before releasing to global wide.

Fuel Comparison

Figure 11 Source: Compare Fuels

Fuel-cell vehicles use a stack combine with hydrogen and oxygen in the air to generate electricity.
The only emission is water vapour; the usage of fuel cells is five times longer than electric cars, and it
takes three minutes to refill tank with hydrogen, compared to an electric car which takes eight hours
to recharge.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Function

Figure 12 Source: world Fuel Cell Council

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There are two indispensable components to a fuel cell: a catalyst and a proton exchange
membrane. The idea is to use a catalyst to break the hydrogen atoms into electrons and hydrogen
protons. The electrons, blocked by the membrane, travel through a circuit and generate an electrical
flux, while the protons, small enough to pass through the membrane, join with the oxygen molecules
on the cathode side and form water. These membranes arent fail safe though and most often then
not, whole hydrogen atoms or methanol (or whatever fuel) can pass through and make the process
less efficient (Puiu, 2014).
1. Hydrogen enters into anode catalyst to produce H2 atoms that will pass through the electrolyte.
2. H2 will go across electrolyte that forms into an electricity use for the power of the vehicle.
3. The oxygen will flow down to the cathode catalyst to meet the H2 atoms to change into H2O that
will release out of the exhaust.
Unlike gasoline, hydrogen technology runs clean energy that can save the cost of maintenance and
repair expenses, and less likely to corrode.
Chart Hydrogen vs Gasoline
Hydrogen : Renewable
Source : water
Renewable : yes
Cost: cheap
Carbon Footprint: No

Gasoline : Non renewable


Source : crude oil
Renewable : no
Cost: not cheap
Carbon Footprint : Yes

Hydrogen Market growth 2015-2020

Figure 13 Source: Fuel Cell Growth

In announcing the initiative, President Bush added three new elements to existing research: he
called for the development of a national refuelling network for fuel cell vehicles; he significantly
increased funding to accelerate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies; and he
gave the program a timeline by saying that a child born today would drive a hydrogen-powered
vehicle. As Americans begin driving around the age of 16, these vehicles would have to be available
by 2020 (Milliken, 2004).

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The former president Bush wanted to fund the hydrogen fuel cell project to maintain pollution-free,
reducing dependence on foreign oil. Help the young generation and encouraging to drive a
hydrogen-powered vehicle at the age of 16. In 2015, the hydrogen car will be available in some of
other brands like Toyota, Hyundai, BMW, and other companies will reach set their targets at 2020.

Government funding Hydrogen filling stations

Figure 14 Source: George Osburne

An 11 million investment that will give the UK up to 15 hydrogen refuelling stations nationwide
has been announced by the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV).
Joint-funded by government and industry, the project will see 7 million spent on installing and
running up to seven new hydrogen refuelling stations, 2 million spent on upgrading existing
hydrogen stations, and 2 million spent on around 40 hydrogen-fuelled vehicles for use by the public
sector (Huntingford, 2014).
With much investment from government for funding, hydrogen filling stations is favourable to fuel
cell vehicle. In the year of 2020, that number of hydrogen cars will gradually increase on the road.
Therefore, it wise to set-up these hydrogen filling station, currently upgrading the existing ones. Will
give a strong reason and consider purchasing a hydrogen vehicle.

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Figure 15 Source: Timeline Drawn by UKH2Mobility

A timeline graph made by UKH2 that over 1.5 million UK drivers will have hydrogen cars by 2030.

The boom is predicated on the 10 per cent of motorists who will become HFC early adopters
creating a sufficient market for the fuel to drive the roll-out of a nationwide hydrogen infrastructure.
UKH2Mobility came up with its ten per cent figure after talking to 2000-odd consumers.
As the infrastructure expands, revenues will increase between 2020 and 2030 to cover not merely
the expense of operating the nations hydrogen refuelling facilities and their various gas sources, but
also to begin covering the cost of putting the infrastructure in place. UKH2Mobility reckons break
even could come as early as 2027 (Smith, 2013).
Fuel-cell vehicle would progress their way on to the market and fuelling network as it will mature
slowly. When Fuel cell vehicle becomes a mass-production, it will eventually cut down the cost of
hydrogen cars when the technology is stable.

Theory of Hydrogen
It is a fact the company to design and develop a fuel cell car from its infrastructure to support these
fuels efficient, in other words, the cost and creating hydrogen is still expensive. Hydrogen may sound
beneficial renewable clean energy, but it does rely on non-renewable energy in order to make
hydrogen. Storing hydrogen can be difficult and moving around, where oil can be sent through
pipelines. Furthermore, it may be clean energy but it is not sustainable energy to rely on and for the
future.

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Hydrogen Cut-Down Funding

Figure 16 Source: Reduced Funding

President Obama decided to abort the budget of $1.2 billion plan for hydrogen fuel cells for saving
taxpayers $100 million a year. Because the president and Steven Chu (secretary energy), said
hydrogen fuelled cars are still decades away in the future, and the budget is focusing on more
immediate energy-saving solutions. Hydrogen would have been more advantageous to develop and
deliver to release these fuel-cell vehicles before 2015.

Flammability Range

Figure 17 Source: High Flammable

The hydrogen is fourteen times lighter than air, if the gas escapes it can cause huge explosion and to
ignite rate is faster.

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Figure 18 Source: Gasoline and Hydrogen leak and Ignition Comparison

Here is the result where ignition of both fuel occur, the gasoline on the left and the hydrogen on
right show the flow of subsiding. Also, hydrogen fuel stored is in liquid form is extremely cold that
sometimes improperly designed valves to freeze, which can cause a tank over-pressurise and
rupture.

What Does the Future Bring?

Figure 19 Source: Emission Vehicles

Looking into the fossil fuel that has been heavily relied and changing the world as it is today. Fossil
fuel consumption is increasing and demanding for vehicle usage, not only fossil fuel running low but
the vehicle emission affecting the lives of pedestrian and impacts the environment. It has big impact

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on politics for oil especially, because the vehicles are exponentially growing and hard to maintain the
price with petrol/diesel.

Figure 20 Source: Robert Grove

First fuel cell was made in 1839 by physical scientist Robert Grove that turned out to be unsuccessful
product. In the 1960, fuel cell technology was revived by NASA to use space shuttle supply both
power and drinking water for astronauts. NASA decided to fund hundreds of research contracts
involving fuel cell technology, but these funds were based on development projects and not
available for the consumer/public.
Former of the US president Bush made creation of hydrogen economy for energy for the future. It
starts. The hydrogen technology is to aim for the automobile industry for renewables and zero
emissions of CO2. Some of the manufacturers were to release hydrogen in year of 2015. Toyota
announced their vehicle (Mirai) that will offer hydrogen combined with electric hybrid. Other car
industry will release their hydrogen fuel cell in the late 2020 because of hydrogen stations need to
be built in that gap time. Within five years, the office low emission decided to invest 11 million for
hydrogen refuelling station before fuel cell production start. It explains how these fuel cells car is
only going to release at right time scale because due to safety and testing different climate.
Although the hydrogen is not exactly renewable energy as it requires from natural gas to separate
from hydrogen and oxygen. Currently, hydrogen technology shows an outstanding and a sign for a
clean energy source for the future. Fuel cell growth will increase its units to the automobile industry

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Speculative Game Design

Figure 21 Source: ENDLESS SPACE: DISHARMONY

It is a turn-based strategy developed by Amplitude Studios. In Endless Space the player gets choose
one of the ten unique civilisations, to increase the interstellar empire and conquer throughout the
galaxy. Each player will guide their empire to diplomatic, scientific or military conquest. Player has a
choice of researching other new technologies from four different research trees of representing
military, science, exploration and diplomacy

Design Implication
By looking the fundamental of hydrogen fuel cells, it gives clean energy, resources management and
reliability. These methods can transform into game design because it is consumer's safety and
affordability. Small team of researchers starts with low budget by making fuel cell when it is
successful to its profit, the team can researcher further into fuel cell durability and capacity. As more
fuel cell cars on the road, it saves resources and financial that can be used either upgrading for the
automotive industry or research into other sectors.

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As the year goes by hydrogen fuel cell become a mass production, researchers are developing
hydrogen storage capacity can be increased and reducing the absorption cycle. Hydrogen stations
will be spreading throughout global for consumers to purchase hydrogen fuel or otherwise it will
affect the cost and stop generating revenue. The researchers will need fund themselves to hire more
employees as market continues to grow and reach other sectors.

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Appendix
Fig 01 [Fossil Fuel Chart]. Retrieved from
http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf, p.6
Fig 02 [Carbon Cycle]. Retrieved from Johnson, S., & NASA.
(2014). http://teachers.yale.edu/curriculum/viewer/initiative_09.05.07_u
Fig 03 [Oil Development]. Retrieved from Simons, O. (2012, June
27). http://positivists.org/blog/archives/1208
Fig 04 [Symptoms]. Retrieved from Rianovositi.
(2009). https://nccnewsarchive.expressions.syr.edu/?tag=chelsea-decesare
Fig 05 [Fossil Fuel Remain Supply]. Retrieved from Ecotricity.
(2014). https://www.ecotricity.co.uk/our-green-energy/energy-independence/the-end-of-fossilfuels
Fig 06 [Steam Reform Hydrogen]. Retrieved from Nguyen, L. (2012, June
27). http://cafcp.org/category/topics/hydrogen-production
Fig 07 [Casculties charts]. Retrieved from Judah, S., & BBC. (2013, November
19). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-24987425
Fig 08 [Revolution Fuel]. Retrieved from USCAR.
(2014). http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/evolutionary-timeline-for-fcvs
Fig 09 [Retrieved from SHAH, D.] (2014, November 18). Toyota
Mirai http://fareastgizmos.com/transport/toyota-launch-new-mirai-hydrogen-fuel-cellvehicle-japan-december-15.php
Fig 10 [Retrieved from SHAH, D.] (2014, November 18). Toyota
Mirai http://fareastgizmos.com/transport/toyota-launch-new-mirai-hydrogen-fuel-cellvehicle-japan-december-15.php
Fig 11 [Comparison Fuel]. Retrieved from Chun, E. (2013, December
9). http://www.hyundailikesunday.com/2013/12/09/tucson-fuel-cell-the-next-generationelectric-vehicle/
Fig 12 [Fuel Cell Operation]. Retrieved from Puiu, T. (2014, December
3). http://www.zmescience.com/science/physics/graphene-membrane-fuel-cell-hydrogen-95421/
Fig 13 [Fuel Cell Market Growth]. Retrieved from Research, P. (2014). http://www.platts.com/newsfeature/2013/electricpower/powergen/fuelcellcars
Fig 14 [Investment hydrogen stations]. Retrieved from Brinded, L. (2014, October
21). http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/uk-government-spending-jumps-by-10-first-half-tax-year1471015
Fig 15 [Have Hydrogen cars by 2030]. Retrieved from Smith, T. (2013, February
4). http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/02/04/hydrogen_could_be_mainstream_car_fuel_by_2030/

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Fig 16 [Obama Cuts Hydrogen Fuel Cell Funds]. Retrieved from Niedermeyer, E. (2009, May
11). http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2009/05/obama-cuts-hydrogen-research-funds/
Fig 17 [Flammibility Range]. Retrieved from H2 Safety Best practices.
(2014). http://h2bestpractices.org/h2properties/
Fig 18 [Ignite Comparison]. Retrieved from Swain, M. R.
(2014). https://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/30535be.pdf
Fig 19 [Reduce Emission]. Retrieved from Karlstad, K. A. (2012, July
19). http://sciencenordic.com/new-tax-scheme-reduces-emissions-vehicles
Fig 20 [William Grove]. Retrieved from J. (2013, November 21). http://www.circuitstoday.com/theinvention-history-of-fuel-cells
Fig 21 [Building Empire]. Retrieved from Megagames. (2014, March
17). http://megagames.com/trainers/endless-space-disharmony-v4121635-2-trainermrantifun

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Bibliography
Bibliography
Alan. (2014). History of Fuel Cells. Retrieved from altenergy:
http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/fuel_cells_history.html
Bryan Cohen. (2014). The Disadvantages of Using Gasoline for Cars. Retrieved from Ehow.
FLEMING, C. (2014). Carmakers prepare to shift to hydrogen fuel cells. Retrieved from latimes:
http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-fuel-cell-cars-20141026-story.html#page=1
Guy, K. (2007, November 19). Powering up for a hydrogen economy. Retrieved from BBc:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7101708.stm
Huntingford, S. (2014, October 09). Government to help fund hydrogen filling stations. Retrieved
from Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/11152792/Government-tohelp-fund-hydrogen-filling-stations.html
Jha, A. (2008, july 31). Cheap way to 'split water' could lead to abundant clean fuel. Retrieved from
theguardian:
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/jul/31/energyefficiency.energy
Milliken, J. (2004). We Want Hydrogen-Powered Cars on the Road by 2020. Retrieved from The
European Institute: http://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/34-european-affairs/fall2004/270-we-want-hydrogen-powered-cars-on-the-road-by-2020
Puiu, T. (2014, Decemeber 3). Graphene membrane allows mobile Fuel Cells to harvest Hydrogen
straight from Air. Retrieved from Zmescience:
http://www.zmescience.com/science/physics/graphene-membrane-fuel-cell-hydrogen95421/
Smith, T. (2013, Febuary 4). Report: Over 1.5 MILLION UK drivers will have hydrogen cars by 2030.
Retrieved from theregister:
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/02/04/hydrogen_could_be_mainstream_car_fuel_by_2
030/

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