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EECE63

Basic Circuit Analysis


Set 8: AC Circuit Analysis
Reza Molavi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of British Columbia
reza@ece.ubc.ca

Slides Courtesy : Dr. Shahriar Mirabbasi (UBC)


EECE 263, Set 8

AC STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS
SINUSOIDS
Review basic facts about sinusoidal signals

SINUSOIDAL AND COMPLEX FORCING FUNCTIONS


Behavior of circuits with sinusoidal independent sources
and modeling of sinusoids in terms of complex exponentials
PHASORS
Representation of complex exponentials as vectors. It facilitates
steady-state analysis of circuits.
IMPEDANCE AND ADMITANCE
Generalization of the familiar concepts of resistance and
conductance to describe AC steady state circuit operation
PHASOR DIAGRAMS
Representation of AC voltages and currents as complex vectors
BASIC AC ANALYSIS USING KIRCHHOFF LAWS

ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Extension of node, loop, Thevenin and other techniques

SINUSOIDS
x (t ) X M sin t

Adimensional plot

As function of time

X M amplitude or maximum value

angular frequency (rads/sec)


t argument (radians)
T

" leads by "

Period x (t ) x (t T ), t

frequency in Hertz (cycle/sec )


T 2
2 f
f

" lags by "

BASIC TRIGONOMETRY

ESSENTIAL IDENTITIES
sin( ) sin cos cos sin
cos( ) cos cos sin sin
sin( ) sin
cos( ) cos

SOME DERIVED IDENTITIES


sin( ) sin cos cos sin
cos( ) cos cos sin sin
1
1
sin cos sin( ) sin( )
2
2
1
1
cos cos cos( ) cos( )
2
2
APPLICATIONS

cos t sin( t )
2

sin t cos( t )
2
cos t cos( t )
sin t sin( t )

RADIANS AND DEGREES

2 radians 360 degrees


180
(rads)
(degrees)

ACCEPTED EE CONVENTION

sin( t ) sin( t 90)


2

LEARNING EXAMPLE

cos( t 45)
cos( t 45 360)

cos( t 45)
cos( t 45 180)

cos( t )

Leads by 45 degrees

Lags by 315

Leads by 225 or lags by 135

LEARNING EXAMPLE

v1 (t ) 12 sin(1000t 60), v2 (t ) 6 cos(1000t 30)


FIND FREQUENCY AND PHASE ANGLE BETWEEN VOLTAGES
Frequency in radians per second is the factor of the time variable 1000 sec1

f ( Hz )

159.2 Hz
2

To find phase angle we must express both sinusoids using the same
trigonometric function; either sine or cosine with positive amplitude

take care of minus sign with cos( ) cos( 180)


6 cos(1000t 30) 6 cos(1000t 30 180)

Change sine into cosine with cos( ) sin( 90)


6 cos(1000t 210) 6 sin(1000t 210 90)
We like to have the phase shifts less than 180 in absolute value

6 sin(1000t 300) 6 sin(1000t 60)

v1 (t ) 12 sin(1000t 60)

(1000t 60) (1000t 60) 120

v2 (t ) 6 sin(1000t 60)

(1000t 60) (1000t 60) 120

v1 leads v2 by 120
v2 lags v1 by 120

LEARNING EXTENSION

i1 (t ) 2 sin( 377 t 45)


i2 (t ) 0.5 cos(377 t 10)
i3 (t ) 0.25 sin( 377 t 60)
i1 leads i2 by_____?
i1 leads i3 by_____?
cos sin( 90)
0.5 cos(377t 10) 0.5 sin( 377t 10 90)
(377t 45) (377 100) 55
sin sin( 180)

i1 leads i2 by 55

0.25 sin( 377t 60) 0.25 sin( 377t 60 180)


(377t 45) (377t 120) 165
i1 leads i3 by 165

SINUSOIDAL AND COMPLEX FORCING FUNCTIONS


Learning Example

KVL : L

di
(t ) Ri (t ) v (t )
dt

In steady state i (t ) A cos( t ), or


i (t ) A1 cos t A2 sin t

*/ R

If the independent sources are sinusoids di


*/ L
(t ) A1 sin t A2 cos t
of the same frequency then for any
dt
variable in the linear circuit the steady
state response will be sinusoidal and of ( LA1 RA2 ) sin t ( LA2 RA1 ) cos t
the same frequency
VM cos t

LA1 RA2 0 algebraic problem


LA2 RA1 VM
To determine the steady state solution
we only need to determine the parameters A1 RVM , A2 LVM
2
2
2
2
R

L
)
R

L
)
B,
v (t ) A sin( t ) i SS (t ) B sin( t )

Determining the steady state solution can


be accomplished with only algebraic tools!

FURTHER ANALYSIS OF THE SOLUTION

The solution is i (t ) A1 cos t A2 sin t


The applied voltage is v (t ) VM cos t
For comparison purposes one can write i (t ) A cos( t )
A1 A cos , A2 A sin

A1

RVM
LVM
,
A

2
R 2 (L) 2
R 2 (L) 2

A
i (t )

A A12 A22 , tan

A2
A1

VM
1 L
,

tan
R
R 2 (L) 2
VM
1 L
cos(

tan
)
2
2
R
R (L)

For L 0 the current AL WAYS lags the voltage


If R 0 (pure inductor) the current lags the voltage by 90

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE LOOP CIRCUIT CAN BE VERY LABORIOUS


IF ONE USES SINUSOIDAL EXCITATIONS
TO MAKE ANALYSIS SIMPLER ONE RELATES SINUSOIDAL SIGNALS
TO COMPLEX NUMBERS. THE ANALYSIS OF STEADY STATE WILL BE
CONVERTED TO SOLVING SYSTEMS OF ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS ...
WITH COMPLEX VARIABLES

ESSENTIAL IDENTITY : e j cos j sin (Euler identity)


v (t ) VM cos t y (t ) A cos( t )
v (t ) VM sin t y (t ) A sin( t ) * / j (and add)
VM e j t Ae j (t ) Ae j e j t

y (t )

If everybody knows the frequency of the sinusoid


then one can skip the term exp(jwt)

VM Ae j

Learning Example

R jL R (L ) e
2

IMe
v (t ) VM e j t
Assume i (t ) I M e ( j t )
di
KVL : L (t ) Ri (t ) v (t )
dt
di
(t ) jI M e ( j t )
dt
di
L (t ) Ri (t ) jLI M e ( j t ) RI M e ( j t )
dt
( jL R) I M e ( j t )

( jL R) I M e j e jt
( jL R) I M e j e j t VM e j t
VM
R jL
I M e j
*/
jL R
R jL

I M e j

VM ( R jL)
R 2 (L) 2

IM

VM
R 2 (L ) 2

VM
R 2 (L ) 2

tan 1

L
R

tan 1

L
R

, tan 1

L
R

v (t ) VM cos t Re{VM e j t }
i (t ) Re{I M e ( j t ) } I M cos( t )

C P
x jy re j
r x 2 y 2 , tan 1
x r cos , y r sin

x
y

PHASORS
ESSENTIAL CONDITION
ALL INDEPENDENT SOURCES ARE SINUSOIDS OF THE SAME FREQUENCY
BECAUSE OF SOURCE SUPERPOSITION ONE CAN CONSIDER A SINGLE SOURCE

u(t ) U M cos( t )

THE STEADY STATE RESPONSE OF ANY CIRCUIT VARIABLE WILL BE OF THE FORM

y(t ) YM cos( t )

SHORTCUT 1

u(t ) U M e j ( t ) y(t ) YM e
Re{U M e j ( t ) } Re{YM e

j ( t )

j ( t )

U M e j ( t ) U M e j e jt u U M e j y YM e j
SHORTCUT IN NOTATION

NEW IDEA:

INSTEAD OF WRITING u U M e j WE WRITE u U M


... AND WE ACCEPT ANGLES IN DEGREES
U M IS THE PHASOR REPRESENTATION FOR U M cos( t )
u(t ) U M cos( t ) U U M Y YM y(t ) YM cos( t )
SHORTCUT 2: DEVELOP EFFICIENT TOOLS TO DETERMINE THE PHASOR OF
THE RESPONSE GIVEN THE INPUT PHASOR(S)

Learning Example

Learning Extensions

It is essential to be able to move from


sinusoids to phasor representation

A cos(t ) A
A sin(t ) A 90

V VM 0
v Ve jt

I I M

jt
di
i

Ie
L (t ) Ri (t ) v
dt
L( jIe jt ) RIe jt Ve jt
In terms of phasors one has
jLI RI V
V
I
R jL

The phasor can be obtained using


only complex algebra

We will develop a phasor representation


for the circuit that will eliminate the need
of writing the differential equation

v (t ) 12 cos(377t 425) 12 425


y(t ) 18 sin( 2513t 4.2) 18 85.8

Given f 400 Hz
V1 1020 v1 (t ) 10 cos(800 t 20)
V2 12 60 v2 (t ) 12 cos(800 t 60)
Phasors can be combined using the
rules of complex algebra

(V11 )(V2 2 ) V1V2(1 2 )

V11 V1
(1 2 )
V2 2 V2

PHASOR RELATIONSHIPS FOR CIRCUIT ELEMENTS


RESISTORS v (t ) Ri (t )

VM e ( j t ) RI M e ( j t )

VM e j RI M e j

V RI Phasor representation for a resistor


Phasors are complex numbers. The resistor
model has a geometric interpretation
The voltage and current
phasors are colineal

In terms of the sinusoidal signals this


geometric representation implies that
the two sinusoids are in phase

INDUCTORS

d
( I M e ( j t ) )
dt
jLI M e ( j t )

VM e ( j t ) L

Relationship between sinusoids

VM e j jLI M e j

V jLI
Learning Example
The relationship between L 20mH , v (t ) 12 cos(377t 20). Find i (t )
phasors is algebraic
For the geometric view
use the result

j 190 e j 90
V LI90

377

1220
I

( A)
V 1220
L90
V
12
I
I

70( A)
j L
377 20 103
i (t )

The voltage leads the current by 90 deg


The current lags the voltage by 90 deg

12
cos(377t 70)
3
377 20 10

CAPACITORS

I M e ( j t ) C

d
(VM e ( j t ) )
dt

Relationship between sinusoids

I M e j jCe j

I CV90

I jCV
Learning Example

C 100 F , v (t ) 100 cos(314t 15). Find i (t )


The relationship between
phasors is algebraic
In a capacitor the
current leads the
voltage by 90 deg
The voltage lags
the current by 90 deg

314
V 10015
I jCV

I C 190 10015

I 314 100 106 100105( A)


i (t ) 3.14 cos(314t 105)( A)

LEARNING EXTENSIONS

L 0.05 H , I 4 30( A), f 60 Hz


Find the voltage across the inductor
2 f 120
V jLI

V 120 0.05 190 4 30


V 2460
v (t ) 24 cos(120 60)
Now an example with capacitors

C 150 F , I 3.6 145, f 60 Hz


Find the voltage across the inductor

2 f 120
I jCV V
V

I
jC

3.6 145
120 150 106 190
200
V
235

v (t )

200

cos(120 t 235)

IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE


For each of the passive components the relationship between the voltage phasor
and the current phasor is algebraic. We now generalize for an arbitrary 2-terminal
element

Z ( ) R( ) jX ( )
R( ) Resistive component
X ( ) Reactive component

| Z | R 2 X 2
X
z tan 1
R
(INPUT) IMPEDANCE

V V V
Z M v M ( v i ) | Z | z
I I M i I M
(DRIVING POINT IMPEDANCE)
The units of impedance are OHMS
Impedance is NOT a phasor but a complex
number that can be written in polar or
Cartesian form. In general its value depends
on the frequency

Element
R
L
C

Phasor Eq. Impedance


V RI
ZR
V jLI
Z jL
1
1
V
I
Z
jC
jC

KVL AND KCL HOLD FOR PHASOR REPRESENTATIONS

v2 (t )

v1 ( t )

v3 ( t )

i0 (t )

i1 (t )

i2 (t )

i3 (t )

KVL: v1(t ) v2 (t ) v3 (t ) 0

KCL : i0 (t ) i1 (t ) i2 (t ) i3 (t ) 0

vi (t ) VMie j ( t i ) , i 1,2,3

ik (t ) I Mke j ( t k ) , k 0,1,2,3
In a similar way, one shows ...

KVL : (VM1e j1 VM 2e j 2 VM 3e j3 )e jt 0
VM11 VM 2 2 VM 33 0
V1 V2 V3 0 Phasors!

V2

V1

V3

I 0 I1 I 2 I3 0

I0

I1

I2

I3

The components will be represented by their impedances and the relationships


will be entirely algebraic!!

SPECIAL APPLICATION:
IMPEDANCES CAN BE COMBINED USING THE SAME RULES DEVELOPED
FOR RESISTORS

V1
Z1

I
V2

I
Zs Z1 Z2

Z2

Z1

Z2 V

1
1
k
Zp
Zk

Z s k Zk
LEARNING EXAMPLE

Zp

Z1Z 2
Z1 Z2

f 60 Hz , v (t ) 50 cos( t 30)
Compute equivalent impedance and current

120 , V 5030, Z R 25
ZR R

Z L jL

ZC

1
jC

1
j120 50 106
Z L j 7.54, ZC j53.05

Z L j120 20 103 , ZC

Z s Z R Z L ZC 25 j 45.51

V
5030
5030
( A)

( A)
51.93 61.22
Z s 25 j 45.51

I 0.9691.22( A) i (t ) 0.96 cos(120 t 91.22)( A)

LEARNING ASSESSMENT

FIND i (t )

377
Z R 20

Z L j377 40 103 j15.08

V 120(60 90)

ZC

Zeq ZC || ( Z R Z L )

j
j 53.05
377 50 106

Zeq 30 .5616 + j4 .9714 30.9639.239

V
120 30

3.876 39.924( A)
Z eq 30.9639.239

Parallel Combinatio n of Admittances

(COMPLEX) ADMITTANCE

Y p Yk

1
G jB (Siemens)
Z
G conductanc e
B Suceptanc e

YR 0.1S

1
1
R jX
R jX

2
Z R jX
R jX R X 2

R
L
C

V jLI
1
V
I
jC

Y p 0.1 j1( S )
Series Combinatio n of Admittances

0.1S

Phasor Eq. Impedance


V RI

1
j1( S )
j1

1
1

Ys k Yk

R
R2 X 2
X
B 2
R X2

Element

YC

ZR
Z jL
Z

1
jC

Admittance
1
Y G
R
1
Y
jL
Y jC

j 0.1S

1
1
1

Ys 0.1 j 0.1
10 j10

(0.1)( j 0.1) 0.1 j 0.1

0.1 j 0.1 0.1 j 0.1


1
10 j10
Ys

10 j10
200
Ys 0.05 j 0.05 S
Ys

LEARNING EXAMPLE VS 6045(V )

LEARNING EXTENSION

FIND Y p , I

Y p YR YL
0.5 j 0.25

Y p 0.5 j 0.5 j1 0.25 0.75 j 0.5( S )


Y p 0.901433.69( S )

2 j4
2 j4
Yp
0.5 j 0.25( S )
2 j4
j8

I Y pV 0.901433.69 1020

I Y pV (0.5 j 0.25) 6045( A)

I 9.01453.79( A)

Zp

I 0.559 26.565 6045( A)


I 33.5418.435( A)

LEARNING EXAMPLE

SERIES-PARALLEL REDUCTIONS

1
2 j4
2
2 j 4 (2) (4) 2
1
4 j2
Y34

4 j2
20
Y2

Z3 4 j 2

Y4 j 0.25 j 0.5 j 0.25


Z 4 1 / Y4 j 4
1 ( j 2)
1 j2
1
Z1
1 j 0.5
Z1

1 j 0.5
Z1
1 (0.5) 2
Z1 0.8 j 0.4()

Z4

j 4 ( j 2) 8

j4 j2
j2
Y2 0.1 j 0.2( S )
Y34 0.2 j 0.1

Z2 2 j6 j 2 2 j 4
Z34 4 j 2

Z 234

Y234 0.3 j 0.1( S )

Z 234

1
1
0.3 j 0.1

Y234 0.3 j 0.1


0.1

Z 2 Z34
3 j1
Z 2 Z34

Zeq Z1 Z 234 3.8 j 0.6 3.8478.973

LEARNING EXTENSION FIND THE IMPEDANCE ZT

Z1 4 j 6 j 4
Z1 4 j 2

Y12 Y1 Y2

( R P ) Z1 4.47226.565
Y1 0.224 26.565
( P R)Y1 0.200 j 0.100

Y12 Y1 Y2 0.45 j 0.35


( R P )Y12 0.570 37.875
Z12 1.75437.875
( P R) Z12 1.384 j1.077

Z 2 2 j 2 ( R P ) Z 2 2.82845
Y2 0.354 45
( P R)Y2 0.250 j 0.250
1
4 j2
ZT 2 (1.384 j1077) 3.383 j1.077
Y1
2
4 j 2 (4) (2) 2
1
2 j2
Y2
2
2 j 2 (2) (2) 2
1
1
0.45 j 0.35
Z12

Y12 0.45 j 0.35


0.325

1
Z12
Y12

PHASOR DIAGRAMS
Display all relevant phasors on a common reference frame
Very useful to visualize phase relationships among variables.
Especially if some variable, like the frequency, can change
LEARNING EXAMPLE

SKETCH THE PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR THE CIRCUIT

Any one variable can be chosen as reference.


For this case select the voltage V

KCL : I S

V
V

jCV
R jL

(capacitiv e)
| I L || IC |

| I L || IC |

IC jCV

IL

V
jl
INDUCTIVE CASE

CAPACITIVE CASE

(inductive )

LEARNING EXAMPLE

DO THE PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR THE CIRCUIT

377( s 1 )

2. PUT KNOWN NUMERICAL VALUES

| VL VC || VR |

VR RI
VL jLI

It is convenient to select

1
the current as reference
VC
I
j C
VS VR VL VC
1. DRAW ALL THE PHASORS

| VL || VC |

DIAGRAM WITH REFERENCE VS 12 290


VL 18135(V )

Read values from


diagram!

I 345( A)
VR 1245(V )

(Pythagora s)
VC 6 45

FIND THE FREQUENCY AT WHICH v (t ) AND i (t )


ARE IN PHASE
i.e., the phasors for i (t ), v (t ) are co - lineal
1
V
I jLI RI
jC

LEARNING BY DOING

v (t )

PHASOR DIAGRAM

jLI

1
I
jC

RI

V and I are co - lineal iff jL

Notice that I was


chosen as reference

1
I jLI RI
jC

1
1
0 2
jC
LC

1
9
4

10

3
.
162

10
(rad / s)
3
6
10 10
f

5.033 103 Hz
2

LEARNING EXTENSION

Draw a phasor diagram illustrating all voltages and currents

j4
4 90
I
445
2 j4
4.472 63.435
I1 3.57818.435( A)

I1

I2

Current
divider

1
20
I
445
2 j4
4.472 63.435

I 2 1.789108.435 Simpler than I 2 I I1


V 2 I1 7.15618.435(V )
DRAW PHASORS. ALL ARE
KNOWN. NO NEED TO SELECT
A REFERENCE

BASIC ANALYSIS USING KIRCHHOFFS LAWS


PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
For relatively simple circuits use

Ohm's l a wfor AC anal ys i si ;.e., V IZ


Therul esfor combi ni ngZ andY
KCL andKVL
Currentandvol tagedi vi der
For more complex circuits use

Nodea na l ys i s
Loopa na l ys i s
Superpos iiton
Sourcetra ns formati on
Theveni n's a ndNorton's theorems

LEARNING EXAMPLE

COMPUTE ALL THE VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS

Compute I1
Use current divider for I2 , I3
Ohm' s law for V1 , V2

V1 690 I 2

Zeq 4 ( j 6 || 8 j 4)

V1 16.2678.42(V )

24 j 48 32 j8 24 j 48
Z eq 4

8 j2
8 j2

V2 7.2815(V )

56 j 56
79.19645

9.60430.964()
8 j2
8.24614.036
V
2460
I1 S
2.49829.036( A)
Z eq 9.60430.964
Z eq

j6
690
I1
2.49829.036( A)
8 j2
8.24614.036
8 j4
8.944 26.565
I2
I1
2.49829.036( A)
8 j2
8.24614.036

I3

I1 2.529.06

I 2 2.71 11.58

V2 4 90 I3

I3 1.82105

LEARNING EXTENSION

IF VO 845, COMPUTE VS
THE PLAN...

COMPUTE I3
COMPUTE V1
COMPUTE I2 , I1
COMPUTE VS
VO
( A) 445( A)
2
V1 (2 j 2) I3 8 45 445
V1 11.3140(V )
I3

I2

V1 11.3140

5.657 90( A)
j2
290

I1 I 2 I3 5.657 90 445
I1 j5.657 (2.828 j 2.828)( A)
I1 2.828 j 2.829( A)

VS 2 I1 V1 2(2.828 j 2.829) 11.3140


VS 16.97 j5.658(V )
VS 17.888 18.439

ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
PURPOSE: TO REVIEW ALL CIRCUIT ANALYSIS TOOLS DEVELOPED FOR
RESISTIVE CIRCUITS; I.E., NODE AND LOOP ANALYSIS, SOURCE SUPERPOSITION,
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION, THEVENINS AND NORTONS THEOREMS.

COMPUTE I0

V2 60
V
20 V2 2 0
1 j1
1 j1

1
1
6
V2
1

1 j1
1 j1
1 j1
V2

1. NODE ANALYSIS

V1
V
V
20 2 2 0
1 j1
1 1 j1
V1 V2 60

I0

V2
( A)
1

(1 j1) (1 j1)(1 j1) (1 j1) 2(1 j1) 6

(1 j1)(1 j1)
1 j1
V2

4
8 j2
1 j

V2

(4 j )(1 j )
2

3
5
I 0 j ( A)
2
2

I 0 2.92 30.96

Circuit with voltage source


set to zero (SHORT CIRCUITED)

SOURCE SUPERPOSITION

I L2

1
L

1
L

Circuit with current


source set to zero(OPEN)

Due to the linearity of the models we must have

I L I L1 I L2

VL VL1 VL2

Principle of Source Superposition

The approach will be useful if solving the two circuits is simpler, or more convenient, than
solving a circuit with two sources
We can have any combination of sources. And we can partition any way we find convenient

VL2

3. SOURCE SUPERPOSITION

I 0' 10( A)

Z ' (1 j ) || (1 j )

(1 j )(1 j )
1
(1 j ) (1 j )

COULD USE SOURCE TRANSFORMATION


TO COMPUTE I"0

V1"

Z"
Z"
"
"
60(V ) I 0 "
60( A)
Z 1 j
Z 1 j

1 j
1 j
I 0"
6
2

j
(
1

j
)

j
I 0"
6 ( A)
1 j
6 6
"
1 j
I

j ( A)
0
2 j
4 4
5 3
I 0 I 0' I 0" j ( A)
2 2

Z"

Z " 1 || (1 j )

NEXT: SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

Source transformation is a good tool to reduce complexity in a circuit ...


WHEN IT CAN BE APPLIED!!
ideal sources are not good models for real behavior of sources
A real battery does not produce infinite current when short-circuited

ZV

+
-

RV
VS

ZI

RI

IS

THE MODELS ARE EQUIVALENTS WHEN


RV RI R
VS RI S

Improved model
Improved model
for voltage source for current source

Source Transformationcan be used to determine the Thevenin or Norton Equivalent...


BUT THERE MAY BE MORE EFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

4. SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

IS

8 2j
1 j

Z (1 j ) || (1 j ) 1
V ' 8 2 j

Now a voltage to current transformation


NEXT: THEVENIN

I0

I S 4 j (4 j )(1 j ) 5 3 j

2 1 j (1 j )(1 j )
2

THEVENINS EQUIVALENCE THEOREM


LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A

ZTH

RTH
vTH

vO

a
LINEAR CIRCUIT

vO
_

LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART B

PART B

PART A

Phasor

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

for PART A

vTH

Thevenin Equivalent Source

RTH

Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Impedance

5. THEVENIN ANALYSIS

Voltage Divider

VOC

10 6 j
1 j
(8 2 j )
2
(1 j ) (1 j )

ZTH (1 j ) || (1 j ) 1

8 2j

I0

53j
( A)
2

NEXT: NORTON

NORTONS EQUIVALENCE THEOREM


LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A

ZN

iN

RN

vO

a
LINEAR CIRCUIT

vO
_

LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART B

PART B

PART A
Norton Equivalent Circuit

for PART A

iN

Thevenin Equivalent Source

RNZ N Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Impedance

6. NORTON ANALYSIS

ZTH (1 j ) || (1 j ) 1

I0

Possible techniques: loops, source


transformation, superposition

BY SUPERPOSTION
I SC 20

60 8 2 j

( A)
1 j
1 j

I SC 4 j (4 j )(1 j ) 5 3 j

2
1 j (1 j )(1 j )
2