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OFF-HIGHWAY

ENGINEERING
TM

Toros new
riding trencher

December 4, 2014 | magazine.sae.org/ofh

EVERY CONNECTION COUNTS

TE Connectivity (TE) auxiliary power distribution modules oer lead-time advantages for the engineering design of the vehicle as they can be incorporated faster
than traditional central electrical box (CEB) solutions. They also oer low investment
options for the commercial vehicle industry. Multiple auxiliary power distribution
modules can be assembled on the harness and provide housing for fuses, relays and
re-settable fuses. TE Connectivity auxiliary power distribution modules (PDM) can
be mounted in areas away from hazardous sections of the vehicle or where high heat
or vibration are an issue. The TE 40-way and 60-way direct wire fuse and relay
modules serve in applications where volumes do not justify development of a new,
custom CEB design.

Connect with us at www.te.com/ict


TE Connectivity, TE, TE Connectivity (logo), and EVERY CONNECTION COUNTS are trademarks. 2014 TE Connectivity. All Rights Reserved.

CONTENTS
4

WHATS ONLINE

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

VOLUME 5 ISSUE 6

From Other SAE Magazines/Videos/


News/Webcasts

ELECTRONICS

Magnetic field lines made visible in


3-D and real time
SIMULATION FEATURE

10 Making virtual vehicle

design a reality

A new virtual design approach for commercial


vehicle concepts allows for purposeful design
and integration of new concepts and
technologies on the component level in an
existing product portfolio, while not neglecting
the need for standardization and modularity.

20 ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT
Toro launches new riding trencher

10

22 AD INDEX, RESOURCE LINKS


& UPCOMING

20

follow us @SAEOHEMag

December 4, 2014

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

www.dspaceinc.com

Get a Grip on Your Data


with dSPACE SYNECT
Your development data is your prime asset! So why accept
compromises when handling all your data: models, parameters,
variants, tests and test results?
With SYNECT, the central data management tool from dSPACE, you
can be sure that your data is consistent, traceable and easy to reuse
throughout the entire model-based development process, from
requirements to ECU tests.
SYNECT your solution for efficient data management!

WHATS

ONLINE
FROM OTHER SAE MAGAZINES
TRUCK & BUS

Allison Transmission expands


electrification to accessory
systems

Allison Transmission is now offering an option to fully electrify components used with
its H 40/50 EP hybrid propulsion system for
transit buses and coaches. Co-developed
with Vanner Inc., Increased Accessory Power
II (IAP II) is a customizable electric distribution platform that provides power from the
hybrid system to accessories such as electric
air conditioning.
Allisons standard H 40/50 EP system
typically improves fuel economy up to 25%
over standard diesel buses, said Michael G.
Headly, Senior Vice President of Global
Marketing, Sales and Service for Allison
Transmission. When using a Vanner HBA
with our system, a number of transit agencies in the U.S. have reported an additional
average fuel economy improvement of 16%,
for a total improvement up to 41% or more.
More detail at http://articles.sae.
org/13716/.

December 4, 2014

AUTOMOTIVE

Z06 concept performance


parts at SEMA

General Motors displayed several performance enhancements for its new 2015
Corvette Z06 at the recent SEMA Show in
Las Vegas, carbon ceramic brakes and a carbon-fiber torque tube among them. Watch
Mark Dickens, GMs Director of Performance
Variants, give a rundown on some of these
technologies in the above video.
Other SEMA Show coverage:
2015 F-150 aluminum body creates challenge for auto body shops http://articles.
sae.org/13693/
Reman engine market steady, but complexity challenges production efficiency
http://articles.sae.org/13703
850+ hp Hyundai Sonata, Genesis Coupe
tuner concepts (Video) http://youtu.be/
u4XNeD7YJOc
Mazda reveals 2016 Global MX-5 Cup
racer at SEMA Show http://articles.sae.
org/13697/

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

WHATS ONLINE

TOP NEWS
Bridgestone begins U.S.
production of earthmoving
tires

Bridgestone Americas announced on Nov.


18 the opening of its off-highway radial tire
plant in Aiken County, SCthe first plant of
its kind for Bridgestone outside of Japan,
according to a company spokesperson. The
1.5 million-ft2 (140,000-m2) manufacturing
facility produces various radial tire products
for heavy haul trucks in mining and aggregates applications. About 350 people now
work at the new tire facility; Bridgestone expects to create an additional 200 positions
when the location reaches full production in
the next two to three years. More detail at
http://articles.sae.org/13713/.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Tata AutoComp, Magna to


develop CV seats in India
Tata AutoComp Systems Ltd. and Magna
International Inc. recently entered into a
50/50 joint venture agreement to provide
seating systems to the Indian commercial
vehicle (CV) and bus industries. According
to a Magna spokesperson, these seats will
be newly designed, developed, and manufactured in India for the India marketnot
current off-the-shelf products.
Depending on the wants and needs of
the JVs future customers, its possible for
new innovations or industry firsts to be included, the spokesperson shared. The
timeline for the JV, which will be headquartered in Pune, Maharashtra, is still to be determined, he said, and will be based on customer needs.
Seating systems in commercial vehicles
have not yet evolved in India, Arvind Goel,
President and Chief of Operations and New
Technology, Tata AutoComp, said in a
statement announcing the JV. With the
rapid increase in infrastructure, we envisage more and more vehicles plying long
distances. In such a scenario, the safety
and comfort of both driver and passengers
is paramount. Through this JV, we intend to
address this increasing need of the industry. More detail at http://articles.sae.
org/13632/.

December 4, 2014

WHATS ONLINE

WABCO introduces new


compressors
Among the new products WABCO displayed
at the recent IAA Hanover CV Show was an
electrically driven compressor for heavy-duty air-braking systems. Thats a solution for
vehicles where the diesel engine does not
run all the time, said Dr. Christian Wiehen,
WABCO Chief Technology Officer. Thats
typically hybrid vehicles and of course fullelectric vehicles, which need compressed air
to operate the brakes, the trailer brakes, the
suspension, clutch, gear shifting, and so on.
Here you need air supply even if the engine
is at a standstill. Typically vehicles with bat-

teries and an electrical supply system on


board and are just charging air reservoirs
when needed. In comparison with enginedriven compressors, its not lubricated from
the engine oil and so needs its own oil
sump and has its own electric motor and

December 4, 2014

supply and control system. WABCO calls


this compressor its e-comp system. More
detail at http://articles.sae.org/13570/.

Seals for oil-lubricated wheelend applications

A new generation of SKF Mudblock cassette


seals has been launched for oil-lubricated
wheel-end applications that the company
says will significantly extend seal service life
compared with equivalent products in the
market. The solution can reduce seal friction
by up to 20%, offering off-highway customers a solution that reduces energy loss and
thus increases efficiency. More detail at
http://articles.sae.org/13551/.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

WEBCASTS
The following mini webcasts are available
for on-demand viewing at www.sae.org/
webcasts. These free programs are
presented by technology experts and offer
viewers a chance to send in questions via an
Ask a Question box.
Adhesive Bonding for Aluminum
Lightweight Structures: This 20-minute
webcast focuses on customized solutions for
bonding aluminum body structures and closures on vehicles currently in production.
Participants will have the chance to gain insight into the challenges of bonding aluminum substrates, learn how different types of
adhesive technologies are used in aluminum
bonding, and hear about repair technologies
for aluminum vehicles. Theyll also see how
structural adhesives have contributed to an
estimated 2.65 billion gal (10.0 billion L) of
gasoline savings by providing weight savings of 70 to 100 kg (150 to 220 lb) per vehicle. Sponsor: Dow

Participants will see specific examples of


how adhesive tapes are used throughout
the automotive production process, learn
about the benefits of using adhesive tape
within specific applications, and discover
the potential weight savings per vehicle.
Sponsor: tesa tape inc.
Using MapleSim to Transform Engineering
Education: Participants of this 10-minute
webcast will have the opportunity to learn
how Maplesofts modeling and simulation
platform, MapleSim, can bring together theory and applications in effective ways to engage students, enrich their understanding
of engineering systems, and reinforce classroom concepts. Sponsor: Maplesoft

Lightweighting: How Adhesive Tapes


Contribute to Weight Reduction in
Automotive Production Processes: This
10-minute webcast looks at how adhesive
tapes can contribute to weight reduction
without jeopardizing quality and performance when they replace traditional components or work in tandem with them.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

December 4, 2014

TECHNICAL
INNOVATIONS
ELECTRONICS

Magnetic field lines made visible in 3-D and real time


A

Fraunhofer scientists have developed a line camera that visualizes magnet field values in real time, which
has a unique potential to ensure quality assurance during magnet manufacture. (Max Etzold)

Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for


Integrated Circuits IIS in Erlangen, Germany,
have developed a high-resolution magnetic
line camera to measure magnetic fields in
real time. Field lines in magnetic systems
such as generators or motors, which are invisible to the human eye, can be made visible using this camera. It is especially suit-

December 4, 2014

able for industrial applications, for example


in quality assurance during the manufacture
of magnets.
As Fraunhofer tells it, people encounter
magnetic field sensors nearly everywhere
today, but very few know it. Such sensors
make sure washing machines run concentrically, that headlights automatically ad-

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS
just to the correct angle if a vehicle is
heavily loaded, or that occupants are
warned if a seatbelt is not fastened correctly. If a mechanical movement is transformed into a rotation, the magnetic sensor detects this and passes the information to systems downstreamto the headlight sensors, for instance.
It is therefore important that magnets
operate reliably. Quality assurance during
fabrication has historically been expensive
and time-consuming. The new line camera
was designed to measure magnetic fields
in real time and thus quickly detect defective magnets. It has become possible for
the first time to integrate this kind of magnetic testing into industrial processes.
Imagine the device not as a camera, but
more as a flat plate with a row of magnetic
field sensors, said Project Manager KlausDieter Taschka from IIS. The heart of the
device is a 3-D Hall-effect sensor named
HallinOne that was invented at IIS. It enables a sensor chip to detect in all three
axes any magnetic field present. These
kinds of sensors can solve a range of measurement problems, such as rotation angle
sensors, separation and positional sensors,
and rpm sensors, for instance.
Using the magnetic line camera, it is
possible to measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at 32 positions spaced 2.5 mm (0.1 in) apart. The
field lines thus become visible along the

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

line over a distance of 80 mm (3.15 in) and


can be monitored and recorded. The actual 3-D sensor measures no more than 0.1
x 0.1 mm (0.004 x 0.004 in) in size. This
permits point measurements and thus very
high measurement accuracy.
The measuring procedure itself takes
place in just a millisecond, so the camera
provides 1000 images per second. This
speed allows the magnetic camera to be
built into production facilities and test
magnets on a running conveyor belt.
The real-time aspect is also important,
as the shape of the magnet as well as the
magnetization direction influences the
measurement values and must be taken
into account during calibration of the system. At the conclusion of the measurement process, the system assigns the various magnetic shapes to the measurement
results and calculates in the error tolerances. For simple applications, the camera
can be connected through a USB interface
to a PC.
Fraunhofer scientists say the next steps
include developing a 2-D camera that can
take magnetic color pictures of a 40 x 40mm (1.6 x 1.6-in) surfaceand at a speed
of over 100 images per second.
Jean L. Broge

December 4, 2014

Making VIRTUAL VEHICLE


DESIGN a reality

ith products more


and more diverse
and growing vehicle portfolios on
the market, variant management has become of enormous
significance in coping with challenging cost and quality requirements. Modular systems and re-

10

December 4, 2014

lated methodologies are a common approach in many


companies and currently are widely discussed in research. But the research on modularity and its management has not yet reached application-oriented maturity,
and implementation in industry is rather fragmentary
for different companies, industries, and products.
Commercial vehicles are high-variant products with
comparatively small production volumes; therefore, a
concept development phase focusing on variance be-

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SIMULATION FEATURE

A new virtual design approach for commercial vehicle concepts allows for
purposeful design and integration of new concepts and technologies on the
component level in an existing product portfolio, while not neglecting the
need for standardization and modularity.

comes a major aspect in planning and determining


standards, modularity, and commonality within the future product portfolio. Due to long product life cycles
(typically 20 to 30 years), the basic architectures of
commercial vehicles continuously undergo a small
evolution and many technical changes and innovations
have to be held availablein many cases triggered by
changes in legislation. Therefore, both the careful
planning of design interfaces and their management

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

MAN Truck & Bus AG vehicles are


built to afford a great deal of
versatility. The MAN TGS (shown) can
be configured as a two-, three-, or
four-axle vehicle and in standard,
medium, all-wheel-drive, and ultralow heights.

December 4, 2014

11

Making VIRTUAL VEHICLE


DESIGN a reality

To meet the design challenges for commercial vehicles in the early


concept phase, a design methodology for particular concepts and
whole vehicle portfolios was developed and concentrated in the
implementation of an integrated tool chain.

are important for successful


use of modularity and commonality within the product
range.
With comparatively low production volumes of approximately 100,000 vehicles per
year and a large portfolio of
configurable vehicles (about
1046 possibilities from a functional point of view), the vehicle design should be highly
modular to cater to the breadth
of the product portfolio with
the existing R&D resources. In
particular, the advantages of

12

December 4, 2014

modularity in this industry are found in focusing design efforts on commonality (i.e., designing once, using multiple times) rather than in the economies of
scale in production and purchasing, which are still low
due to overall low production volumes. In addition to
advantages in cost efficiency, quality can also be improved: Cross-product multiple use of standardized
components and modules allows for more economical
technical validation and facilitates concentration on a
minimum of reference vehicles for testing.
For the past several years, MAN Truck & Bus AG and
Technische Universitt Mnchen have been cooperating as part of an application-oriented and industryrelevant research project, and their findings are
presented here.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SIMULATION FEATURE

Every component variant is represented by a


conceptual abstracted geometry and relevant
characteristics (e.g., mass, CG, material, package
requirements, cost data, etc.). For visualization and
collision detection, CAD geometry is integrated.

Obstacles to standardization
Commercial vehicles are characterized first and foremost by challenging requirements concerning manufacturing costs and durability, i.e., quality issues.
Against this background, manufacturers strive to combine improvements in cost efficiency and quality by
means of implementing modularity and internal standardization in their development processescoping
with the market-related constraint of a required high
variant product portfolio.
The engineering design process is affected by four
challenging aspects that complicate modularity and
standardization objectives:
The variant spectrum for commercial vehicles is comparatively high and results both from an OEMs strategic alignment and from an unavoidable high variety of
customers utilization scenarios and transportation
OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

tasks. Typically, vehicles are assembled to order, yet the design caters to a high degree of
specialization in transporting
specific goods.
The positioning and the available installation space for components are essential aspects.
Customers orders typically include several customization requests profoundly influencing
the vehicle layout and asking
for individual installation space
for own components (e.g., toolboxes).
Further adaptations are done
by body manufacturers to final-

December 4, 2014

13

Making VIRTUAL VEHICLE


DESIGN a reality
ize the vehicle beyond the
OEMs area of influence (such
as tippers, mixer trucks, etc.).
To allow for optimal body
mounting, the OEM has to make
many interfaces available as optional adaptations.
All aforementioned aspects
appear in combination with
long life-cycle periods of 20-30
years, bringing substantial uncertainties regarding future
changesinitiated on customer
side or technologically or due
to legislation.
These challenges result in
high efforts to engineer and
manage this variance with an
unavoidable lack of transparency. With respect to the low
sales volumes per vehicle variant, commercial vehicle portfolios are not upgraded or set up
newly all at once, but evolve
slowly over many decades.
Thus, the modular kit is growing additively with little systematic forward planning. New customer demands and vehicle
configurations are made possible, corresponding to the customer order inflow. The component variants and especially
their dependencies increase

14

December 4, 2014

Twelve vehicles were designed and optimized for the demands


of 15 customer profiles. These profiles range from a standard
tractor unit for a semi-trailer to a five-axle concrete pump for
construction sites and an inner-city garbage truck.

steadily, and as a result, changes evoke further subsequent changes. Efforts, costs, and even the exact portfolio penetration of changes can be hardly estimated.
Hence, at MAN a significant percentage of productivity
in engineering and construction is necessary for clarifying the particular variance context before realizing
product changes.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SIMULATION FEATURE

Two technical solutions for a new truck frame were developed.


Solution A (top, simplified and re-created with LEGO) consists
of three half-frames whereas solution B (bottom) consists of an
end module and two different middle modules for the creation
of the three frames.

Constructing concepts
To meet the design challenges mentioned, a design
methodology for particular concepts and whole vehicle portfolios was developed and concentrated in the
implementation of an integrated tool chain.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

In the center of the methodology presented, an integrated


virtual tool chain is established.
It includes a mathematical design tool for vehicle concepts
and associated customer profiles and operational scenarios,
respectively (implemented in
MathWorks MATLAB environment). After linking vehicle
concept and usage profile, essentially complete vehicle performance factors are calculated
and referred to a customerspecific rating system (relevance and utility value of criteria). In the event of several vehicle concepts, there is a key
performance indicator (KPI)
analysis assessing the whole
vehicle portfolio. Finally, every
vehicle concept is converted
automatically into an architecture digital mock-up (DMU). In
the architecture DMU component integration, possible collision and potential standard
packaging spaces, and vehicle
layouts are investigated.
Promising standardized layouts
can then be set as compulsory
for all subsequent vehicle concepts to be designed in NuKET
(Nutzfahrzeug Konzept

December 4, 2014

15

Making VIRTUAL VEHICLE


DESIGN a reality
OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

UC1 Key Performance Indicators


Exemplary
Exemplary
KPI
Value
Variety of components
3.0833
8.3
Distance to customer ideal point
3.3547
4.0
Function ratio
8.0833
9.3
Degree of interdependence
0.9993
1.0
Variety of mounting positions
1.1081
9.9
Completeness of wheelbases
0.6800
7.1
Relative number of product variants
0.8000
8.1
Degree of standardization
0.3311
4.0
Distribution of quantities
0.6118
6.5
Range of product variants
2.1391
3.1
Relative diversity of product variants
3.5221
2.3
Variant flexibility
0.3243
1.2
Value intensity
0.2397
3.2
Repetition rate
1.0405
1.1
Reutilization ratio
3.5946
3.1
Average
4.8
Entwicklungs Tool or commercial vehicle concept design
tool) to enforce commonality
and synergetic effects in development and production.
The design tool NuKET allows
for developing vehicle concepts
through accessing a database
of 30 actual main components
(e.g., fuel tank, cabin, etc.) with
several corresponding component variants (e.g., 66 geometrical variants of fuel tanksi.e.,

16

December 4, 2014

Optimized
KPI
2.0833
3.4520
8.0833
0.9844
1.2000
0.7200
0.8000
0.4900
0.6820
2.2302
3.7186
0.4800
0.3904
1.0796
5.2800

Optimized
Value
9.1 (+0.8)
4.1 (+0.1)
9.3 (+/-0.0)
1.1 (+0.1)
9.8 (-0.1)
7.5 (+0.4)
8.1 (+/-0.0)
5.4 (+1.4)
7.1 (+0.6)
3.2 (+0.1)
2.4 (+0.1)
1.4 (+0.2)
4.5 (+1.3)
1.2 (+0.1)
4.5 (+1.4)
5.3 (+0.5)

different material, length, and cross-section). Every


component variant is represented by a conceptual abstracted geometry and relevant characteristics (e.g.,
mass, CG, material, package requirements, cost data,
etc.). For visualization and collision detection, CAD
geometry is integrated.
To gradually develop complete coherent vehicle concepts, main components can be manipulated as to
their position (e.g., change of ladder frame side) and
their specific variant (e.g., fuel tank size). If required
for challenging complete vehicle characteristics, design studies on the component level can also be conducted by adding new component variance with indi-

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SIMULATION FEATURE

vidual properties. One or several customer profiles can


be assigned to every vehicle concept to analyze their
degree of applicability.
Having linked a vehicle concept and a customer profile, the final assessment can be conducted. The vehicle
concept is characterized by 35 basic complete vehicle
characteristics (e.g., fuel efficiency, road wear factor,
turn radius, etc.). Different alternative concepts can be
evaluated in the light of a customer profile and compared regarding their applicability.

Test cases
The evaluation methodology and the evaluation tool
for portfolios of heavy trucks have been tested in two
demonstrative use cases (UC). Use case 1 focuses on
the analysis and optimization of an exemplary vehicle
portfolio. Use case 2 shows the possibilities of applying the evaluation methodology to support strategic
decision making.
The main benefit of the portfolio analysis report is to
show potential areas for portfolio optimization. To test
this, a scenario of sample vehicles and customer profiles has been created in NuKET. Twelve vehicles have
been designed and optimized for the demands of 15
customer profiles. These profiles range from a standard tractor unit for a semi-trailer to a five-axle concrete pump for construction sites and an inner-city
garbage truck. They represent the significant variety of
requirements commercial vehicle customers have (tank
volume, ground clearance, wheelbase, cabin size, etc.)
Following the methodology, the portfolio is analyzed. KPIs are being computed and then related to
one data scale. A portfolio analysis report with all information is generated automatically.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

The following weaknesses


could be identified in the detail
analysis:
There is a big variety in the
components frame, cabin, fuel
tank
There is a big gap between
the wheelbases 3600 and 4400
mm (141.7 and 173.2 in)
The quantities of the components cabin, frame, and engine
are distributed inconveniently
The value intensity of the
components frame, cabin, and
front axle is suboptimal
Vehicles 2 and 3 are almost
identical in terms of customer
relevant characteristics.
For the optimization of the
portfolio, the following measures are being taken:
Reduction of cabin variants
Creating a cabin that fits both
off-road and on-road chassis,
reducing the total number of
available cabin sizes
Reduction of frame variants
Reducing the total number of
available frame lengths, merging frames of similar lengths
Optimization of fuel tank variantsIntroducing a system of
new standard tank layouts, based
on the customer requirements

December 4, 2014

17

Making VIRTUAL VEHICLE


DESIGN a reality
Optimization of front and rear
axle variantsChanging the
wheel formula for two exotic
variants and thereby reducing
the number of combinations
needed.
These measures are being
carefully carried out with the
portfolio development tool
NuKET. The portfolio analysis
report shows exactly which
component variants to address
and which component variants
should be left unchanged.
The results of four optimization loops are showing relevant
improvements in the configured vehicle portfolio. The values of almost all KPIs could be
raised. Especially the degree of
standardization, the variety of
components, the reutilization
ratio, and the value intensity
could be adjusted. The modular
kit of the portfolio became
more flexible and cost effective, raising the quantities of
most components and distributing them more efficiently.
The customer-relevant characteristics of the portfolio (range
of product variants, relative diversity of product variants,
etc.) did not suffer from these

18

December 4, 2014

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Key Performance Indicators for Solutions A and B


Value for
Value for
Solution A
Solution B
Variety of components
1.0
7.8
Function ratio
10.0
10.0
Degree of
10.0
10.0
interdependence
Variety of mounting
5.5
8.5
positions
Degree of
7.0
9.0
standardization
Distribution of
1.9
5.8
quantities
Variant flexibility
4.0
4.0
Value intensity
4.0
7.5
Repetition rate
4.0
2.0
Reutilization ratio
1.0
4.0
Average
4.8
6.9

optimization measures and could even have been


slightly improved. The optimization measures have affected the variety of mounting positions in a negative
way (in some cases, two or three component variants
have been replaced by one component variant in two
or three mounting positions). It is the only KPI with
decreased value.
For UC2, a (generic) use case was created to show
the use of the evaluation methodology in the support
of strategical decision. Two technical solutions for a
new truck frame have been developed. Both solutions
consist of three components and are (hypothetically)
identical in terms of part costs per frame and customer-relevant characteristics (e.g., stiffness of the struc-

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SIMULATION FEATURE

ture, weight, etc.). Solution A consists of three halfframes whereas solution B consists of an end module
and two different middle modules for the creation of
the three frames.
The project leader has to decide which solution to
take into the detailed design phase for series production. A portfolio analysis for the modular design of the
two solutions was conducted.
Solution B was found to be much more efficient and
flexible than solution A. The value intensity and the reutilization rate as well as the degree of standardization
are significantly higher with this solution. It makes better use of the parts and will be more adaptable in case
of changed requirements. The quantities of the components are distributed more conveniently. This will increase quality and lower the production costs in the
long run. The only advantage of solution A is the high
repetition rate. All components are used twice in every
frame, which is going to lower the price per part.

Striking a balance
The virtual tool chain presented including concept design (NuKET) and 3-D layout planning (architecture
digital mock-up) provides a valuable contribution already in the early concept phase by allowing for flexible
and performant concept studies coping with reduced
product knowledge according to the early phase.
Since the impact of singular vehicle concepts on the
overall modular kit of components can be analyzed
only retrospectively in the face of multiple vehicle conceptsi.e., having an entire vehicle portfolioa KPIbased assessment metric has been developed. An aggregated KPI abstract and an automatically generated
more detailed key figure report allows for identifying

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

vehicle concepts at low degree


of standardization within the
portfolio (e.g., utilizing exclusively special components with
low sales volume). To improve
the overall standardization
within the portfolio (triggered
by cost and quality requirements on a competitive market
environment), these vehicle
concepts are revised. Finally, an
optimal marketable vehicle
portfolio can be generated by
balancing between dedicated
vehicles with best customerrelevant characteristics and
standardized vehicles.
Having already shown promising results in first industrial case
studies, the methodology presented is designated to be integrated in the product development process and the associated
tool chain to be successively industrialized in extracts.
This article is based on SAE International
technical paper 2014-01-2415 by Armin Frg,
Moritz Wolter, and Markus Lienkamp of
Technische Universitt Mnchen, and Matthias
Kreimeyer of MAN Truck & Bus AG.

December 4, 2014

19

ORIGINAL
EQUIPMENT

Toro launches new riding trencher

The Toro HD trencher drive for the RT1200 consists of three major componentsa flywheel, torsion shaft,
and planetary gearset. The flywheel stores inertial energy, ensures efficient hydraulic system operation,
and keeps the chain consistently running in tough digging conditions.

The Toro Co. says it designed its all-new


RT1200 riding trencher with versatility and
productivity in mind, particularly for utility
contractors.
Built on a tool carrier chassis, its design
allows contractors to select from tracks or
tires and a variety of attachments, including
a backhoe, six-way backfill blade, rocksaw,
vibratory plow, reel carrier, and the Toroexclusive HD (heavy-duty) trencher drive.
The Toro HD trencher drive consists of
three major componentsa flywheel, torsion shaft, and planetary gearset. The flywheel stores inertial energy, ensures effi-

20

December 4, 2014

cient hydraulic system operation, and


keeps the chain consistently running in
tough digging conditions. The torsion shaft
absorbs shock loads, and the planetary
gearset multiplies the hydrostatic motor
torque for added digging power. Toro says
the HD trencher drive technology ensures
consistent, powerful trenching performance in demanding digging conditions.
When it comes to plowing, the RT1200s
P105 vibratory plow features plow-blade attitude adjustment, as well as plow steer and
swing of up to 30 to maintain plowing accuracy and provide enhanced maneuverability.

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT

An operator-focused machine, the RT1200 has


an open-design operator platform, easily
accessible controls mounted to the arm rests,
multi-adjustable high-back suspension seat, and
large digital display.

Attachments for the machine include a


backhoe, six-way backfill blade, rocksaw,
vibratory plow, reel carrier, and the Toroexclusive HD trencher drive.

According to Josh Beddow, Marketing


Manager for Toros underground utility
equipment line, the RT1200 is an operator-focused machine with an open-design
operator platform, easily accessible controls mounted to the arm rests, multi-adjustable high-back suspension seat, and
large digital display.
Its Cummins 4.5-L, 121-hp (90-kW) engine and 48-gal (182 L) fuel tank provide
high output with minimal downtime. A
standard tilt frame allows the operator to
tilt the machine at variable degrees to
maintain trench angle, while optional load
control allows the operator to set the percentage of engine output dedicated to the
ground drive to ensure the performance of
the digging implement is maintained.
Jean L. Broge

OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

December 4, 2014

21

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Digital Off-Highway Engineering, December 4, 2014, Volume 5, Number 6. Digital Off-Highway Engineering
(ISSN 1939-6686) is published 6 times a year by SAE International. Copyright 2014 SAE International.
SAE International is not responsible for the accuracy of information in the editorial, articles, and
advertising sections of this publication. Readers should independently evaluate the accuracy of any
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(ISSN 1939-6686 digital)
(ISSN 1528-9702 print)

UPCOMING
FROM THE EDITORS
DECEMBER 8

JANUARY 6

SAE Test & Measurement

Automotive Engineering

Technology eNewsletter
DECEMBER 8

SAE Vehicle Engineering


Technology eNewsletter
DECEMBER 15

Off-Highway Engineering
Technology eNewsletter
DECEMBER 15

Aerospace Engineering
Technology eNewsletter
DECEMBER 18

Update

Digital Magazine (January edition)

22

December 4, 2014

Digital Magazine
Infotainment
JANUARY 6

Aerospace Engineering
Technology eNewsletter
JANUARY 13

Electronics

Technology eNewsletter
JANUARY 13

Off-Highway Engineering
Technology eNewsletter
JANUARY 20

Automotive Engineering
Technology eNewsletter

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OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

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December 4, 2014

23

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