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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Repair and retrofitting structures are highly important area in the concrete technology where the
structural strengthening area. In earthquake occurring prone such structures, stability becomes
more essential and hence proper attention has to make to selection of repair and retrofitting of the
concrete structure. In this context methods of retrofitting using steel plates and using high
strength concrete studied. Further an efficient and effective method to be used for this project
work. In these study the various innovative materials which used for the strengthening the
structure as High strength concrete, Ultra high strength concrete, CFRP, FRP, GFRP NSS and
steel plates wrapping techniques are abruptly used in this strengthening the concrete structure.
Overlaying is considered as a major retrofitting method for flexural and fatigue strengthening or
retrofitting of concrete flexural members. The most of the damage occurring parts in the
structural elements are beam column joints, and column member joints. The some of the studies
about the retrofitting for beams using various materials discussed in this paper.

REVIEW 1
2.2 RETROFITTING BEAM BY ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE
Shilang Xu , Lijun Hou, et. al, (2012) discussed about flexural and shear behaviors of
reinforced ultrahigh toughness cementitious composite beams without web reinforcement under
concentrated load. Ultrahigh toughness cementitious composite (UHTCC) behaves strainhardening and multiple-cracking when subjected to tensile load. In this work investigates both
bending and shear performances of steel reinforced UHTCC (RUHTCC) beams through the
bending test under concentrated load. The failure mode was designed from flexure to flexure and
shear to shear for various reinforcement ratio in beam. The experimental results showed that for
flexural behavior, RUHTCC beams presented high load-carrying capacity, deformation ability
and numerous fine cracks around mid-span region in comparison with ordinary reinforced
concrete beam. Based on the internal force equilibrium, the theoretical equation for determining
the moment of inertia of fully cracked section of RUHTCC beam and the predicted maximum
deflection at service load according to proposed equation based on tensile and compressive

models agrees the tested value. For shear behavior, RUHTCC beam exhibited shear strength
about 1.91 times that of RC beam and a large shear bearing capacity after the shear cracking due
to the diagonal multiple-cracking pattern and the stable crack development. In this paper, the
experimental research on flexural and shear behaviors of steel reinforced ultrahigh toughness
cementitious composites (RUHTCC) beams was performed through the bending test of beam
with five different longitudinal steel ratios under one concentrated load. With the increase in
reinforcement ratio, three failure modes were presented for both RC and RUHTCC beams,
including flexure, flexure-shear, and shear. Load carrying capacity, deformation and cracking
pattern compared between RUHTCC and RC beam.
Conclusions as resulted as the flexural performances of RUHTCC beam under one point
loading at mid-span demonstrated to be comparable to that under two symmetrical loading,
presenting about 0.05 mm in crack width at yielding and the multiple crack pattern around midspan region after yielding. The flexural behavior of RUHTCC beams is independent of loading
manner. Compared with the corresponding RC beam, the load-carrying capacity, cracking
pattern, deformation and ductility ability of RUHTCC beams improved. Based on the internal
force equilibrium, the theoretical equations for calculating the moment of inertia of fully cracked
section (Icr) of RUHTCC beam is proposed, of UHTCC in tension zone to the moment of inertia
is neglected without loss of accuracy. Based on bilinear tensile and compression model, the
maximum deflection at service load well with tested value for RUHTCC beams failing in flexure
and flexure-shear.
The deformation of RUHTCC beam still is far larger than that in RC beam and multiple
diagonal cracks were observed in RUHTCC beam. With respect to RUHTCC beam in shear, the
shear carrying load and shear deformation were respectively about 1.91 and 1.93 times those of
RC comparison beam although they had similar matrix strength. A large reserve in shear strength
after the shear cracking observed and numerous diagonal cracks with a very narrow spacing
appeared in shear-span zone, too. The horizontal crack along the reinforcement observed in RC
beam was eliminated in tested RUHTCC beams due to the tensile strain-hardening behavior of
UHTCC and the deformation compatibility between UHTCC and the steel bar, ensured the stable
extension of shear cracks in RUHTCC beam and prevented in load and crack width during
loading.

Dawei Zhang Tamon Ueda, and Hitoshi Furuuchi, (2011) has investigated concrete
cover separation failure of overlay-strengthened reinforced concrete beams and presents an
analytical approach based on the concrete tooth model for overlay-strengthened beams failed
with concrete cover separation at the cut-off point of overlay end. The length of concrete cover
separation required for the peak load of overlay strengthened beam to be reached is derived from
the proposed analytical procedure is based on experimental observations. The reliability and
accuracy of the proposed analytical procedure has been verified by comparing the analytical and
experimental crack spacing as peak load of the overlay-strengthened beams. The concept of
maximum efficient capacity of overlay strengthening method is presented. The failure of the
concrete cover separation was initiated by the formation of a crack at the edge of overlay caused
by its abrupt termination. The crack was further propagated to the level of the tension
reinforcement in concrete beam part and then progressed horizontally along the level of the steel
reinforcement and the peak load is reached after the concrete cover separation until the tension
reinforcing bar yields or the entire shear span debonds. A simple analytical approach is
developed based on the considerations in concrete near the reinforcing bar closest to the cut-off
point of the overlay.
The analysis, based on the model, consists of three stages as the determination of local
stress of substrate concrete at the lower face of the reinforcing bar, tensile stress of the
reinforcement in overlay by assuming the monolithic composite action, and length of concrete
cover separation corresponding to the peak load. The peak load of overlay-strengthened beams
with concrete cover separation can be predicted by using analytical approach. By comparing the
predicted strength with the theoretical flexure and shear strength of strengthened beam, the peak
load and failure mode can be determined as the minimum strength of the strengthened beam. The
reliability and accuracy of the proposed analytical procedure verified by comparing the analytical
and experimental values of the overlay-strengthened beam provided. The concept of maximum
efficient reinforcement area in overlay with respect to concrete cover separation can be proposed
by the intersection point of two curves which represent flexure strength and debonding strength
unless shear failure without debonding would occur.

M.M. Kamal a, M.A. Safanet.al, (2014) discussed behavior and strength of beams cast
with ultra high strength concrete containing different types of fibers. Its production and

application implement the most up-to-date knowledge and technology of concrete


manufacturing. This paper aimed to evaluate the behavior of ultra-high strength concrete beams
and also aimed to determine the effect of adding fibers and explore their effect upon the behavior
and strength of the reinforced concrete beams. A total of twelve simple concrete beams with and
without shear reinforcements were tested in flexure. The main variables taken into consideration
in this research were the type of fibers and the percentage of longitudinal reinforcement as well
as the existence or absence of the web reinforcement. Two types of fibers were used including
steel and polypropylene fibers. The behavior of the tested beams was investigated with special
attention to the deflection under different stages of loading, initial cracking, cracking pattern, and
ultimate load. Increased number of cracks was observed at the end of loading due to the use of
fibers, which led to the reduced width of cracks. This led to increased stiffness and higher values
of maximum loads. The current work aimed at investigating the shear behavior of
simple beams with and without web reinforcement cast using ultra-high performance concrete.
The beams were loaded until failure, and the behavior was analyzed in terms of cracking
and failure patterns, deflection and shear resistance. Proposed design strength and ACI-code
design equations were used to check on the experimental results. Based on the available test
results and analysis, the following conclusions could be drawn: 1. Ultra-high performance
concrete could be produced utilizing conventional local materials and production techniques
with regard to mixing and curing. A 135 MPa 28-day compressive strength was achieved with
adequate workability. 2. The use of polypropylene and steel fibers increased the 28day compressive strength by 2.5 and 6 percent compared tothe counterpart mixes without fibers.
3. Independent of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio, the steel fibers were more efficient
in increasing both initial and ultimate loads. The maximum percentage of increasing the ultimate
loads was 13% where steel fibers were used in the test beams with lower reinforcement ratios
and web reinforcement. 4. In test beams without web reinforcement, the influence of
reinforcement fibers on the ultimate load and consequently, the shear strength was more
significant. The increase in the ultimate loads was as high as 48 and 15 percent where steel
and polypropylene fibers were used, respectively in test beams with the lower reinforcement
ratio. When the reinforcement ratio increased the percentage increase was only 22 percent for
both steel and polypropylene fibers. 5. The reported equations are proposed for estimating the

ultimate loads and shear strength for ordinary and steel fiber reinforced concrete providing
adequate estimations of both ultimate loads and shear strength.

Arunachalam.K, Vigneshwari.M et.al, (2011) investigates about Experimental


investigation on ultra high strength concrete containing mineral admixtures under different
curing conditions Recent researches on Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) revealed that it
has high compressive strength and high tensile strength. It also has large ductility to develop
even after cracking in cooperation with fibers. The possibility of achieving high strength,
durability, and improved ductility with the use of UHSC encourages researchers and engineers to
use this modern material in many construction applications. In this paper, several possibilities are
examined for reducing the cement dosage of UHSC because the high amount of cement content
not only affects the production costs, but also has negative effects on the environment. In this
study, mechanical properties (compressive strength and split tensile strength) of UHSC produced
with Class-F Fly Ash (FA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) were investigated under different curing
conditions (normal and hot air oven curing). Test results showed that UHSC containing mineral
admixtures have satisfactory mechanical performance. Between the replacement of FA and
RHA, RHA at 20 % replacement of cement gave higher compressive and split tensile strength
than the other. The results indicate that RHA and FA can be suitable for use as a supplementary
cementitious material to produce UHSC. The total cement replacement percentage by this blend
can go up to 20%. This project work is a research study on the UHSC containing mineral
admixtures under different curing conditions. Six test groups were constituted by partially
replacing the cement using mineral admixtures (FA and RHA) and the specimens were cured
under normal curing and hot air oven curing. UHSC with mineral admixtures has important
environmental benefits. Decreasing cement content reduces heat of hydration and shrinkage
which are normally important problems for conventional UHSC. The results show that RHA and
FA will be suitable for use as a supplementary cementitious material to produce UHSC. The
combination of RHA and FA will improve the properties of UHSC. The total cement
replacement percentage by this blend can go up to 20%. Incorporating steel fibers is essential in
changing the brittle failure mode of UHSC into a more ductile one. Concrete mixes were
evaluated for compressive strength and split tensile strength for each series. RHA under hot air
oven curing at 20 % replacement of cement gave the highest compressive and split tensile

strength than the other combinations. Although the cement content of these mixes are lower than
conventional UHSC, compressive strength of UHSC with RHA at 20% replacement is 12%
greater than control UHSC after 28 day normal water curing. Hot air oven curing seems to be
very effective to increase the compressive strength of UHSC. This can be attributed to the
improvement of hydration process under these curing regimes. In this case, compressive strength
of RHA with 20% replacement is 17% greater than control UHSC after 28 day hot air oven
curing. Compressive and split tensile strength of UHSC with FA at 20% replacement is slightly
lower than the other mixes but it is almost equal to that of control UHSC. RHA is an effective
pozzolana, even at lower water-binder ratios as the addition of RHA into matrices maintains or
increases compressive strength. Mechanical properties are improved by the incorporation of steel
fibers in UHSC especially splitting tensile strength. There was about 2 to 7 % and 2 to 10 %
increase in split tensile strength for UHSC with mineral admixtures compared to the control
UHSC under normal curing and hot air oven curing respectively.
Nageh N. Melekaa, Alaa A. Bashandy, (2013) researched about Ultra High Strength
Concrete Using Economical Materials This research aims to investigate and evaluate an ultra
high strength concrete (UHSC) cast using economical materials. Reactive powder concrete
(RPC), as a one of UHSC types were studied. Its mechanical properties were investigated and
evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and new
steel fibers' aspect ratios as reinforcement for this concrete. A compressive strength of about
154MPa, indirect tensile strength of 12MPa, modulus of elasticity of 45GPa and flexural strength
of 30MPa have been achieved for reinforced RPC contains 800 kg/m3 cement content and silica
fume content 30% of cement weight. The test results showed adiquate improvements by
increasing cement and silica fume contents as well as adding steel fibers on the compressive
strength, modulus of elasticity and indirect tensile strength. It showed also a

great positive

effect on the flexural strength. Based on the results obtained from the current research, the
following main conclusions can be summarized:
1. Ultra high strength concrete could be produced effectively using cheap available materials in
North Sinai, Egypt.
2. A compressive strength of 154.5 MPa, indirect tensile strength of 11.98 MPa, modulus of
elasticity of 45.1 GPa and flexural strength of 30.26 MPa were approached for steel fibers
reactive concrete samples of 800 kg/m3 cement content and 30% silica fume/cement (mix M9).

3. Increasing of the studied properties of the reactive concrete samples at the 28 days results with
respect to that of 7 days age was very small except in the case of samples that have no silica
fume content it has a positive effect.
4. Increasing silica fume contents improves the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity,
tensile strength and flexural strength values at different RPC ages.
5. It is recommended to use silica fume content up to 30% of the cement content. Increasing
silica fume content improves the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and
flexural strength values at different RPC ages.
6. Increasing cement contents enhance the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile
strength and flexural strength values at different RPC ages.
7. Adding steel fibers content of 40 kg/m3 improves the compressive strength at the age of 7 and
28 days by about 7% with respect plain RPC. It also improves the modulus of elasticity at the
age of 7 and 28 days by about 18% compared to plain RPC and improves the tensile strength at
the age of 28 days by about 30%. Flexural strength values improve at the age of 7 and 28 days by
about 190%.
8. It is recommended to use steel fibers as an enhancing material to RPC.
Finally, it can produce an economic RPC using locally available materials in North Sinai, Egypt,
in order to manufacturing a pre-cast ultra high strength concrete with ultra mechanical properties.

Yung-Chih Wang and Ming-Gin Lee, (2007) revealed Ultra-high strength steel fiber
reinforced concrete for strengthening of RC frames Reinforced concrete (RC) structure
strengthened with ultra-high steel fiber reinforced concrete (UFC) is introduced in the study.
Interior RC beam-column joint sub-assemblages strengthened by means of joint replacement
with UFC are tested cyclically to observe their seismic performance. Prior to frame testing, UFC
mechanical
properties, for example the compressive, flexural, rebar bonding, and slant shear strengths, and
durability are examined and discussed. The material test results indicate that the UFC displays
excellent performance in terms of mechanical anddurable behavior. The frame test results show
that the UFC-replaced joint frame behaves very well in seismic resistance. Its performance is
even much better than the frame strengthened with RC jacketing as normally seen in the
traditional

retrofit schemes. The main findings from this study can be summarized
as follows: 1. Ultra-high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (UFC) displays excellent
potential in terms of superior abrasion resistance and compressive, flexural, rebar bonding, and
shear resisting strengths. The length of rebar required in UFC is approximately half that required
in NC. Similar to the steel bonding
strength, the slant shear strength of UFC (normalized. with the square root of the compressive
strength of the concrete) is twice that of NC. 2. The good durability of UFC is also shown by its
high resistance to freeze-thaw reactions and lower weight loss during abrasion testing. 3. NC
column-jacketing and UFC joint-replacement can be adopted to improve the poor seismic
behavior of
moment-resisting frames without transverse reinforcement at the beam-column joints. Both the
retrofitted frames show better seismic performance than the asbuilt
frame. However, the shear resistance of the infilled UFC joint is excellent, better than that of the
joint encased with the NC jacket. 4. From the frame test results it can be seen that the
NCprototype or NC-jacketed interior beam-column joint
(in which there was no transverse reinforcement) was

able to withstand a nominal joint

horizontal shear stress of 1.0 f cj' MPa. The nominal horizontal shear
stress proposed for the UFC-infilled joint, (on the conservative side) was similar to NC joint,
which is 1.0 f cj ' MPa. More experimental study using fullsize
beam-column joints infilled with UFC (for both strengthening and new construction purposes) is
necessary.

REVIEW 2
2.3 RETROFITTING FOR BEAM COLUMN JOINTS
N. H. Hamid, N. D. Hadi, K. D. Ghani (2013) discussed in Retrofitting of Beam-Column Joint
Using CFRP and Steel Plate and proposed paper presents the retrofitting of beam-column joint
using CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and steel plate. It specimen which tested and
observed that joint suffered severe damages and diagonal cracks at upper crack at upper column
before retrofitted. CFRP were wrapped at corbel, bottom and top of the column and steel plates
with bonding were attached to the two beams and the jointing system. This retrofitted specimen
is tested again under lateral cyclic loading up 1.75% drift. Visual observations show that the

cracks started at joint when 0.5% drift applied at top of column. Analysis of elastic stiffness,
lateral strength, ductility, hysteresis loops and equivalent viscous damping shows that these
values are higher than be for retrofitting. For beam-column joint with corbel which suffers severe
damage after the earthquake.
Based on the visual observation, results and data interpretation, they concluded that, the
overall performance of the retrofitted beam-column joint had increased when compared to the
control specimen. This indicates that the retrofitting method was able to strengthen the beamcolumn joint with corbel under lateral cyclic loading. The control specimen experienced diagonal
shear failure at the top column that contributed the retrofitted specimen experienced cracking at
interfaces and rupture of CFRP sheet and bended reinforcement when retested under lateral
cyclic loading resist higher drift. By retrofitting the exterior beam-column joint with CFRP, the
lateral strength is increased. The stiffness of beam-column joint also increases after retrofitting.
At yield point, the stiffness increased and the ductility of the retrofitted beam-column joint has
increased to almost twice the value of the control specimen after retrofitting and equivalent
viscous damping for the retrofitted specimen is higher than the control specimen.

Saptarshi Sasmal, K. Ramanjaneyulu et.al, (2011) discusses Seismic retrofitting of


non ductile beam-column joint sub-assemblage using FRP wrapping and steel plate jacketing
the aspects of repair and retrofitting technique adopted for a damaged reinforced concrete beamcolumn joint specimen under cyclic loading. A specimen designed based on Indian Standard
specifications with consideration of seismic load but without adopting ductile detailing was
investigated under reverse cyclic loading. Then, the damaged nonductile specimen was repaired
with epoxy mortar and grouted using low viscous polymer, and retrofitted using fiber reinforced
plastic (FRP) wrapping in beam and column components and steel plate jacketing in joint region.
The experimental results showed that the retrofitted specimen not only regained its original
strength and stiffness but also has overcome the deficiencies of nonductile detailing. The study
shows that a proper repair and adequate retrofitting technique can be used for strengthening and
improvement of damaged regions in reinforced concrete structures. In these study the surface
preparation, removal of loose concrete, filling of cavities and most importantly, appropriate
injection of epoxy need to be carried out carefully. It is observed that by adequate repair and
retrofitting, it is possible to regain the original strength of damaged structure. They resulted

GFRP fabric along deviation lines and as wrapping, and steel plate jacketing of joint zone
ensures the good distribution of materials for retrofitting. And also it increases the cycle energy
dissipation obtained from retrofitted specimen increased in higher drift ratios, cumulative energy
dissipation obtained from the retrofitted specimen was more. They observed that Magnitude of
strength deterioration under cyclic loading was lower than that observed from original specimen.

Khair Al-Deen Bsisu Yasser Hunaiti (2012) reports Flexural Ductility Behavior of
Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel and CFRP Plates.Reinforced concrete
beams are commonly retrofitted using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) plates as the
technique is both inexpensive and unobtrusive. CFRP plates tend to de bond at low strains,
which can severely limit the ductility. Structural strengthening of beams subjected to flexure can
be achieved using different retrofitting materials. The mostly used other retrofitting materials are
high strength galvanized steel plates (HSGS plates) and normal strength steel plates (NSS
plates).they reports the behavior of retrofitted beams with each of these three materials. The
experimental results of study suggest that (HSGS plates) can be used to increase the strength of
reinforced concrete structures, loss of ductility. They are not compatible with the reinforcing
steel embedded inside the concrete, therefore the ductility of beams retrofitted with these plates
is low. HSGS plates have the same stress-strain relation as the reinforcing steel embedded inside
the concrete member undergoing the strengthening thus the ductility value is higher. Retrofitting
of existing concrete members using CFRP plates can achieve the desired strength, but will not
enhance the ductility of the member. Using HSGS plates can achieve the same goal while
enhancing the ductility of the member high. Modulus of elasticity of NSS plates is the same a
that of the reinforcing steel of the retrofitted beams, and so is the stress-strain relation, there for
beams retrofitted with these plates achieve a little higher ductility than the un-retrofitted one the
ductility is increased by 20%. Although the strength to weight ratio of CFRP plates is higher
than that of the HSGS plates. The cost of repair using the light gauge high tensile galvanized
steel plates is lower than that of the CFRP plates, since the CFRP plates fail by de bonding and
do not reach full strength. Only 15- 35% of their strength is utilized. HSGS plates are also more
cost effective than NSS plates in addition to their corrosion resistance due to galvanization.
Mahmoud, Hamdy M. Afefy (2014) discussed Strengthening of defected beamcolumn
joints using CFRP about the an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced

concrete (RC) exterior beamcolumn joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer


(CFRP). They considered a specimen divided into three group. The first group the defect which
was the absence of the stirrups at the beamcolumn joint, second group represented the defect of
insufficient bond length for the beam main steel reinforcement, third group as defect that was
deficiently executed implanted column on an old one. On test results defects occur due to the
absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length between
the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three
different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beamcolumn joints
including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM)
CFRP strips. ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed
ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group
for the control and the CFRP strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed
CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening. strengthening
the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural
performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded
CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. Abdel-Wahed et.al,
studied experimentally and analytically different CFRP strengthening configurations for beam
column joints having inadequate transverse reinforcement in the joint. CFRP fabric sheets or
plates as strengthening material made efficiency when proper configuration was chosen in
enhancing the failure characteristics of the defected beamcolumn joints. The diagonal
overlaying sheets was to be the better configuration to strengthen the defect of the absence of
joint stirrups. CFRP as a strengthening material increased ultimate capacity and decreased
ductility.
Roberto Realfonzo, Annalisa Napoli et.al, (2013) discussed about Cyclic behavior of
RC beam-column joints strengthened with FRP systems. The performance of cyclic behavior
carried out by The aim of this paper is to investigate the seismic performance of RC beamcolumn joints strengthened with FRP systems. The results of cyclic tests carried out on exterior
RC beam-column joints. The complete test includes eight full scale specimens designed to be
representative of existing exterior beam-column subassemblies with inadequate seismic details.
The six specimens were strengthened by using different FRP systems while the remaining ones
were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, some specimens were repaired with FRP systems and

re tested. Tests were performed in displacement control by subjecting the specimens to cyclic
excitation, and the axial load on the column was kept constant and equal to about 300 kN. Test
results have provided useful information about strengthening systems in terms of strength,
ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Unstrengthened specimen, used as a comparison term,
and three members strengthened by using different layouts of CFRP systems. All the specimen
damaged, three of the eight assemblies were also repaired, retrofitted with FRP systems and
subjected to cyclic tests. The tests performed on FRP retrofitted members have allowed to restore
the strength and significantly increase the ductility of the unstrengthened members showed an
increase of strength and deformation capacity over the equal to about 16% and 75%,
respectively.
The confinement effect due to the use of continuous steel angles on the exterior face of
the joint has strongly contributed to preserve its integrity up to high values of the imposed
displacement. It observed that the maximum tensile strains in the U-shape FRP sheets were
recorded just before the delamination of the reinforcement from the concrete. The values ranged
from 1/3 to 1/2 of the ultimate FRP strain provided by the sheet supplier. Finally, the strains in
the CFRP sheets arranged on the joints exterior face in an X-shape or vertical configuration were
examined. It was noted that the maximum strain values, equal to about 0.26%, were recorded. In
this test , lacking the confining effect of the steel profiles, the vertical CFRP sheets were
probably subjected to more stresses.
Ali A. Abbas, Sharifah M. Syed Mohsin (2014) presented Seismic response of steel
fibre reinforced concrete beamcolumn joints that aims to investigate numerically the behaviour
of steel fibre reinforced concrete beamcolumn joints under seismic action. Both exterior and
interior joint types were examined and 3D nonlinear finite element analyses were carried out
using ABAQUS software. The joints were subjected to reversed-cyclic loading, combined with a
constant axial force on the column representing gravity loads. And aim was to assess the effect
of introducing steel fibres into the concrete mix in order to compensate for a reduced amount of
conventional transverse steel reinforcement carried out using Eurocode 8 code. The spacing
between shear links was increased by 0%, 50% and 100%, whilst the fibre volume fraction (Vf)
was increased by 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%. Potential enhancement to ductility, a key
requirement in seismic design, was investigated as well as potential improvements to energy
absorption and confinement. The model presently employed was capable of yielding realistic

predictions of the response of a number of internal and external beam column joints under
reversed-cyclic loading the numerical predictions were calibrated using existing experimental
data to ascertain the accuracy of the numerical results and subsequently full parametric studies
were carried out to examine the potential for steel fibres to compensate for a reduction in
conventional transverse reinforcement. Key structural response indicators such as strength,
cracking, ductility and energy absorption were studied. Addition of steel fibres improved the
strength consistently as the amount of fibres was increased. Fibres were also effective in
controlling crack propagation. The addition of fibres in optimum amounts led to significant
enhancement to ductility. Exterior joints, the ductility level of the control specimen was restored
with fibres added at Vf = 1.5%. For interior joints, the ductility level of the control specimen was
restored for both joints with single stirrups and those with SI = 50% when fibres were added with
Vf = 1%. It indicates the severity of conventional steel reduction in this case where the spacing
between the stirrups has been doubled. The double arrangement is usually used to ensure
sufficient confinement is provided. In summary, it concluded that steel fibres provided in
optimum amounts can substitute for conventional transverse reinforcement and thus allow for a
relaxation in stirrups congestion often experienced in seismic detailing of beamcolumn joints. A
simplified design equation was also developed to determine the fibre content needed to replace a
given amount of stirrups whilst retaining the same level of strength and ductility.
Seyed. S. Mahini, Hamid. R. Ronagh, (2009) derived Strength and ductility of FRP
web-bonded RC beams for the assessment of retrofitted beamcolumn joints. It is beamcolumn
joints are critical elements of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to lateral loads, and
that they may require specific design treatment for the accepted design philosophy of the strongcolumn weak-beam. In earthquake-prone regions, the joints must be designed to allow the
dissipation of large amounts of energy into the neighboring elements without a significant loss of
strength and ductility. The frames are often designed carefully based on the strong-column
weak-beam concept and their joints. The results of some tests on FRP strengthened specimens
are presented. The results show that the method is effective and capable of restoring or upgrading
the strength of the system. In addition, using the basic principles of equilibrium and
compatibility, an analytical model is presented that simplifies the analysis and design of this
strengthening. The results showed that the method is effective and capable of restoring or even
upgrading strength. And basic principles of equilibrium and compatibility. And an analytical

model was presented that simplifies the analysis and design of this strengthening. They resulted
the design graphs were presented, in order to select the type and the amount of FRP required for
the upgrading of an existing joint to a specified moment capacity and curvature ductility.
Varinder Sing, Prem Pal Bansal et al, (2013) discussed Experimental studies on
strength and ductility of CFRP jacketed reinforced concrete beam-column joints. Beam-column
joints in reinforced concrete (RC) framed structures are most vulnerable structural element
subjected to lateral loads. The use of various jacketing techniques for strengthening or
retrofitting the existing structural components is very frequent. In this study 9 RC beam-column
joints were tested under static loading conditions. CFRP strengthening has been carried out for
beam-column joints already stressed to three different stress levels. The jackets have been
provided in L-shape and at 45 orientation to the joint in two layers. The test results show
improvement in the ultimate load carrying capacity (712%) of the retrofitted beams, when
compared to the control beams along with an increase of 15% in yield load for each of such
exterior beam- column joints. Stiffness up to the first crack load was 17.36% and 26.94% more
for stress level-2 and stress level-3 as compared to stress level-1. They resulted CFRP jacketed
beam-column joints show an increase in ultimate load carrying capacity of 9.47%, 11.99% and
7.76% for stress level results the efficacy of using the material for retrofitting.CFRP jacketed
beam-column joints show an increase of nearly 15% in the yield load carrying capacity for all the
initially stressed and retrofitted beams. Initial stress decrease in level from 100% to 85% and
50%, the stiffness of the CFRP retrofitted beam-column joint in elastic zone increases by 17.36%
and 26.94%, respectively. The use of CFRP jacketing for retrofitting of initially stressed beamcolumn joints helps regain full strength even if stressed up to 85% of ultimate load. CFRP
retrofitting of the beam-column joint shifted the failure of the joint from the column portion to
the beam portion of the joint which will prevent progressive collapse of the structure.
Jung-Yoon Lee Jin-Young Kim et al, (2009) Strength deterioration of reinforced
concrete beam_column joints subjected to cyclic loading. The paper proposes a method to
predict the ductile capacity of reinforced concrete beam column joints failing in shear after the
development of plastic hinges at both ends of the adjacent beams column joints subjected to
cyclic loading carried out by After the plastic hinges occur at both ends of the beams, the
longitudinal axial strain at the center of the beam section in the plastic hinge region is expected
to increase because the neutral axis continues to move toward the extreme compressive fiber and

the residual strains of the longitudinal bars continue to increase with each cycle of additional
inelastic loading cycles. An increase in the axial strain of the beam section after flexural yielding
contributes to a widening of the cracks in the beam column joints, thus leading to a reduction in
the shear strength of the beam column joints. The proposed method includes the effect of
longitudinal axial strain of a beam in the plastic hinge region of the beam on the joint
longitudinal strain and the strength deterioration of the joint. The shear strength and the
corresponding deformability of the proposed method, test results of RC beam column assembly
were compared. Comparisons between the observed and calculated shear strengths and their
corresponding deformability of the tested assemblies showed reasonable agreement. This
method to predict the deformability of RC joints failing in shear after plastic hinges develop at
both ends of the adjacent beams is proposed with consideration to the degradation of the
diagonally compressed concrete due to strain penetration. Test results of the five joint specimens
indicated that the deformability of joints increased as the amount of beam bars decreased. In
addition, the extent of strain penetration due to the longitudinal strain of the beam bar decreased
as the shear strength ratio increased. For joints with smaller values of the damage was mostly
observed at the joint, while most damage took place in the plastic hinge regions of the adjacent
beams for joints with a larger value because the potential shear strength of joint (Vp) was much
greater than the joint shear strength when beam bar yielded (Vjby). The proposed method is
capable of estimating the effect of longitudinal axial strain of a beam in the plastic hinge region
of the beam on the joint longitudinal strain. The estimated value of b is then used to obtain the
potential shear strengths of joint (Vp). Using this approach, it was found that as b increases, Vp
decreases due to a reduction in the effective compressive strength of concrete (_f 0c ). The
ductile capacity of the -failure joints estimated by the proposed method was compared with the
experimental results of RC joints. Using the proposed method, we were able to predict the
ductile capacity of the Beam Joint failure joints with reasonable accuracy. As mentioned in the
early part of this paper, the plastic hinges of the adjacent beams affect not only joint shear
strength (Vj), but also joint bond strength. However, the proposed analytical method in this study
focused on the shear strength deterioration for simplification. Therefore, additional work is
needed to include the effect of bond degradation in order to better predict the ductile capacity of
joints. In addition, the proposed method predicted the ductile capacity of Beam Joint failure
joints with reasonable accuracy, yet the variables of the test specimens were limited. Therefore,

further experimental work with more variable parameters is needed to confirm the deformability
predicted by the proposed method.
Sasmal, Balthasar Novk, et al (2010) studied Numerical analysis of fiber compositesteel plate upgraded beamcolumn sub-assemblages under cyclic loading.The exterior beam
column sub-assemblage from a regular RC building has been considered.Extremely poor gravity
load designed (GLD) beamcolumn sub assemblage was upgraded by combinely using FRP and
steel plate studied by Saptarshi Three different upgradation schemes have been proposed.
Nonlinear finite element (FE) program has been employed for analysing both existing and
upgraded sub-assemblages under cyclic loading. Concrete parts of the FE models were modelled
using quadratic brick and steel plates were modelled using tetrahedral solid elements. All the
FRPs were modelled as 9-noded isoparametric multi-layered shell elements with embedded
unidirectional reinforcement to represent the anisotropic material property. Further, a detailed
parametric study has been carried out on type, extent and amount of flexural strengthening, and
number of wrapping to identify the scopes of improvement on the proposed upgradation
schemes. In the present study, the nonlinear Finite Element (FE) program which is exclusively
formulated for reinforced concrete structures has been employed for analysing the GLD beam
column sub-assemblage representing the existing structures and further upgraded beamcolumn
sub-assemblages as proposed in this research work, under cyclic loading. The numerical analysis
of the upgraded specimens was performed using the proper geometric and material modelling. It
has been found out that the results, in terms of loaddisplacement hysteresis and damage pattern,
obtained from the numerical analysis are in close agreement with those obtained from the
experimental investigations. The study shows that an appropriate numerical simulation of
upgraded specimens can be able to predict a considerably close response as that was obtained
from the experimental studies. Finally, a series of numerical studies have been carried out on
improvement using other materials. It is also observed that an inadequate wrapping would not
only reduce energy dissipation, but formation of plastic hinge at specified area is not possible.
The studies with various parameters would definitely enlighten the scope for further
improvement, alteration and optimisation, and development of upgradation
schemes. The parametric specimens derived from the upgradation schemes proposed in this
study. It is found out that flexural strengthening up to a predefined length along the beam with
adequate wrapping would provide the optimum seismic behaviour of the sub-assemblages.

Hence, the laminates of the proposed upgradation scheme can be terminated at a distance
(Pdepth of the member) along the length of the beam without changing the amount of wrapping.
Among the parametric specimens derived from it is observed that the upgradation scheme
proposed in the study is showing the most impressive behaviour and hence, the same scheme
may be attempted for further improvement.

Angelo Masi, Giuseppe Santarsiero et al,(2013) made Study of the seismic behavior of
external RC beamcolumn joints through experimental tests and numerical simulations.The
paper is focused on the analysis of some test results obtained in the framework of a wide
experimental program on RC beamcolumn joints. Specifically, cyclic tests on full-scale joint
specimens having different earthquake resistant design levels were performed, applying different
values of axial force. Test results relevant to 4 specimens have been analyzed and compared with
the results of numerical simulations based on an accurate finite element modeling using the
DIANA code. Experimental results show the value of the axial load acting on the column can
change the collapse mode, spreading damage from the beam to the joint panel. A collapse mode
due to the failure of beam longitudinal rebars, sometimes neglected in structural codes, has been
observed. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate the stress distribution in the joint panel as
a function of the axial load and to quantify the beam rebar deformations. The reasons for the
specimens global failure and, specifically, for that of the beam longitudinal rebars were
identified and highlighted through a comparison with the experimental results. The results
Numerical simulations by means of accurate finite element models (FEM) were performed to
better understand experimental results. Failure modes provided by tests were substantially
confirmed by numerical analyses, as the global shear force displacement curves and the local
cracking pattern were adequately simulated. Numerical results showed that tension failure of the
bottom beam bars, observed in three out of the four specimens under test, occurred for strain
values lower than half the uni-axial experimental ultimate values, thus premature failure should
be occur to low-cycle fatigue. The peculiar behavior of specimen was examined by analyzing
the principal tensile stress values and the cracking strain field. The numerical model confirmed a
wide diagonal cracking pattern, as well high peak tensile and compressive stresses related to the
larger longitudinal reinforcement ratio in the beams and thus to the higher stress transfer in the
joint panel. In fact, specimens did not show significant cracking patterns in the joint panel, even

if there were no stirrups, as a consequence of the lower longitudinal reinforcement ratio in the
beams causing an early steel yielding. Accordingly, specimens did not show remarkable behavior
differences when varying the axial load value. Finally, the results show that FEM, validated by
means of numerical or experimental comparisons, can be an effective tool to better understand
the basic damage mechanisms in joint panels, and to evaluate the stress and strain state in the
constituent materials and structural elements. The capacity to estimate local values of stress and
strain appears to be particularly remarkable as these values could otherwise be experimentally
measured only in a few points where gauge instruments can be applied, or remain totally
unknown.
Bo Li a, Eddie Siu-shu Lam, (2013) proposed Experimental investigation on reinforced
concrete interior beamcolumn joints rehabilitated by ferrocement jackets. A method for
rehabilitating reinforced concrete interior beamcolumn joints using ferrocement jackets with
embedded diagonal reinforcements. It improves seismic performance of substandard beam
column joints and repairs deteriorated concrete cover without increasing the dimensions of the
joints. Ferrocement, comprising mortar and wire mesh, was applied to replace concrete cover to
enhance shear strength of the joints. Diagonal reinforcements were installed to reduce the forces
transferred to the joint core. Four 2/3 scale interior beamcolumn joints, including one control
specimen and three strengthened specimens, were prepared and tested under quasi-static cyclic
loading. Three types of mortars were considered for each strengthened specimen. Test results
have indicated that the proposed rehabilitation method can improve seismic performance of
interior beamcolumn joints using ferrocement with high strength mortar. Strength of mortar is
the factor affecting the performance of strengthened specimens. Anchor bolts installed at the
interface between ferrocement and concrete substrate improve bonding and overall performance.
Finally, a method for predicting the shear strength of joints rehabilitated by ferrocement jackets
with embedded diagonal reinforcements is proposed. Based on the observation and test results,
the following conclusions can be drawn. Beamcolumn joints under high axial load are prone to
failure at the joints with joint shear stress larger than the maximum allowable stress as specified
in and

buckling of longitudinal reinforcements. The proposed rehabilitation method using

ferrocement jackets with embedded diagonal reinforcements enhances seismic performance of


interior beamcolumn joints using ferrocement with high strength mortar. Damage levels of
rehabilitated specimens are reduced as compared with that of control specimen. Bonding

between ferrocement and concrete can be improved by installing anchor bolts at the interface.
Anchor bolts are effective to prevent delamination of ferrocementand facilitate fixing of wire
mesh for easy construction. Increasing the strength of mortar in ferrocement is a factor for
achieving higher strength, larger ductility, better energy dissipation, and higher stiffness.
Diagonal reinforcements installed in the joint reduce strains in the longitudinal reinforcements.
This has the benefit of reducing joint shear stress and preventing bonding failure of longitudinal
reinforcements. A method to predict shear capacities of joints strengthened by ferrocement
jackets with embedded diagonal reinforcements is proposed. The proposed method is limited to
specimens under high axial load. As axial load ratio is the factor affecting the performance of
beamcolumn joints and effectiveness of the rehabilitation methods, further tests will be
conducted on joints with low axial load.
J.G. Ruiz-Pinilla , F.J. Pallars et al, (2013) carried out a General approach about
Experimental tests on retrofitted RC beam-column joints underdesigned to seismic loads. In an
experimental program designed to determine the behaviour of steel jacketing used as a seismic
strengthening system for reinforced concrete frame structures by Tests were carried out on a total
of 20 full scale interior beam-column joints. Geometry and reinforcements were selected
according to existing buildings, designed solely to gravity loads under strong beam-weak column
concept. Column strengthening was performed in all specimens, and four different types of
column-joint connection strengthening have been tested. Two types of beam reinforcement have
been included in the experimental program. Tests were carried out by subjecting specimens to
gravity and cyclic loads. The paper results and conclusions, describing the failure modes of the
specimens. Results show that the strengthening techniques and the axial loads applied on
columns can have significant influence on the seismic behaviour of the joints. A detailed
description of the experimental program designed for this purpose and the general results
obtained from the tests carried out. Beam and column cross-sections and lengths were chosen
according to the location of the inflection points for the application of point loads during the
tests. That test result maximum and minimum axial load values were applied to columns so as to
include columns from both upper and lower stories. Application or absence of gravity loads on
beams according to beam reinforcement. Gravity loads considered together with cyclic loads.The
relationship between these two load values affects the beam stress state and the transmission of
shear forces through the joint. Joint strengthening was designed considering access to joints in

existing buildings with a view to ensuring practical applications. Considerable differences were
observed between the tests according to the type of strengthening used to connect columns and
joints, type of beam reinforcement and the combinations of loads applied to the specimens. It can
be outlined that using steel jacketing on columns prevents column failure, which is transferred to
the next-weakest zones. The steel capitals increase the size of the joint, improving the bending
strength of the columns and increasing the joint resistant section. Lack of axial load on the
columns makes its behaviour is governed by bending, and the type of strengthening used in
column- joint connections have large influence on their response. When a high axial load is
applied on the columns, the failure of the specimens is produced by excessive compression in the
joint. In this case, the type of the column-joint connection becomes irrelevant. The experimental
program proposed in this paper therefore makes it possible to study the behaviour patterns under
cyclic loads of steel jacketing and the systems used to connect columns with joints, as well as to
obtain improvements in the behaviour of joints under shear forces and in the reinforcing bars
bonding of beams and columns in the joint.

REVIEW 3
2.4 RETROFITTING FOR BEAM SECTION
Asad ur Rehman Khan ,Shamsoon Fareed,(2013) discussed by Behaviour of
Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened by CFRP Wraps with and without End
Anchorages.The Use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strips as externally bonded
reinforcement, is a technically sound and practically efficient method of strengthening and
upgrading reinforced concrete (RC) members Externally bonded CFRP strips help in improving
the structure performance by reducing deflections and cracking and increasing ultimate strength.
The ultimate capacity of the strengthened beam is controlled by either compression crushing of
concrete, rupture of CFRP and flexural shear cracking induced de-bonding at concrete-CFRP
interface. Present study deals with the use of externally bonded CFRP wraps instead of strips to
strengthen RC beams in flexure with and without end anchorages. Six beams strengthened with
CFRP wraps at bottom with and without anchorages, were tested with different a/d ratios. It was
observed that use of CFRP wraps resulted in significantly increasing the stiffness and ductility of
the RC beams along with increasing load carrying capacities of the strengthened RC beams with
end anchorages. Following conclusions can be drawn from the study of RC beams strengthened
with CFRP wraps along the length with and without end anchorages

RC beams wrapped with CFRP at bottom and extended on sides provided with and without ends
anchorages, improved the structural performance of the beams in terms of stiffness, load carrying
capacity and ductility. RC beams strengthened with CFRP were found to have fine cracks evenly
distributed along the span and higher first crack load as much as 20.9% and 79.5% in two
specimen beams than that of their respective control beams. Ultimate load carrying capacities of
the strengthened beams increased up to a maximum of 16.7% over respective control beam ,
where as it increased up to a maximum of 20.8% in other. Strengthened beams tested at smaller
a/d ratio were found to fail in shear- tension and shear compression in spite of having adequate
shear stirrups to resist shear. Difference of failure modes in strengthened beams with smaller a/d
ratio is due to the presence of end anchorages. However, beams tested at higher a/d ratio failed in
flexure.
Rami A. Hawileh, (2011) Nonlinear finite element modeling of RC beams strengthened
with NSM FRP rods discussed about the FEM of RC beams on. The Near Surface Mounted
(NSM) strengthening technique to retrofit reinforced concrete (RC) members in flexure using
Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) rods is becoming more attractive. Although NSM
strengthening systems has been used extensively, still further experimental, analytical, and
numerical research is used to understand the effect of the several strengthening parameters on the
flexural performance of RC members. This paper presents the development of a detailed 3D
nonlinear finite element (FE) numerical model that can accurately predict the load-carrying
capacity and response of RC beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods subjected to four-point
bending loading. The developed FE model considers the nonlinear constitutive material
properties of concrete, yielding of steel reinforcement, cracking of the filler bonding materials,
bond slip of the steel and NSM reinforcements with the adjacent concrete surfaces, and bond at
the interface between the filling materials and concrete. The numerical FE simulations were
compared with experimental measurement tested by other investigators comprising of seven
specimen strengthened with NSM CFRP rods in addition to one un-strengthened control
specimen. Overall, the predicted FE mid-span deflection responses agreed very well with the
corresponding measured experimental tested data at all stages of flexural loading. The developed
models were also capable of predicting the failure mode of the strengthened tested specimen
such as NSM rod debonding (peeling off) and concrete cover separation. The validated FE
models are then used to study the effect of different NSM material bar types and sizes to provide

further information over the limited available experimental data. It is concluded that the
developed FE model is suitable as a practical and economical tool especially in design oriented
parametric studies for accurate modeling and analysis of flexural strengthening of RC members
with NSM reinforcement. There is a very good agreement between the experimental results and
numerical simulations in terms of the loaddeflection response at all stages of flexural loading up
to failure of the specimen. Strengthening reinforced concrete beams with any type of NSM FRP
reinforcement (CFRP, AFRP, or GFRP) increases their flexural strength. The beams
strengthened with NSM CFRP rods achieved an increase in ultimate strength by 18.5% and
43.8% over those beams strengthened with AFRP and GFRP reinforcement, respectively. The
size of the FRP reinforcement has a considerable effect on the stiffness and load-carrying
capacity of the strengthened RC beams. The use of 16 mm diameter CFRP rod yielded an
increase in the failure load by 83.6% compared to that beam strengthened with 6 mm diameter
rod. The developed and validated finite element model presented in this study is suitable for
modeling and analyzing RC beams strengthened in flexure using NSM FRP rods. The developed
model is capable of accurately and efficiently performing design
oriented parametric studies on different retrofitting configurations using the NSM technique with
FRP rods.
Tara Sen and H.N. Jagannatha Reddy, (2013) discussed Strengthening of RC beams in
flexure using natural jute fibre textile reinforced composite system and its comparative study
with CFRP and GFRP strengthening systems.Jute textile reinforced polymer composite system
was developed and its tensile, flexural behaviour was characterised and compared with that of
carbon textile (CFRP) and glass textile (GFRP) reinforced polymer composite In the present
work the jute textile reinforced polymer composite (JFRP) as compared to CFRP and GFRP for
the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams was compared by carrying out bending
test on reinforced concrete beams in three groups of fourteen beams. The work carries out the
study of failure modes, flexural strengthening effect on ultimate load and load deflection
behaviour as well as the deflection ductility study of RC beams bonded externally with JFRP,
CFRP and GFRP, wrapped in U configuration in single layer, along the entire length of the beam
in full wrapping and strip wrapping technique. The results depicted that JFRP, CFRP and GFRP,
strengthening improved the ultimate flexural strength of the RC beams by 62.5%, 150% and
125%, respectively, with full wrapping technique and by 25%, 50% and 37.5%, respectively with

strip wrapping technique. JFRP strengthening displayed highest deformability index and proved
that jute textile FRP material has huge potential as a structural strengthening material. The
ultimate strength of all the strengthened beams increased with the increase in the width of the
FRP, as strip wrapping displayed lesser load carrying capacity than full wrapping. The load
deflection behaviour was better for beams strengthened with FRP compared to the controlled
beams. significant difference was observed in the failure pattern of natural textile FRP
strengthened beam and artificial textile FRP strengthened beams. development of single crack at
the beam flexure zone, and two cracks were initiated in the other jute FRP wrapped beams, again
in the flexure zone of the beam, and on increasing the load, the crack in both the beams went on
widening, but there was no brittle failure of the beam at all, because of good amount of
confinement provided by the jute FRP, this ductile behaviour obtained by the use of FRP gave us
enough warning before ultimate failure. It resulted in a ductile type of failure with high
deflection and deformability index and henceforth totally avoided. Failure was observed by
sudden rupture of FRP, followed by the debonding of FRP from the ruptured point, further by the
development of multiple flexural cracks in the beam area. flexural cracks developed only in the
beam area, without a single crack in the FRP, and failure was promoted by the generation of a
large number of flexural cracks in the beam area. Hence we can conclude that natural jute textile
FRP, like carbon FRP and glass FRP, has great potential in increasing the load carrying capacity
of RC beams, and also enhances the material efficiency. Hence, natural fibre in the textile form,
like jute textile FRP can be regarded as a suitable strengthening material for flexural
strengthening of concrete structures particularly, as a good alternative methodology among the
fabric reinforcement in FRP considering economic and environmental aspects about FRP
products.
Bimal

Babu

Adhikary,

Hiroshi

Mutsuyoshi,(2006)

discussed

about

Shear

strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using various techniques. the externally anchored
stirrups were found to be the most effective. Beam strengthened using this technique failed at a
load almost 117% higher than the control beam. The epoxy bonded steel plates provided an
average of 72% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beams. enhancing the shear
capacity of reinforced concrete beams using different techniques. A total of eleven beams were
tested in this program. Two series of beams were designed; in the first series, beams were
designed in such a way that the strengthened beams fail in ductile flexural mode thereby

avoiding the brittle shear failure. The second series of beams were designed to fail in shear
mode; to assess the actual increase in shear strength by devised strengthening techniques. It is
confirmed that the externally epoxy bonded. steel plates, vertical strips and externally anchored
stirrups can improve the ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete beams and change the
failure mode frombrittle shear to flexural one. An average of 72% increase in shear strength was
obtained for the beam with epoxy bonded steel plates. Externally anchored stirrups were found
very effective, beam ESB failed at a load 117% of the failure load of control beam.

M.S. Mohamed Ali a, Deric J, (2005) Oehlers ciscovers Debonding of steel plates
adhesively bonded to the compression faces of RC beams. One way of preventing or inhibiting
debonding of tension face plates in continuous beams is to extend the plate-ends past the points
of contraflexure into the compression faces. In this paper: it is shown that compression face
plates are less likely to debond than tension face plates; results of thirteen tests on debonding due
to vertical shear forces (critical diagonal crack debonding) and curvature (flexural end plate
debonding) are described; and critical diagonal crack and flexural end plate debonding models
are developed for compression face plates that can be used to ensure that beams with tension face
plates that are extended into the compression faces do not debond prematurely. the complete
CDC debonding of compression face plated beams occurs in the following three stages:
formation of a critical diagonal crack; its extension along the bottom edge of the plate towards
the load point; and the formation of a secondary debonding crack from the load point to the
plate-end for comparatively thin plated beams or the simultaneous extension of the debonding
crack and the formation of diagonal cracks originating from the support for thick plated beam.
Sachin S. Ravala, Urmil V,(2013). Dave studied Effectiveness of Various Methods of
Jacketing for RC Beams jacketing process, these RC beams are
tested under two point loading system. Measurements taken during testing were central
displacement, failure load, and failure mode &
crack patterns. Effectiveness of each type of jacketing methodology on smooth surface
was compared with chipped surface for the RC
beams. As an outcome of investigation, for smooth surface RC beam, superior
performance was observed for the beam jacketed using

combined dowel connectors and bonding agent with micro-concrete. For chipped surface
RC beams, superior performance was observed
for the beam jacketed using only micro-concrete and without use of dowel connectors
and bonding agent. The experimental results clearly demonstrated that jacketing can enhance
structural properties for the RC beams.
For smooth surface jacketed beams, highest load carrying capacity has been observed
using jacketing technique of combined dowel connectors and bonding agent with micro-concrete
as compared to other jacketing techniques used. Higher displacement at higher load has been
observed for smooth surface jacketed beams using jacketing technique of combined dowel
connectors and bonding agent with micro-concrete as compared to other jacketing techniques
used. For chipped surface jacketed beams, highest load carrying capacity has been observed with
jacketing technique of using only micro-concrete as compared to other jacketing techniques
used. Higher displacement at higher load has been observed for chipped surface jacketed beams
with jacketing technique of using only micro-concrete as compared to other jacketing techniques
used. Implementation of various jacketing methods has proved more beneficial for RC beams
with chipped surface as compared to that for beams with smooth surface.

R.A. Barnes, P.S. Bagline, et.al (2001) External steel plate systems for the shear
strengthening of reinforced concrete beams two methods of plate attachment, namely adhesive
bonding and bolting, are examined and compared. A method of analysis, based on the
equilibrium of forces along the critical section, is proposed. 1. Retro-fitted shear plates can
provide considerable enhancement to both the serviceability and ultimate capacity of beams
under high shear loading but enhancement will only occur if sufficient plate anchorage is
provided. 2. Relatively thin (2 mm) plates can yield substantial increases in the shear capacity,
while heavy plates and additional strapping can provide significant enhancement to the flexural
capacity. 3. The bolted arrangement provided adequate plate anchorage up to the ultimate
capacity of the section, allowing full utilisation of the plates. Investigations into suitable in situ
bolt anchorages are being undertaken. 4. The adhesively bonded plates provide a very high
degree of surface crack control but inadequate surface area can lead to interface failure and
sudden collapse; additional mechanical anchorage may be required inthese circumstances.5. The
Equilibrium of Forces analysis proposed showsa good correlation with the tests results. The
effects of the adhesive layer and beam geometry on the stress distribution requires further

investigation to validate the approach for adhesive bonded plates. 6. Further tests covering a
range of beam sizes and shear spans will be required to confirm the effectiveness of these
techniques; the efficiency of bonded plates is likely to improve as the shear span and depth are
increased. 7. The bolted anchorage system allows multi-layer plate arrangements to be
engineered to yield the desired behaviour response; as demonstrated by the effective use of
flexural straps. 8. A combination of bolted connection and adhesive bond might prove to be an
efficient system for both serviceability and ultimate limit states. This needs further investigation.

REVIEW 4
2.5 RETROFITTING FOR FRAME
A. Niroomandia, A. Maheri et.al, (2010) Seismic performance of ordinary RC frames
retrofitted at joints by FRP sheets.The performance was carried an investigation into the
effectiveness of FRP retrofitting the joints in enhancing the seismic performance level and the
seismic behaviour factor (R) of ordinary RC frames. An eight-storey frame strengthened
previously with a steel bracing system is selected and retrofitted with web- bonded CFRP. The
flexural stiffness of FRP retrofitted joints of the frame is determined using nonlinear analyses of
detailed FE models of RC-joint FRP composite. The seismic performance level and R-factor
components of the retrofitted frame are then compared with those of the original frame and the
same frame retrofitted with steel bracings using FRP at joints may upgrade an ordinary RC frame
to an intermediate and even a high ductility frame. They concluded that web-bonded FRP
retrofitting of the joints of an ordinary RC frame has the ability to relocate the plastic hinge away
from the column face and into the beam and that the joint remains elastic. Web-bonded FRP
retrofitting at joints resulted in a 40%increase in the lateral load resisting capacity of the original
RC frame. It also enhanced its over-strength by 66%. The strength capacity increased and
improved ductility, both caused by FRP retrofitting of the joints, the seismic behaviour factor of
the frame was substantially increased by over 100%, resulting in an over 50% reduction in the
seismic base shear and performance also increased. The FRP web-bonding to change the
behaviour of a large joint in order that the plastic hinge is relocated away from the column face is
much larger than the web-bonded FRP demand for smaller joints.

Jun-Tao Zhu a, Xin-Ling Wang et.al, (2011) studied the Experimental study on seismic
behavior of RC frames strengthened with CFRP sheets. The purpose of this study was to

investigate experimentally the seismic performance and hysteretic energy capacity of


strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) frames using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)
sheets under low-cyclic lateral loading. Two test specimens were constructed and tested under
low-cyclic lateral loading. Two 1/3 scaled one-bay and one-storey RC frames specimens were
constructed to simulate a two-storey industrial workshop. One specimen was reinforced by
CFRP at the ends of beams, columns and at the joints; the other specimen was not reinforced and
was used for comparison. This experimental study mainly investigated the effects of CFRP
sheets on specimen seismic behavior. The information about the crack development, the damage
characteristics, the hysteretic curves of the steel bar and CFRP sheets and the skeleton curves of
frame were presented. In addition, the maximum crack width and the ultimate bearing capacity
were measured. Test results indicate that the CFRP sheets reinforced frame shows a good
hysteretic energy capacity and a higher ductility, which indicates that the CFRP sheets reinforced
frame has a better seismic behavior. The results provide an important insight of the role of CFRP
sheets in improving the earthquake resistance of frame buildings. The CFRP sheets were used to
wrap RC members in order to provide bonding force to the concrete for confining crack
expansion. Obviously, the maximum crack width in specimen under each load level was small.
X.K. Zou a,b, J.G. Teng, et.al, (2007) reviewed Optimal performance-based design of
FRP jackets for seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete frames. External bonding of fiberreinforced polymer (FRP) composites is now a well-established technique for the
strengthening/retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In particular, confinement of RC
columns with FRP jackets has proven to be very effective in enhancing the strength and ductility
of columns, and has become a key technique for the seismic retrofit of RC structures. Despite the
large amount of research on the behavior of RC columns confined with FRP, little research has
been conducted on the behavior of RC frames with FRP-confined columns. For the seismic
retrofit of RC frames with FRP, apart from the structural response of a retrofitted frame, an
important issue is how to deploy the least amount of the FRP material to achieve the required
upgrade in seismic performance. With these two issues in mind, this paper presents an
optimization technique for the performance-based seismic FRP retrofit design of RC building
frames. The thicknesses of FRP jackets used for the confinement of columns are taken as the
design variables, and minimizing the volume and hence the material cost of the FRP jackets is
the design objective in the optimization procedure. The pushover drift is expressed explicitly in

terms of the FRP sizing variables using the principle of virtual work and the Taylor series
approximation.The optimality criteria (OC) approach is employed for finding the solution of the
nonlinear seismic drift design problem. The thicknesses of FRP jackets used for the confinement
of columns are taken as the design variables, and minimizing the volume and hence the material
cost of the FRP jackets is the design objective in the optimization