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Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of

Central Nervous system - Diseases causes of


dementia
By Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research
papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health,
ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the
karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO
READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as
international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Diseases of Central Nervous system


Dementia
About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia,
and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the
loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and
Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging
people.II. Causes of dementia
C. Diseases Causes of Dementia
C.1. Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named for German physician Alois
Alzheimer. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, effecting memory, thinking and
behavior severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong
hobbies or social life.
C.2. Stroke (Vascular problems)
Strokes caused by uncontrolled diet with high in saturated and trans fats, can
lead to bad cholesterol building up(88) in blocking the circulation of blood
to the body and increase volume of infarction, in the brain(89). If oxygen is

not delivered to the brain cells, some cells die off and can not reproduce(90),
causing stroke(89). Others happen, when a blood vessel in the brain
ruptures(91), it causes the cells in your brain deprived of oxygen with
symptoms of vascular dementia(92)(93)(94).
According to the the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with prestroke and post-stroke dementia by University Department of Clinical
Neurology, 10% of patients had dementia before first stroke, 10% developed
new dementia soon after first stroke, and more than a third had dementia
after recurrent stroke(95).
C.3. Dementia with Lewy bodies
Lewy bodies is a condition of spherical masses displaced other cell
components with symptoms of fluctuating cognitive ability with pronounced
variations in attention and alertness, recurrent visual hallucinations and
spontaneous motor features, including akinesia, rigidity and tremor(97).
Abnormal aggregates of protein develop inside nerve cells are also found in
Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy Body Dementia and some other disorders.
(96).
According to Mayo Clinic in MRI analysis of the characterizing the tissue
abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer disease and DLB, loss of tissues
due to increased amygdalar diffusivity in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)
may be related to small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, a common
pathology associated with Lewy body disease(98)
C.4. Fronto-temporal dementia
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) or Pick's disease is clinical syndrome
caused by degeneration of the frontal lobe(lobes of the brain lying
immediately behind the forehead) of the brain can lead to symptoms of
depression and executive dysfunction triggering the loss of autonomy, the
risk of fall and of malnutrition in elderly patients(100). Early diagnosis
of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is often difficult because of the nonspecific presentation, a delayed-gross estimation of injury or dysfunction of
the frontal lobe(99).
C.5. Progressive supranuclear palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy is a condition of a movement disorder
occurred as a result of damage to certain nerve cells with relatively specific
patterns of atrophy, involving the brainstem, the latter frontoparietal regions,
pontine tegmentum and the left frontal eye field(102) in the brain lead to
serious and progressive problems with control of gait and balance, including
an inability to aim the eyes properly(101).

C.6. Korsakoff's syndrome


Korsakoff's syndrome, named after Sergei Korsakoff, a Russian
neuropsychiatris is a neurological disorder caused by deficiency of Vitamin
B1 (thiamine) in the brain and associated closely to chronic alcohol abuse
and/or severe malnutrition, can lead to spontaneous alternation performance
impaired in PTD accompanied by a significant reduction (30%) in
phosphorylated synapsin I(103). Korsakoff's syndrome has been linked to
neurotoxic effect of chronic alcohol consumption causes of medial thalami,
mammillary bodies, and corpus callosum(104)
According to University of Campinas (Unicamp), beside the main cause of
thiamine deficiency and viral infection or toxins in the blood, other adjunct
factors, include magnesium depletion and chronic alcohol misuse, in the
development of Korsakoff's syndrome(105)
C.7. Binswanger's disease
Binswanger disease also known as subcortical vascular dementia is a type
of small vessel vascular dementia caused by microscopic areas of damage to
the deep layers of white matter in the brain, including mostly of glial cells
and myelinated axons in transmitting signals from one region of the
cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.
Binswanger's disease frequency increase with age, independent of other
risk factors, and are associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs)
deficits in selected cognitive functions.(106), a progressive dementia,
depression and "subcortical" dysfunction such as gait abnormalities, rigidity
and neurogenic bladder(107). Control of hypertension may help prevent
further progression of white matter disease(107).
C.8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition of the
progressive failure of the immune system caused by HIV, a lentivirus,
originated HIV invasion of CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB),
through progression of chronic inflammation induced dysfunction in
neurons and astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in the brain)(108). The
presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (in systemic inflammation) may also
increase the risk of development of neurological dysfunction(109).
C.9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a form of incurable, fatal, degenerative
neurological disorder caused rapid decrease of mental function and

movement due to the infectious replicate protein, including symptoms of


Mild Cognitive Impairment resembled the final stages of Alzheimer's
disease, inexplicable visual disturbances(110).
C.10. Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is a condition of a degenerative disorder of the central
nervous system causes of shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking,
movement, etc. with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages
of the disease. According to study, in a survey of all stages of disease and
18.38 % demented from patients, caregiver and both, spychotic symptoms,
mood/Apathy, and impulse control disorders are accounted for 66.63 % of
the variance(111).
C.11. Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease is a condition of a neurodegenerative genetic disorder
affected the muscle coordination causes of cognitive decline and psychiatric
problems(17). Impairments of patients with Huntington's disease include
speed of processing, initiation, and attention measuresin linear
regression(112).
C.12. Motor Neurone disease (MND)
Motor neuron disease is a group of neurological disorders affected the
motor neurones, located in the central nervous system (CNS), caused of
cognitive and behavioural changes(113)
C.13. Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition of an inflammatory disease due to the
damage of the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal
cord, responded to vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory(114).
C.14. Obesity
Midlife and late-life obesity may increase the risk of dementia. In 480
persons with incident dementia, risk of dementia was associated to patients
with for obese (BMI >30) and uderweight persons (BMI <20) but not
overweight (BMI >25-30)(115).
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References
(88) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466009
(89) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435380
(90) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24627643
(91) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223607
(92) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778438
(93) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19673608
(94) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902701
(95) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782001
(96) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewy_body
(97) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812926
(98) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513818
(99) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16227556
(100) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19748373
(101) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519566
(102) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16401739
(103) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507301
(104) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496200
(105) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20646296
(106) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7604429
(107) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9861880
(108) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16540457
(109) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8498837
(110) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179914
(111) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527230
(112) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntington%27s_disease
(113) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20629124
(114) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031302
(115) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273752