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VibrationControl

Vibration Standards and Monograms


VibrationStandardsandMonograms
AtomicVibrations:1012 Hz;Disp =108 to106
mm.
Microseismsorminortremorsofearthcrust:
0 1 to 1 Hz Hz; Disp =10
0.1to1HzHz;Disp
= 1055 to10
to 1033 mm.
mm
MachineryandBuildingVibrations:10to100
Hz;Disp =0.01to1mm.
Swayingtotallbuilding0.1to5Hz,Disp
Swaying to tall building 0 1 to 5 Hz Disp =10
= 10
to1000mm

Reduction of Vibration at Source


ReductionofVibrationatSource

Manufacturing
Assembly Clearance
AssemblyClearance
InstalledMachines
RigidandFlexible

Balancing
StaticBalance
i
l
SinglePlaneBalance
Accelerationofmasses centripetal toward
center
Theinertiaforces centrifugal Awayfromcenter

DynamicBalance
Dynamic Balance
Unevendistributionofmassalongtwoplanes
StaticBalance
Static Balance DynamicBalance
Dynamic Balance
AircraftTurbine,ElectricMotor,

Consequences of Balancing
ConsequencesofBalancing

MinimizeVibration
Mi
i i Vib ti
MinimizeNoise
Minimize Structural Stress
MinimizeStructuralStress
MinimizeOperatorFatigueandannoyance
Increase Machine life
IncreaseMachinelife
IncreaseBearingLife
Increase Personal Safety
IncreasePersonalSafety
IncreaseProductivity
Increase Product Quality
IncreaseProductQuality
LowOperatingcost

Measuring and Correcting Imbalance


MeasuringandCorrectingImbalance
SiteBalancing
FactoryBalancing
Factory Balancing
ProductionMachines
MaintenanceMachines
M i
M hi

Control of Vibration
ControlofVibration
ControllingNaturalFrequencies
avoidingResonance
g
PreventingExcessiveResponseat
Resonance damping/energy
Resonancedamping/energy
dissipatingmechanisms
Reducingtransmissionofexciting
forces
ReducingResponseofsystem

Control of Natural Frequencies


ControlofNaturalFrequencies
Resonance LargeDisplacement Strain
Failure
Masschange FunctionalRequirement
Stiffness!!!
S iff
!!!

Introduction of Damping
IntroductionofDamping
D
Dampingistheconversionofmechanicalenergy
i i th
i
f
h i l
ofastructureintothermalenergy.
Theamountofenergydissipatedisameasureof
The amount of energy dissipated is a measure of
thestructuresdampinglevel.
Jointsdamping
Joints damping
Welded,Bolted,Rivet
ViscousDamping(ViscosityofFluid)
HysteresisDamping(frictionwithinmaterial)
Hysteresis Damping (friction within material)
CoulombDamping
.

Changeoffn
Automobiles

Viscoelastic Materials
AmplitudeAtResonance

2.6.4

HighlyNonLinearMaterials

DampingTapes

Vibration Isolation
VibrationIsolation

Active
Passive

FoundationorBaseProtection
EquipmentProtection

TypeofDisturbance Vibration Harmonic/Shock Step

ReductionoftheForceTransmittedto
Foundation
SS:

forSmallvalueofDamping
ratioandr>1

Design Chart for Isolation


DesignChartforIsolation

Forlargevaluesofrandlowvaluesofdamping
thetermbecomesverysmallandcanbe
neglected

Isolationofsystemswithrotating
unbalance

Vibration Isolation with Base Motion


VibrationIsolationwithBaseMotion
X,Mass;YBase

3.68

3.74

Vibration Damper
VibrationDamper
EEngineering
i
i
St t l
Structural
element
l
t
th t
that
attenuates transmission of vibration in a
certain frequency range.
range
The resilient element includes Rubber and
Metal.
Metal
Rubber is securely bonded between the two
metal parts.
parts
Upper Plate is assumed to face the source to
vibration
ib ti and
d lower
l
metal
t l surface
f
secured
d to
t
foundation.

Commercial Damper Selection


CommercialDamperSelection

Vibration Absorber
VibrationAbsorber
Toreducethevibrationof
aprimarydeviceby
addinganabsorbertothe
system
Eliminateunwanted
vibration
Forms2degreeofFreedom
Usedinmachineryat
constantspeed
Applications:
Reciprocatingmachines
R i
ti
hi
Buildingexcitedbyanearthquake
Transmissionlinesortelephonelinesexcited
by wind blowing
bywindblowing

Undamped DynamicVibration
Absorber

Vibrationabsorberisoftenusedwithmachines
runatconstantspeedorsystemswithconst.
excited freq because the combined system
excitedfreq.,becausethecombinedsystem
hasnarrowoperatingbandwidth.

Damped vibration Absorber


DampedvibrationAbsorber

Active Vibration Control


ActiveVibrationControl

Di h
Diaphragm

Accumulator

MR Fluid

Solenoid

Wires to
Electromgnet

Bearing &
Seal

Shock

Shockisdefinedasavibratoryexcitationwithadurationbetweenonce
h k d f d
b
h d
b
andtwicethenaturalperiodoftheexcitedmechanicalsystem.
Highstressescausingfractureorpermanentdeformation
g
g
p

Jerk
Ajerkisdefinedasthederivativeofaccelerationwithrespecttotime.
Thisparameterthuscharacterizestherateofvariationofacceleration
withtime.

VelocityShock
V l it Sh k
DisplacementShocks
p
HighFrequencyshocks

IdealizedFormsofShockExcitations&
VelocityChange

Shock Dampers
ShockDampers