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howtoprintnotes

Consumerbehavior
Theactionsapersontakesinpurchasingandusingproducts
andservices,
includingthementalandsocialprocessesthatprecedeand
followtheseactions.
Thebehavioralscienceshelpanswerquestionssuchas:
Whypeoplechooseoneproductorbrandoveranother,
Howtheymakethesechoices,and
Howcompaniesusethisknowledgetoprovidevalueto
consumers

I.CONSUMERPURCHASEDECISION
PROCESS
Behindthevisibleactofmakingapurchaseliesadecisionprocessthatmustbe
investigated.
Thepurchasedecisionprocessisthestagesabuyerpassesthroughinmaking
choicesaboutwhichproductsandservicestobuy.:
1.
problemrecognition,
FiveStages
2.
informationsearch,
of
3.
alternativeevaluation,
purchasedecision,and
ConsumerBehavior 4.
5.
postpurchasebehavior.

A.ProblemRecognition:PerceivingaNeed
Perceivingadifferencebetweenaperson'sidealandactualsituationsbig
enoughtotriggeradecision.
Canbeassimpleasnoticinganemptymilkcartonoritcanbeactivatedby
marketingefforts.

B.InformationSearch:SeekingValue
Theinformationsearchstageclarifiestheoptionsopentotheconsumerandmay
involve
Scanningonesmemorytorecallprevious
Internal
experienceswithproductsorbrands.
Oftensufficientforfrequentlypurchased
search
products.
Whenpastexperienceorknowledgeis
insufficient
Theriskofmakingawrongpurchasedecisionis
twostepsof
high
information
Thecostofgatheringinformationislow.
search
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External
search

Theprimarysourcesofexternalinformationare:
1.
Personalsources,suchasfriendsandfamily.
2.
Publicsources,includingvariousproductrating
organizationssuchasConsumerReports.
3.
Marketerdominatedsources,suchas
advertising,companywebsites,andsalespeople

External
Search

C.AlternativeEvaluation:AssessingValue
Theinformationsearchclarifiestheproblemfortheconsumerby
(1)Suggestingcriteriatouseforthepurchase.
(2)Yieldingbrandnamesthatmightmeetthecriteria.
(3)Developingconsumervalueperception.
Aconsumer'sevaluativecriteriarepresentboth
theobjectiveattributesofabrand(suchaslocatespeedonaportable
CDplayer)
thesubjectivefactors(suchasprestige).
Thesecriteriaestablishaconsumer'sevokedset
thegroupofbrandsthataconsumerwouldconsideracceptablefrom
amongallthebrandsintheproductclassofwhichheorsheisaware

D.PurchaseDecision:BuyingValue
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Fromwhomtobuy
Three
possibilities
Whentobuy

whichdependsonsuchconsiderations
Termsofsale
Pastexperiencebuyingfromthe
seller
Returnpolicy.
whichcanbeinfluencedby
storeatmosphere
timepressure
asale
pleasantnessoftheshopping
experience.

Donotbuy

E.PostpurchaseBehavior:ValueinConsumptionorUse
Afterbuyingaproduct,theconsumercomparesitwithexpectationsandis
eithersatisfiedordissatisfied.
Satisfactionordissatisfactionaffects
consumervalueperceptions
consumercommunications
repeatpurchasebehavior.
Manyfirmsworktoproducepositivepostpurchasecommunicationsamong
consumersandcontributetorelationshipbuildingbetweensellersandbuyers.
CognitiveDissonance.Thefeelingsofpostpurchasepsychologicaltensionor
anxietyaconsumeroftenexperiences
Firmsoftenuseadsorfollowupcallsfromsalespeopleinthispostpurchase
stagetotrytoconvincebuyersthattheymadetherightdecision.

F.InvolvementandProblemSolvingVariations

Consumersmayskiporminimizeoneormorestepsinthepurchasedecision
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processdependingon
thelevelofinvolvement
thepersonal,social,andeconomicsignificanceofthepurchase
Threecharacteristicsofhighinvolvementpurchase
1.
isexpensive,
2.
canhaveseriouspersonalconsequences,or
3.
couldreflectononessocialimage.
Threegeneralproblemsolvingvariationsexistintheconsumerpurchasedecision
process:
Virtuallyahabit
involveslittleeffortseekingexternalinformationand
RoutineProblem
evaluatingalternatives.
Solving
Typicallyusedforlowpriced,frequentlypurchased
products.
Involvestheuseofmoderateinformationseekingefforts.
LimitedProblem
Oftenusedwhenthebuyerhaslittletimeoreffortto
Solving
spend.
Eachstageoftheconsumerpurchasedecisionprocessis
used
ExtendedProblem
Considerabletimeandefforton
Solving
externalinformationsearchandinidentifying
evaluatingalternatives.
Usedinhighinvolvementpurchasesituations.
Involvementand
Marketing
Strategy

Lowandhighconsumerinvolvementhasimportant
implicationsformarketingstrategy,whichdiffersfor
productsthataremarketleadersfromtheirchallengers.

G.SituationalInfluences

Five
situational
influences

Thepurchasetask Thereasonforengaginginthedecision.
Social Includingotherspresentwhenapurchasedecisionis
surroundings made.
Physical
Suchasdecor,music,andcrowdinginretailstores.
surroundings
Temporaleffects Suchastimeofdayortheamountoftimeavailable.
Whichincludetheconsumersmoodoramountofcash
Antecedentstates
onhand

II.PSYCHOLOGICALINFLUENCESON
CONSUMERBEHAVIOR
Conceptssuchasmotivationandpersonalityperceptionlearningvalues,beliefsand
attitudesandlifestyleareusefulforinterpretingbuyingprocessesanddirecting
marketingefforts.

A.MotivationandPersonality
1.Motivation
istheenergizingforcethatcausesbehaviorthatsatisfiesaneed.
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Needsarehierarchical
Oncebasicphysiologicalneedsaremet,peopleseektosatisfylearnedneeds.
Physiologicalneeds
basictosurvival.
selfpreservation
Safetyneeds
physicalwell
being.
Fromlowesttohighest,thehierarchy
is:
Socialneeds

Selfactualizationneeds

love
friendship.
achievement
status
prestige
selfrespect.
personal
fulfillment.

2.Personality
Aperson'sconsistentbehaviororresponsestorecurringsituations.
Researchsuggeststhatkeytraitsaffectbrandandproducttypepreferences.
Crossculturalanalysisalsosuggeststhatresidentsofdifferentcountrieshavea
nationalcharacter,oradistinctsetofpersonalitycharacteristicscommon
amongpeopleofacountryorsociety.
Personalitycharacteristicsareoftenrevealedinapersonsselfconcept,which
isthewaypeopleseethemselvesandthewaytheybelieveothersseethem.

B.Perception
Theprocessbywhichanindividualusesinformationtocreateameaningful
pictureoftheworldby
selecting,
organizing
interpreting
Perceptionisimportantbecausepeopleselectivelyperceivewhattheywantand
itaffectshowpeopleseerisksinapurchase.
1.SelectivePerception
Filtering
exposure,
Selective
comprehension,and
perception
retention
inthehumanbrainsattempttoorganizeandinterpret
information.
Consumerscanpayattentiontomessagesthatareconsistent
Selective
withtheirownattitudesandbeliefs
exposure
Consumerscanignoremessagesthatareinconsistent.
Selective
comprehension
Selective
retention
Subliminal
perception

Involvesinterpreting(distorting?)informationsothatitis
consistentwithaperson'sattitudesandbeliefs.
Consumersdonotrememberalltheinformationtheysee,
read,orhear.
Consumersseeorhearmessageswithoutbeingawareofthem.
Thisisahotlydebatedissuewithmorepopularappealthan
scientificsupport.
Researchsuggeststhatsuchmessageshavelimitedeffectson

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behavior

2.PerceivedRisk
Anxietiesfelt
Consumescannotanticipatetheoutcomesofapurchase
Believethattheremaybenegativeconsequences.
Marketerstrytoreduceaconsumer'sperceivedriskandencouragepurchases
bystrategiessuchasproviding
Freetrialofaproduct
Securingendorsementsfrominfluentialpeople
Providingwarrantiesandguarantees.

C.Learning
Thosebehaviorsthatresultfrom
Repeatedexperience
Thinking.
1.BehavioralLearning
Theprocessofdevelopingautomaticresponsestoasituationbuiltup
throughrepeatedexposuretoit.
Fourvariablescentraltohowconsumers
learnfromrepeatedexperienceare:
drive Aneedthatmovesanindividualtoaction
cue Astimulusorsymbolperceivedbyconsumers
response Theactiontakenbyaconsumertosatisfythedrive.
reinforcement Thereward.

Marketersusetwoconceptsfrombehaviorallearningtheory:
Occurswhenaresponseelicitedbyonestimulus(cue)is
Stimulus
generalizedtoanother.
generalization
Usingthesamebrandnamefordifferentproductsisan
applicationofthisconcept
Referstoaperson'sabilitytoperceivedifferencesinstimuli.
Stimulus
TheadvertisingforBudLightbeerisanexampleofthis
discrimination
concept.
2.Cognitivelearning
Involvesmakingconnectionsbetweentwoormoreideas
orsimplyobservingtheoutcomesofothersbehaviors
andadjustingone'saccordingly.
3.Brandloyalty
Isafavorableattitudeandconsistentpurchaseofasinglebrandovertime.
Brandloyaltydiffersacrosscountries

D.Values,Beliefs,andAttitudes

Attitude
Values
Beliefs

1.AttitudeFormation
Alearnedpredispositiontorespondtoanobjectorclassofobjectsin
aconsistentlyfavorableorunfavorableway.
Shapedbyourvaluesandbeliefs,whicharelearned.
personallyorsociallypreferablemodesofconductorstatesof
existencethatareenduring.
consumer'ssubjectiveperceptionofhowwellaproductorbrand
performsondifferentattributes.

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2.AttitudeChange
Approaches
totryto
change
consumer
attitudes

Changingbeliefsabouttheextenttowhichabrandhascertain
attributes.
Changingtheperceivedimportanceofattributes.
Addingnewattributestotheproduct.

E.Lifestyle
Lifestyleisamodeoflivingthatisidentifiedby
activities Howapersonspendstimeandresources
interests Whatapersonconsidersimportantintheenvironment
opinions whatapersonthinksofselfandtheworld
Psychographics
Theanalysisofconsumerlifestyle
helpstosegmentandtargetconsumersfornewandexistingproducts.
ValuesandLifestyles(VALS)Program
DevelopedbySRIInternational
Identifiedeightinterconnectedcategoriesofadultlifestyles
basedonapersonsselforientationandresources.
Selforientation
Resources
income
education
Threepatternsofattitudesandactivitiesthathelppeople
self
reinforcetheirsocialselfimage.
confidence
Thethreepatternsareorientedtoward
health
principles,
eagerness
status,
tobuy
action.
intelligence
energy
level.

III.SOCIOCULTURALINFLUENCESON
CONSUMERBEHAVIOR
Socioculturalinfluencesevolvefromaformalandinformalrelationshipswith
otherpeople.
InfluencesInclude
Personalinfluence
Referencegroups
Thefamily
Socialclass
Culture
Subculture.

A.PersonalInfluence
individualswhoexertdirect
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Opinionleaders

orindirectsocialinfluence
overothers

Wordofmouth

Peopleinfluencingeachother
duringfacetoface
conversations.
Powerofwordofmouthhas
beenmagnifiedbythe
Internetandemail

Aspectsofpersonalinfluence
importanttomarketing

B.ReferenceGroups
Referencegroupsarepeopletowhomanindividuallooksasabasisforselfappraisal
orasasourceofpersonalstandards.Referencegroupshaveanimportantinfluenceon
thepurchaseofluxuryproductsbutnotofnecessities.:
Membership
onetowhichapersonactuallybelongs
group
Threegroupshave Aspiration
onewithwhichapersonwishestobe

clearmarketing
identified.
group
implications
onefromwhichapersonwantsto
Dissociative
maintainadistancebecauseof

group
differencesinvaluesorbehaviors

C.FamilyInfluence
Familyinfluencesonconsumerbehaviorresultfromthreesources:
consumersocialization
passagethroughthefamilylifecycle
decisionmakingwithinthefamily.
Consumer Consumersocializationistheprocessbywhichpeopleacquiretheskills,
Socialization knowledge,andattitudesnecessarytofunctionasconsumers
youngsingles
Young
marrieds
without
Thedistinctphasesthatafamily
children
progressesthroughfromformationto
FamilyLife
Young
retirement
Cycle
marriedswith
Eachphasebringingwithitidentifiable
children
purchasingbehaviors.
Theolder
married
older
unmarried
Fiverolesof
Twodecisionmakingstylesexist:
individualfamily
spousedominant(eitherwifeor membersinthe
husbandisresponsible)
purchaseprocessexist
jointdecisionmaking(most
Family
decisionsaremadebyboth
information
Decision
husbandandwife).
gatherer
Making
Increasingly,preteensandteenagersare
influencer
assumingtheserolesforthefamily,given
decision
theprevalenceofworkingparentsand
maker
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singleparenthouseholds.

purchaser
user

D.SocialClass
Therelativelypermanent,homogeneousdivisionsinasocietyintowhichpeople
sharingsimilarvalues,interests,andbehavioraregrouped.
Determinantsofsocialclassinclude
occupation,
sourceofincome(notlevelofincome)
education.
Socialclassisabasisforidentifyingandreachingparticularlygoodprospects
forproductsandservices.
Upperclassesaretargetedbycompaniesforitemssuchasfinancial
investments,expensivecars,andeveningwear.
Middleclassesrepresentatargetmarketforhomeimprovement
centersandautomobilepartsstores.
Lowerclassesaretargetedforproductssuchassportsandscandal
magazines.

E.CultureandSubculture
Culturereferstothesetofvalues,ideasandattitudesthatareacceptedbya
homogeneousgroupofpeopleandtransmittedtothenextgeneration.
Subculturesgroupswithinthelarger,ornational,culturewithuniquevalues,
ideas,andattitudes.
threelargestracial/ethnicsubculturesintheU.S
Hispanics,
AfricanAmericans
Asians.
Eachofthesegroupsexhibitssophisticatedsocialandculturalbehaviorsthat
affecttheirbuyingpatterns.
1.AfricanAmericanBuyingPatterns
AfricanAmericanshavethelargestspendingpowerofthethreesubcultures
Whilepriceconscious,theyaremotivatedbyproductqualityandchoice.
RespondtoproductsandadvertisingthatappealtotheirAfricanAmerican
prideandheritageaswellasaddresstheirethnicfeaturesandneeds.
2.HispanicBuyingPatterns
Hispanicsrepresentthelargestsubculture
About50%areimmigrants
Themajorityareundertheageof25.
MarketingtoHispanicshasproventobeachallengebecause
Thediversityofthissubculture
Thelanguagebarrier.
SensitivitytotheuniqueneedsofHispanicsbyfirmshaspaidhugedividends.
3.AsianBuyingPatterns
TheAsianisthefastestgrowingsubculture.
About70%ofAsiansareimmigrants
Mostareundertheageof30.
Asiansrepresentadiversesubculture,includingChinese,Japanese,Filipinos,
Koreans,AsianIndians,peoplefromSoutheastAsia,andPacificIslanders.
TwogroupsofAsianAmericanshavebeenidentified:
AssimilatedAsiansare
conversantinEnglish
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highlyeducated
exhibitbuyingpatternsverymuchlike"typical"American
consumers.
NonassimilatedAsians
recentimmigrantswhoclingtotheirnativelanguagesand
customs.

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