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AP European History Fall Semester Review 2014


Middle Ages When Church power rose and political system of Feudalism was in use. Hundred
Years War, Crusades, Black Death, and the Great Schism led to the decline of the Middle Ages
and Feudalism.
Hundred Years War (1348-1453)
Background - France vs. England. French king died without heir to thrown, so only lasting person of family was
the English King who made a claim to the thrown. The French nobles named Philip VI king of France. English
monarchs had always possessed French territories; French nobles and kings always thought it was unacceptable
that England held this territory in their country. Fighting over Flanders, general conflict.
French Disadvantages Internal disunity, Monarchy not stable, Economic troubles, Monarchs were ridiculous
The War
1.Conflict during reign of Edward III. He stopped trade of wool to Flanders, which hit their economy and inspired
rebellions by merchants and guilds against French monarchy in Flemish cities. Flemish Cities recognized Edward
as their king and allied with him.
2.Son of Charles VII was named king by most French people, a peasant named Joan of Arc led the army and
ousted English out of France which led to a bunch of victories.
Impact French Nationalism and called for a centralized state instead of feudalism, French and English Peasants
had to pay shit loads of taxes. English textile growth from losing Flanders. Showed professional soldiers are more
worth than noble cavalry are. Cannon and longbow new inventions.
Successful attempt to take holy land (Jerusalem) from Muslim Turks, first one was successful
Failure Muslims were taken by surprise and had no clue what was going on so they lost first time, but they were
militarily superior so they beat them later on.
Impact Trade interactions with Muslims. Sort of revival of Greek/Roman Works and learning. Increase power of
secular leaders. Western Europe starts to understand what else is going on in Europe.
Black Death (1348-1352)
Background European population doubled in 300 years. Food supply low, high unemployment and low wages.
Plague moved from south to west, went along trade routes.
Consequences plague struck Europe when continent was overpopulated and malnourished.
Social Peasants revolted in England and France. Increase tax rates (French Taille)
Economic Farms declined, supply and demand hit, price of manufactured goods increase, noble landowners lost
power, received lower amounts on return for produce.
Recuperating more death led to increase in demand for luxury items, which resulted in prosperous cities. Cities
expanding legal autonomy and influence to surrounding areas.
Impact on Church people start to question church and what they actually able to do, why were good people
dying, church could not answer.
Great Schism (1378-1417)
Background Avignon papacy was when the papacy (pope) was under strong influence by the French when in
Avignon. Gained reputation of corruption and materialism.
The Schism - After Pope in France dies, Rome elects new Pope because papacy used to be in Rome; however, the
French elect one as well. This led to the Great Schism, or the division of the Church.
Impact finally resolved but deep distrust in Church, everyone lost hope in them, led to rise of regional secular
Characteristics of art (Romanesque, Gothic)



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Humanism Human beings can create stuff and do things (Painting, Sculpture, Writing, and Architecture). Sense
of individualism.
Commerce wealthy Italian families paid artists to make self-portraits, and propaganda. MEDICI FAMILY FROM
Italian idealized realism and expression, linear perspective, classicism, individualism, geometry (triangles), Light
and Shadowing (Chiaroscuro light and shadow to create dimension, Sfumato shading to create transitions),
Artists as Celebrities, Patrons (upper middle class like Medici and Church)
Northern attention to details, realism and naturalism, landscapes, middle and lower class subjects, interiors and
portraits, Patrons (nobility, monarchs)
Major Artists and Philosophers
Italian Brunelleschi (Architecture, first Domes since Romans), Donatello (Sculpture of David, Fist classical nude
since Greeks/Romans), Michelangelo (Painting, Glorified human form through sculpture of David), Raphael
(Painting, School of Athens)
Northern Artists Jan Van Eyck (Painting), Brueghel (Painting), Durer (Woodblock Print, Self Portrait of himself
looking like Jesus)
El Greco Unknown artist from Spain who was best known for Mannerism style (elongated/stretched people)
Philosophers Petrarch was earliest humanist, Machiavelli was political philosopher, Castiglione was and advisor
and diplomat.
Politicians Cosimo de Medici was Florentine banker and political leader, wealthiest and most successful
politician. Lorenzo de Medici was patron of the arts.
Role of religion (Catholic Church)
Northern Renaissance influenced Protestant Reformation
Italian Renaissance art was commissioned by church (Michelangelo and Sistine Chapel)

III. Reformations
Church Abuses and Simony
Indulgences a system in which Catholics buy an indulgence to get rid of sins, Church just used money for
themselves, corruption.
Benefices a system in which church offices were given to individuals, positions went to those who bid the most,
not best candidates with ideal characteristics
Major figures
Charles V Holy Roman Emperor of the time, known as Charles I in Spain where he was also King,
excommunicated Luther, eventually made Peace of Augsburg, which screwed him over and decreased his power.
Luther German catholic priest who wrote 95 thesises on areas where Church could improve mainly because of
indulgences (HE HATED THEM, FELT IT WAS CORRUPT). Charles V and church deny him and tell him to
repeal his ideas, he refuses, and the Church threatens to excommunicate him. Starts Lutheranism, in which it was
thought there is salvation by faith alone, the bible is sole authority, and Vernacular Language so that everyone can
read bible.
Zwingli Swiss reformer, debated with Luther over Transubstantiation
Calvin Swiss reformer, hit Church on predestination. Since there was no way of telling what god set for
everyone, just be a good person. Protestant work ethic.
Anabaptists people who disagreed with Church on baptism. Believed in adult baptism since children do not know
what they are doing when baptized. Big problem for Church because what if they are not baptized and become
Catholic when older.
Henry VIII British king who separated from Catholic church and created Anglican church because he wanted
more power and not to be controlled by Catholic Church, and so he could get divorced from his wife Catherine of
Aragon. Had nothing to do with Christian beliefs.

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Jesuits very educated Catholics who played vital role in Counter-Reformations, they convinced people to switch
back to Catholicism.
Major events
Peasants Revolt peasants revolting based off Luthers ideas, Luther did not support the rebellion saying it was
un-Christian to do so.
Peace of Augsburg Charles V allows German Princes to choose from Lutheranism and Catholicism. Big loss for
him and his power.
Counter Reformations new religious orders such as Jesuits and Ursuline for women, and proper education to
become better Catholics.
Council of Trent Reformation committee appointed by Pope met to address Protestant Reformations. Didnt
reform, just re-affirmed Churchs stances on indulgences, simony and celibacy. Successful in Counter-Reforming.
Spanish Inquisition Ferdinand and Isabel start to kick/kill non-Catholics to retain Spanish traditions, and keep
Spain a catholic state. Removed Muslims and Jews from Spain.
Religious, social, and artistic effects
Religious religious education for both genders, helped women
Social new orders to help poor and education for loads of people to become better Catholics
Baroque very religious types of art, served as propaganda for Catholic church. Realistic, Contrast of Light,
Church-Related, Middle of Action/Occurring Motion, Dramatic Emotion.
Artists Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Bernini (St. Peters Basilica)


Religious Wars
Major events and causes
French Civil War France divided into two groups, Catholics who were Guise from northern France vs. Huguenots
who were Bourbons from southern France. Catherine de Medici allows St. Bartholomews Day Massacre where
Protestants kill many Catholics; she did all she could to please both parties even though she favored Bourbon. The
Massacre enraged Catholic League of the Guise who then started fighting against Protestant Union of Bourbons
and Henry of Navarre. Henry takes over thrown as Protestant, however he makes France a catholic state for the
best of his country, this is called a Politique. This ended reign of Bourbon family in France. He allowed for
religious toleration through Edict of Nantes but was forced to repeal it later on.
Thirty Years War English Civil War Effects (ex. Peace of Westphalia)
Major political leaders (Henry IV, Elizabeth, Stuarts, etc.)


Absolutism & Constitutionalism

Major political leaders (Philip II, Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Stuarts, Maria Theresa, Frederick Wilhelm, etc.)
Methods and challenges for consolidation of power (ex. nobility)
Alternatives to Absolutism (William & Mary and the English Bill of Rights, Dutch Republic, etc.)


Exploration & Trade

Effects (Columbian Exchange, joint-stock companies, slave trade, British and Dutch rivalry)

VII. Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Major scientists, philosophers (ex. Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Voltaire, etc.)
Major ideas (heliocentric theory, empiricism, deism, etc.)
Social and political effects (academies, Enlightened despotism, etc.)

VIII. Ancien Regime

Political and social abuses of rulers (ex. taxation)
Major wars (War of Spanish Succession, Nine Years War, War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years War)

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Characteristics of art (Rococo)
Major technological innovations (ex. seed drill, enclosures)
Social classes and family life (nuclear families, wet nurses, etc.)


French Revolution & Napoleon

Political, economic, and social causes
Major events
Political, religious, artistic, and social effects

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