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Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004

Power for Land , Sea, and Air
June 14-17, 2004 , Vienna , Austria

Al-Sulaiman , Fahd A.
Graduate Assistant

AI-Qutub , Amro M.
Associate Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia

Actual performance testing is a key element in the design
stage, development and troubleshooting of centrifugal
compressors. The present work discusses the procedure for
designing the experimental setup and the selection of drive unit
for variable centrifugal compressors sizes. It starts with setting
criteria of selection. A survey over different types of drive units
and facility setup was conducted. It was found that the electric
drive unit with the aid of transmission for stepping-up the
speeds is the most suitable type. This is due mainly to the
excellent control property of electric motors allowing for wide
range of operational speed and power. A new methodology was
developed for selecting operational power and speeds of the
drive unit for different sizes of impellers. The code, used for the
analysis, was developed by the authors. It calculates the range
of input power, input torque, and rotational speeds, as well as,
the mass flow rate, total pressure and temperature ratios for
different sizes of impellers. This will aid in selecting the proper
instrumentation for the experiments. The code was validated
with experimental results in the literature. It is expected that the
present methodology will enhance selection procedure for
designing compressor test facility.
Designing a flexible centrifugal compressor test facility
where different compressor configurations and sizes can be
tested with minor modifications, means reduction in cost and
time. Also, the quality of the experimental results depends on
the design of the test facility. That is the instrumentation used
for the measurement and the layout of the test rig. This raises
the need to find a methodology to satisfy these requirements.

Improper selection of the instrumentation for a single test

rig may lead to inaccurate reading, increase cost or even failure
in the system, such as the failure of the mass flow measurement
at the venture nozzle, Colantuoni and Colella [I]. In other
words, estimating the input power, torque, mass flow rate, rpm,
and total pressure and temperature ratios for different sizes and
configurations, is essential in planning for compressor testing.
Some commercial codes are available and designed to
estimate the operating conditions of the centrifugal
compressors. However, most of them are for industrial
applications and used to evaluate conditions during operation
and not for the designing purposes, such as, Centrifugal
Compressor Tracking Program developed by Ronald. P.
Lapina. On the other hand, there are limited codes that can
calculate the operating conditions of the compressor for
designing purposes. An example of that is the codes developed
by PCA Engineering and Concepts Incs. However, these codes
do not show on the same figure the effect of changing impeller
size or configuration. The present work involves the
development of a code that predicts centrifugal compressor
performance at different sizes and configurations. Presentation
of results is designed such as the selection of drive unit
characteristics can be done in a very efficient manner.
On the other hand, one of the main requirements in
designing the test facility is selecting the proper type of driver
unit. For instance, in the present study, the driver has to be
flexible to test different types of compressors with good control
system on the rotational speed , especially near the surge

1 Copyright G 2004 by ASME

Based on literature survey, there are three major types of

drivers : electrical motor, gas turbine and blow -down facility
with a turbocharger . Each one of them has its advantages and
disadvantages, such as cost, size, and power requirement as
discussed below . The present work evaluates these systems as
alternatives for driving different sizes of high- speed, small-size
centrifugal compressors.
b Impeller width
C Absolute velocity of the impeller
co Tangential velocity of the impeller

Constant pressure specific heat

M Mach number

m Mass flow rate

Number of the blades in the impeller
P Pressure
Pr Pressure ratio
Pw Power
R Gas constant

r Impeller radius
Rotational speed per minute
T Temperature
U Impeller blade velocity

One of the main requirements of designing the centrifugal
compressor test facility is estimating the required input power
and rotational speed to select the proper drive unit. This can be
achieved through using the proper analysis. In addition to that,
input torque, mass flow rate, stagnation pressure and
temperature ratios can help in estimating the range of operating
conditions and selection of proper instrumentation. Based on
the analysis below a computer program was constructed to
perform the calculations for different impeller sizes and
The operating conditions for a given centrifugal
compressor can be obtained theoretically through using
reasonable assumptions , as well as available information from
the literature. Equations for input power, input torque, mass
flow rate, stagnation pressure and temperature ratios, as well as
some other related equations were derived. The main derived
equations are shown below. Most of the analysis, with
additional modifications, is based on Hill and Peterson [2]
derivation for centrifugal compressor.
The geometry of the analyzed impeller is shown in Figs. I
and 2.

W Radial relative velocity of the impeller

Z The reference size
Greek letters
Impeller angle

Major Assumptions:
Ideal gas,
Bulk flow,
No preswirl at the inlet,
Adiabatic flow.

Specific heat ratio

Slip factor
Flow factor
Angular velocity

Fig. 1: Impeller inlet geometry and velocity vector


Actual case

cr Compressor rotor
c Compressor stage
h Value at hub
ideal Ideal case
01 Impeller inlet (compressor) stagnation condition
02 Impeller exit stagnation condition
04 Compressor exit tagnation condition
I Impeller inlet
2 Impeller exit
4 Compressor exit


Fig. 2: Impeller exit geometry and velocity vector

Copyright G 2004 by ASME

Governing Equations:


as =(1-2

Actual mass flow rate

To account for the bulk flow assumption in the analysis an
estimated coefficient for the average mass flow rate was
implemented in the code . It was chosen based on a wellestablished experimental investigation in literature for smooth
pipes Schlichting [3]. Also, to account for the flow separation
(off design condition ) an estimated relative flow angle, 10
relative to inducer tip as flow off design limits, was

The flow factor is used to account for the off- design

condition . When the relative flow is parallel to inducer tip, the
flow is considered to be in ideal case ( design condition);
otherwise it is off design condition.
Using the definition of the flow factor, the actual mass
flow rate can be written as:

m !deal
In this case, the inlet axial velocity is:
M act =




tan /3,


ace tan /t 2)

2P2 7r2 r2 b( )
The slip factor is also defined as:




Impeller exit static density

To calculate the slip factor, the impeller exit static density
needs to be found first. The general procedure to derive the
required equation to find the density was done by Hill and
Peterson [2]. Some improvements were done by taking into
account actual inlet and exit mach number, as well as off design
condition as shown below. This procedure includes the
following assumptions:

Using the definitions of the static isentropic relation, Mach

number, total temperature and inlet axial velocity, the mass
flow can be written as a function of operating conditions and
impeller geometry such that:

Neglect the thickness of the vanes,

Neglect the boundary layer displacement thickness,
Assume the isentropic efficiency of the rotor
: 7 er x 1 277, , 17 , is the stage isentropic efficiency.

Using the isentropic relation , the static density ratio can be
written as:

( 0,Qri2


Y tan/31

P2 Po2

0, Or,

tan /31

2)( 0,





1+Y] M 2

P, Poi

L 2

yR(To1 - )

x7c(r,2 -

[1+M 2


In the case of no preswirl condition , the stagnation pressure

ratio can be written in terms of the blade velocity at the
impeller tip and the absolute tangential velocity at the impeller
exit. This can be achieved by using the isentropic relation and
the definition of the power, as will as the rotor efficiency.


1 r-I

There are some formulas that can be used to calculate the

sli p factor . The one , which was discussed by Wiesner [4] and
modified by Hill and Peterson [2], is a representative formula

since it has been validated experimentally. It takes into

consideration number of the impeller blades and the exit
condition and configuration. Using their formula and
introducing the definition of the exit radial relative velocity

P 02






The rotor efficiency is modeled from the experimental

results done by Krain et al . [5]. These results were selected
since they are close to the operating conditions of the desired
test facility of the compressor . Also, because Krain et al. [5]
study was chosen as a reference to validate four different
advanced codes, which indicates the confident in their results,
see Eisenlohr et al. [6 ]. The chosen efficiency model for
validation was:
77,. = 0.8545*exp (-IE-06*rpm)

3 Copyright C 2004 by ASME

This efficiency equation will be introduced in the code to

account for the stage loses , so the total stage pressure and
temperature ratios can be obtained . The main purpose of
pressure ratio validation is to check whether the code can
predict the compressor performance accurately, as shown later.
Mach number at the impeller inlet can be written as:

M, _

' 2
C, )

Input Power

Assuming there is no preswirl at the inlet, CO , is equal to

zero, so the input power can be written as:

Pw= may., 6sU22


Substituting into Eq. 12 for the slip factor and write blade
velocity at the impeller tip as a function of the angular velocity,
the power can be obtained as:

Substituting for C, in term of the angular velocity and the
inlet angle and then square the Mach number leads to:

(1- cosfl2)

of .


_ (tan 13 )



2C r


2 C2
YR (T02 - )
where C, is the absolute velocity at the impeller exit as

illustrated in Fig. 2. It can be written as:



A computer code was developed, using MATLAB

software, to calculate compressor performance parameters.
Figure 3 is a flow chart for the code. The input data are:


C2= (U2- Wr


Similarly, the square exit Mach number can be written as:

M2 =

mom, m

2P2 n2 r2 b(0 )

0, Qr.

yR To,


Pw =M'

tan /3,



The derived Eqs., 4 and 6, can be substituted into Eq. 10 to

obtain the density at the impeller exit.


Impeller radiuses,
Impeller configuration (angles and number of blades),
Inlet conditions, total pressure and temperature, as
well as flow factor,
Gas properties (ideal gas only).

Three types of output are configured to present the

compressor performance as the following:
The first type produces plots for input power, input torque.
total pressure and temperature ratios, separately vs. mass flow
rate for different rpm. This will serve in validating the code.
The second type produces plots for input power, input
torque, total pressure and temperature ratios and mass flow rate.
separately, vs. rpm for different impeller sizes and exit
tangential velocities. This will aid in selecting proper
instrumentation range and determine the required power input
for a given impeller geometry.

y y ) RT of

The third type produces plots of the total pressure ratio vs.
impeller size for different input power and rpm. This output is
the distinguish one which will aid in designing compressor for
a given system, as well as aid in the design of a drive unit for
different impeller sizes and configurations. Further details are
given in the example set in results and discussion section.

4 Copyright 0 2004 by ASME

Input : geometry , size, gas properties, inlet stagnation

conditions, efficiency, flow factor, rpm, bulk flow correction.

p2 = pt , as a first iteration for p2

efficiency over the flow range for a given rpm. Figure 4

illustrates clearly the validation of the efficiency model used in
the present code for the given case. Input to the code is the
same as provided in the literature. The impeller data are shown
in Fig. 5. Figure 5 is a comparison between the experimental
results and the present code output for total pressure ratio. It is
clear that the present code predicts total pressure ratio very well
up to the running speed of 40,000 rpm with negligible error,
specifically near the maximum efficiency. At higher rpm the
present code over predicts the total pressure ratio. The
deviation increases with rpm and as operating condition
deviates from maximum efficiency point. However, the
maximum deviation is less than 11% at 50, 000 rpm at the
highest efficiency. Surge cannot be predicted by the present
code, which is the usual case for many codes.

Calculate: slip factor, W,2. C2, C 02 , Power, Torque, T,a,Mi, Mt

Efficiency model

Krain et al[6]



u 0.83
N d

CL m 0.79

- - -^-1





45,000 55.000

Fig. 4: Efficiency modeling validation.

If U2> 600, break
the loop (rpm loop)

^, 0.07&s.-G.tt2r.-0.93
63se.q.. -310.8

sower;'' ,

0-36 b. 010T

Calculate final : Power, Torque , Pa/Pui, T(Mrrn,


Show the output


... 1S .2
Anu- 6.wr . 0*%)


Fig. 5: Code validation, total pressure ratio vs.

flow rate for different rotational speeds
Fig. 3: General flow chart of the code.


Code validation
The present code and analysis are to be validated through
comparison with experimental results of Krain et al. [5]. The
validation of the code is based on the comparison of the total
pressure ratio. So, efficiency model of the compressor must be
first validated with experimental results of Krain et al. [5].
Experimental results shown in Fig. 4 are based on the average


Dimensions of the impeller given in table I are for the

reference size in the example . A multiplication factor, Z, is
used to alter the dimensions of the reference impeller without
effecting geometrical angles and number of blades.
The working fluid is air with inlet total pressure and
temperature of 101.3 kPa and 27 C, respectively. Both high
and low mass flow rate impellers are considered each as a case
as shown in table I (,(3l = 45 and 67). Figures 6 to 9 are the
first type of output for the present code for the basic dimension
of impeller (Z=1). This type of output is useful for code

Copyright 2004 by ASME

validation with experimental work for further development and

modification. It can also aid in the selection of instrumentation
for a given impeller, as well as predicting the required drive
power and speed range. In addition, it shows the effect of
changing impeller configuration, such as impeller inlet angle.
The second type of output is illustrated in Figs. 10-14.
Here, mass flow rate, the input power and torque, as well as
total temperature and pressure ratios are provided for different
impeller sizes vs. rpm on the same plot. Moreover, impellers tip
speeds are indicated. The information provided will indicate the
set of instrumentation required for the whole test rig. The first
design constrain is the available input power (say 500 kW, for
example). This will provide the limit for the impellers tip
speed. For example, if the tested impeller is of a 3Z size, this

0.05... 0 .1 0.15..... 02 ...0:25 0.3... 0.35 04

A6W.1 mess Aow rep tkgfs)

Fig. 6: Input power vs. actual mass flow rate

for different rpm and a given size, Z=1.

will lead to a tip speed limit of about 530 m/s at (0, =1). The
second design constrains is the maximum output rpm for the
drive unit (say 100,000 rpm as an example). This would also
put a limit for tip speed of small impellers as shown in Fig. 10.
The third type of output is illustrated in Figs. 15. a and b.
The figures indicate the total pressure ratio vs. impeller size for
two different angles . Iso-lines of input power and rpm provide a
useful tool not only for experimental drive unit setup but also
for selecting impeller size for a given compression system or
gas turbine engine. For example, if the power limit is 200 kW,
speed limit is 100,000 rpm and inlet impeller angle is 67, then
the maximum total pressure ratio that can be tested is 2.9 for
impeller size of (Z= 3) due to power limit. Also, the maximum
total pressure ratio for an impeller size of (Z=1) is 2.8 due to
speed limit. However, the maximum possible total pressure
ratio that can be obtained for 200 kW at 100,000 rpm is 8.2
with impeller size corresponding to (Z= 1.56). The same
outputs of the code may be obtained for any configuration of
impeller for the design purpose of a test facility.

i39R 'rt ka^^

o ........................_......................__.._
0 0.005 0t 0.46 0.2 0.25
Acted mesa now We tkp0s)


035 04

Fig. 7: Input torque vs. actual mass flow rate for

different rpm and a given size, Z=1.

Table 1: Impeller characteristics of the reference size Z

Impeller characteristics


Inlet im pe ller raduis r , (m)

Hu p im peller raduis ri, (m)
Exit impeller raduis r2 (m)
Im eller width (m)
Im eller inlet an gle (deg)
Impeller exit an gle (deg)
Impeller blades number


^+flrn ^k,afi'

0.05 0 t 0.t5 02 .._..0.25

Actual m.s1 flow rate (l 51)




Fig. 8: Stagnation temperature ratio vs. actual mass flow rate

for different rpm and a given size, Z=1.

Copyright 2004 by ASME

1I .. 60k rpm

... _.., .... _..,._..
0 006 0AO.ti 02 026.. 0 .6 OJ6 Oa
M1* maea now rue ftW


Fig. 9: Stagnation pressure ratio vs. actual mass flow rate

for different rpm and a given size, Z=1.
z M o..

U -000.M
7 ..............., .... _...

Fig. 13: Stagnation pressure ratio vs. rpm for different impeller
sizes and impeller exit tangential velocities.

%W" tb

660x,. ^.
a l e _ .. 2.262



.7%; 1'5z


1 1.6 2 2S
1515 .10

Fig. 14: Actual mass flow rate vs. rpm for different impeller
sizes and impeller exit tangential velocities.

Fig. 10: Input power vs. rpm for different impeller sizes
and exit tangential velocities.
Z k m. wlp.[. 1la.



:,- 32
2 757


GO. 400. '..-1' 2165 ..


^...^ ..1.762










Fig. 15.a: Pressure ratio versus impeller size for different

Fig. 11: Input torque vs. rpm for different impeller sizes and
impeller exit tangential velocities.

rotational speed and input power where 6, = 670.

Fig. 15.b : Pressure ratio versus impeller size for different

Fig. 12: Stagnation Temperature ratio vs. rpm for different o
impeller sizes and impeller exit tangential velocities. rotational speed and input power where ,5I = 45.

Copyright 0 2004 by ASME


The type of driver unit used to drive a compressor has to
satisfy many criteria. For instance, the driver has to be flexible
to test different types of compressors with good, control system
on the rotational speed, especially near the surge line. In
general, the driver has to be:

Flexible ( can accumulates several sizes of compressor),

Excellent control on the rpm and torque,
Easy to use,

Environment friendly,

Comparison Between The Electric Motor, The Combustion

Gas Turbine And The Blow - Down Facility With A
The choice of an electric motor type depends on the
application. One of the examples of the electric motor selection
criteria was discussed by Clarkson et al. [7]. In case of selection
a motor driver for driving a high-speed centrifugal compressor,
over 30,000 rpm, usually a gearbox is used since majority of
motors in the market cannot reach a very high speed, especially
in the case of high power requirements (>250 hp). Recently,
considerable efforts are made to overcome this problem for the
case of the low power, Soong et al. [8] and Yuri and Smith, [9].
Most of these motors are still under development phase, so
availability and reliability is questionable at the present. Most
of the experimental investigations for centrifugal compressors
with high rotational speed and power are accompany with a
gearbox, Kim et al. [101.
As a drive unit for centrifugal compressors, gas turbines
have many drawbacks compared to electric motors. In general,
the efficiency of the gas turbine is low, except at its design
operation point. Normally, the gas turbine is affected by the
change in the ambient temperature, operation at partial loads,
filtration of inlet air and blade fouling of the compressor,
Saxena [11]. It is also difficult to control the turbine especially
if it is operating at off-design condition. Actually, the control
unit of the turbine engine alone needs speed, temperature, flame
detection and vibration inputs. These inputs are important to
control the turbine engine during startup and shutdown, steady
state operation and for the turbine protection, Boyce [12].
Moreover, gas turbines require a number of auxiliaries, such as,
the electrical starter, the main oil pump and the fuel pump. All
of these auxiliaries require control. These supplementary
devices increase the maintenance difficulty and price, as well as
complexity of control system. The flexibility to test many
different sizes of compressors is also reduced due to
performance characteristics of gas turbines. In addition, special
type of fuel and filtration need to be used to decrease air
pollution. Gas turbines are also considered to be unsafe
machine. Sometimes the available turbine needs some
development before it can be used to drive the centrifugal
compressor for the purpose of testing; see Turner et al. [13] as
an example. In their case, any considerable change in

compressor size and characteristics may require some

modifications, such as, a special gearbox. This means this type
of drive is not suitable for testing wide range of compressors
sizes and configurations.
The third possible driver is the cold air turbine, such as in
turbochargers. Blow-down facility is usually required to
provide compressed air to the turbocharger to rotate the radial
turbine that is coupled directly with the centrifugal compressor
through a common shaft. This type of experiment is not
expensive especially if the blow-down facility is available.
However, it needs some auxiliaries for the purpose of control,
which leads to larger size and more complexity in construction
and maintenance compared to the electric motor. The facility is
considered to be safe, has no negative effect on the
environment but its major drawback is the limited flexibility for
the purpose of testing different sizes of compressors.
The main objective of this study is to develop a test
facility that can be used to test different compressor sizes with a
good controlling system up to a speed limit of 100,000 rpm.
Table 2 compares the characteristics of the three driver units
discussed. From this table the selection of the electrical motor
as a driver unit is the best choice. The main reasons of that are
the simplicity of control and flexibility to test different
compressor sizes. In addition, it is easier to maintain and the
overall system is smaller compared to the other two drive
Comparison Between Two Electrical Motors, With And
Without Vacuum System
There are two methods commonly used to satisfy dynamic
similarity when testing centrifugal compressors driven by
electric motors. First method includes a vacuum environment
system and the second one is without vacuum. By using the
vacuum system almost all practical conditions can be tested and
this is done mainly by simulating the pressure to match the
Reynolds and Mach numbers while maintaining low rpm.
However, this type of driving system is relatively complex. It
requires an advanced sealing system; a closed loop that needs a
heat exchanger to cool the output air from the compressor; and
flow straightener and equalizer to improve the flow quality at
the compressor inlet, Shirley [14]. Also, the test section of the
vacuumed type is more difficult to move, maintain, control
(inlet conditions) and has larger size compared to non-vacuum
one. However, it has lower power requirement for the motor
due to low rpm and vacuum. On the other hand, driving the
impeller without the vacuum system is relatively simple
compared to the vacuum assisted system. It does not need a
closed loop or advanced sealing system but requires higher
power and rpm drive unit, which might require a gearbox in
some cases Table 2 shows the characteristics of the two type of
electrical system.

To sum up, the non-vacuumed type is the most suitable to

meet the objectives of the present design. However, future
developments can be made by adding a vacuum loop to
broaden the test condition, Re and Mach numbers. The
suggested drive unit will be composed of electric motor,

8 Copyright 2004 by ASME

gearbox and variable speed torque converter to meet variation

of impeller size, see Fig. 16.
Table 2: Characteristics of the electric motor, gas turbine and
bow down facility with a turbocharger as centrifugal
compressor driver units.

(rpm, power )

Motor (no

Motor ( with
a vacuum
system )
Ex pen sive

V ex pensive

facility with
La rge


- Isolated




V . difficult




scaling S ys,


Compressed air

V. high

V. high

Difficult at

Difficult at



( flow







Safe ty
Flexibility of

Hi gh
V. good


Gas Turbine









The authors would like to acknowledge KFUPM for the
support in the preparation of this research.
[1] Colantuoni, S. and Colella, A., 1993, " Aerodesign and
Performance Analysis of a Radial Transonic Impeller for a 9:1
Ratio Compressor,"
ASME Journal of
Turbomachinery, July, 115, pp. 573-58 1.
[2] Hill, P. and Peterson , C. 1992), "Mechanics and
Thermodynamics of Propulsion," 2 edition, Addison Wesley,
USA, Chap. 9 and App. VII.
[3] Schlichting, H., 1979, " Boundary Layer Theory", 7th
edition, McGraw-Kill, USA, Chap. 20.

[4] Wiesner, F. J., (1967), " A Review of Slip Factors for

Centrifugal Compressor Impeller," Trans. ASME Series A. J.
Eng. For Power, 89, pp 588-592.
[5] Krain, K., Hoffmann, B. and Pak, H., 1995, " Aerodynamics
of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller with Transonic Inlet
Conditions," ASME paper No. 95-GT-79,.

[6] Eisenlohr, Gernot; Dalbert, Peter; Krain, Hartmut; Proll,

Hartwing; Richter, Franz-Arno and Rohne, Karl-Heinz, 1998, "
Analysis of the Transonic Flow at the Inlet of a High Pressure
Ratio Centrifugal Impeller," ASME paper No. 98-GT-24.
[7] Clarkson, k., Trumbo, T. Kueng, L., 1998, "Selection
Criteria and Application of a 15,000 HP, 4-Pole Induction
Motor for A Compressor Drive," IEEE, paper No. PCIC-98-18,
pp 165-172.

I- Centrifugal compressor, 2- Gearbox
3- Torque converter, 4- Electric motor
Fig. 16: General facility layout of the centrifugal compressor,
A performance analysis for centrifugal Compressors of
high-pressure ratio was developed and incorporated into a
numerical code. The analysis was validated with experimental
results. A special output configuration was made for
compressor perfomance in which total pressure ratio was
plotted against both power requirements and operating speeds
for different impeller sizes. This proved to be vital tool on the
selection process of the drive unit for testing varies impeller
sizes. Moreover, the results of the analysis will guide the
selection of the instrumentation range . Further improvement of
the code is needed in terms of efficiency prediction.
Alternatives of drive units were studied carefully. As a result,
eclectic motor in combination with a variable speed torque
converter and a gearbox was selected to meet present
requirements. In addition a vacuum loop can be integrated with
the facility to broaden test conditions.

[8] Soong, W. L., Kliman, G. B. Johnson, R. N., White, R. A.

and Miller, J. E., 2000, " Novel High-Speed Induction Motor
for a Commercial Centrifugal Compressor." IEEE Transactions
on Industry Applications, 36, (3), may/ June pp 706-713.
[9] Yun, Hayong and Smith, Jr., J. L., 1996, "Centrifugal
Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioners- Component
Design" proceedings of the ASME Advanced Energy Systems
Division, pp 115-122.
[10] Kim, Y., Engeda, A. Aungier, R. and Direnzi, G., 2001, "
The Influence of Inlet Flow Distortion on the Performance of a
Centrifugal Compressor and the Development of an Improved
Inlet Using Numerical Simulation ," IMechE, 215, part A, 323338.
[11] Saxena , M. N., (2000), "Optimize Gas Turbine -Driven
Centrifugal Compressors, " Hydrocarbon Processing. Nov.
2000, pp 61-64.

[12] Boyce, M., 2002, "Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook. "

Gulf Professional Publishing, pp 635 & 638.
[13] Turner, A. B., Davies, S. J., Childs, P. R. N.; Harvey, C.
G. and Millward, J. A., 2000, " Development of a novel gas
turbine driven centrifugal compressor," IMechE. 214, part A,
pp 423-437.
[14] Shirley, Gregory B., 1998, " An Experimental
Investigation of Low Reynolds Number, high Mach Number
Centrifugal Compressor," Master Thesis, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology ".

9 Copyright C 2004 by ASME