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ACMA Fraunhofer Technology Day

Resource Efficiency in Car Manufacturing

Resource Efficient Manufacturing of Powertrain


Components
R. Neugebauer, F. Treppe, S. Schiller
IWU Fraunhofer Chemnitz, Germany

New Delhi, September 8, 2011


Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer

Agenda Resource Efficiency in Car Manufacturing


Part 1: Resource Efficiency in Car Manufacturing

(Sven Schiller)

 Lightweight Car Powertrain


 From Component to Innovation
 Resource Efficient Manufacturing by optimized Component Design
 Lightweight Conrod
 Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Innovative Technologies
 Gear Rolling of Single Gears and Gear Shafts
 Spin Extrusion of Hollow Parts and Inner Profiles
 Extrusion of Gear Shaft Preforms
Archivierungsangaben

 Summary
Part 2: Resource Efficiency in Car Manufacturing

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
2

(Frank Treppe)

Applied Research driven by Industry and Product Specifications


Light Weight Car Powertrain

 low-energy engine
- conrod (weight -20 %)
- camshaft (weight -20 %)
 lightweight gearing (gear rolling)
- process time:
- 30 %
- material use:
- 30 %

Conrod

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 PrecisionPrecisionforging

Camshaft
 Hydroforming
 Grinding

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Gear shafts
 Cross wedge rolling
 Spin extrusion
 Axial forming

Gears
 Cross rolling

Propeller shafts
 Spin extrusion
 Flow forming

From Component to Innovation


Objectives:

Approaches:

 minimization of material effort


 minimization of production costs
 minimization of cycle time
 increase of component characteristics

 optimization of current component design


 optimizations of current process chains
 using innovative technologies
 using new materials for light weight prod.

technical drawing

calculation / dimension of
innovative process chain

work piece redesign

component requirements
process chain analysis

5
Archivierungsangaben

CAE of all tools


and addendum
for each process

fabrication of a
prototype series
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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FE simulations /
virtual process
optimization,
tooling

quality measurements / work


piece studies / fatigue tests

implementation into
serial production

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by optimized Component Design


Precision Forged Conrod Innovative Component Design
1. Basic component:

2. Component
development:

Solid
Conrod

weight: 408 g

Lightweight Camshaft
 Analysis of current process and component requirements
 new component design (reduction of final weight)
 new process design

3. Final component: Precision


forged
conrod

weight: 325 g (-20 %)


savings: 0,83 kg mass

Objectives for new Camshaft Concepts:


- weight reduction
- material saving
- shortened process chain

Archivierungsangaben





Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
5

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by optimized Component Design


Precision Forged Conrod Process chain
insufficient
kritisch
grenzwertig
critical
sicher
reliable

Component design and


simulation

blank

Forge rolling or
Cross wedge
rolling

Flattening

Preforging

Finish forging
punching,
deburring,
hot calibrating

Process Chain
cutting of a billet
from the bar

inductive
heating

Preforming
Cross Wedge
Rolling

Archivierungsangaben

(core competency IWU)

Forging Process
- flattening
- base forming
- final forming
(core competency IWU)

quality
control

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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thermal
treatment

controlled
cooling

Cutting
(punching deburring calibration)
within one complex tool system

Sizing tool
combining clipping
and piercing

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by optimized Component Design


Precision Forged Conrod Results

Archivierungsangaben

Component with high endurance strengths at minimum weight


Compliance with industrial standards for the respective motor (59 kW)
No loss of Product Performance
Successful engine tests with new conrods
Successful tests in car
Mass reduction of approx. 83 g per conrod
Reduction of billet mass and decrease of forging part cost by 0,18
Less accelerated mass in the car - secondary effect on crank shaft design
Reduction of moment of inertia of crank drive
Reduction of fuel usage and CO2 emission

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by optimized Component Design


Mass Distribution by Cross Wedge Rolling Technology

FEM-Simulation

Archivierungsangaben

Calculation

Steps to form a control arm


Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Tool Design

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by use of Innovative Technologies


Formed hollow shaft Innovative Component Design and Process chain
1. Basic component:

2. Component
development:

Solid
Gear shaft

weight: 2950 g

Lightweight Gearshaft
 Analysis of current process and component requirements
 new component design (hollow shaft)
 new process design using innovative technologies

3. Final component: Hollow


Gear shaft

weight: 1450 g (-51 %)


savings: 1500 kg mass

Archivierungsangaben

Objectives for new Camshaft Concepts:


- significant weight reduction
- material saving
- shortened process chain
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by use of Innovative Technologies


Formed hollow shaft Innovative Component Design and Process chain
Gear Shaft - Conventional Process Chain
Gear Shaft - Innovative Process Chain

Raw part
Minimized raw part (+ induction heating)

Cutting and Deep Drilling


Gear Hobbing and Deburring
Extrusion or Spin Extrusion Gear Rolling and Deburring

Swaging

Archivierungsangaben

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Case Hardening

Shot Peening of the Gear

Grinding

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by use of Innovative Technologies


Formed hollow shaft Innovative Component Design and Process chain
Single Gear - Conventional Process Chain
Extrusion/Forging Gear Hobbing

Raw Part

Finishing

Shot Peening

Heat Treatment

Single Gear - Innovative Process Chain


Extrusion/Forging Gear Rolling

Raw Part

Archivierungsangaben

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Finishing

Heat Treatment

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by use of Innovative Technologies


Forming of hollow shafts Innovative Technologies
Spin Extrusion or Extrusion

Extrusion

Spin extrusion
hydraulische

Linearachsen Linear
Hydraul.
Axis

Rotationsachsen

Archivierungsangaben

Rotation Axis

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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elektromechanische
Linearachsen

Elektromechani
-cal Linear Axis

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Forming of hollow shafts Innovative Technologies
Reference Components: Different Inside
Contours with Constant Area Section

 Efficient material utilisation by the forming process


 Short process cycles (up to 50% of deep drilling, depending on the shaft geometry)
 Forming possibility of length-diameter ratios of L : d < 15
Archivierungsangaben

 Feasibility of forming high strength steels, e.g. titanium alloys


 Feasibility of forming inner profiles
 Low forming forces because of incremental forming
 Small machine dimensions
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Forming of hollow shafts Innovative Technology Gear Rolling
Gear Rolling

Archivierungsangaben

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Forming Process
 Component clamping
 Initial rolling
 Penetration with changes
of direction
 Calibrating

Archivierungsangaben

 Component output

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Simulation
 Tool calculation
 Material flow

Archivierungsangaben

 Process parameters

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Advantages concerning Machine
 Short process cycles (up to 50% of gear hobbing, depending on the gear geometry)
 Material saving by forming process
(no chips, initial work piece diameter for rolling < initial work piece diameter for hobbing)
 Low forming forces because of incremental forming (small contact area between gear and tools)
 Rolling of narrow located gears on shafts (no joining of gears on the shaft necessary)

Archivierungsangaben

 Gearbox minimization

Narrow located gears on shafts

Minimization of Transmission Size


Quelle: Esea gmbh

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Advantages concerning Component
 Strain hardened surface layer (for low loaded components, elimination of hardening)
 Contour related and not cutted material fibre
 Excellent contour stability after case hardening
 Increased tooth root strengths and flank load capacity compared to cutted gears

Archivierungsangaben

 Excellent surface roughness after rolling (Ra= 0,3- 0,5m; Rz= 1,9- 3m)

Case hardening steel


Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Single Gears
 Parameters of shown work pieces
 Module:
 Pressure angle:
 Tooth height:
 Helix angle:
 Tooth height coefficient:
 Quality (DIN3962):

Archivierungsangaben

 Materials:

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
19

24
[mm]
16 24
[]
5 11
[mm]
12 34
[]
up to 2.7
8 11 (pregearing)
6/7
(finished)
case hardening steel,
heat treated steels

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Gear Rolling Shafts

Hollow drive shaft

Archivierungsangaben

Reverse gear shaft

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
20

Hollow drive shaft

Reverse gear shaft

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Forming of Special Profiles
 Worms
 Pinions
 Threads
 Drill bits

Archivierungsangaben

 Rotor profiles

Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
21

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by Process Chain Optimization


Summary
Core Competences in Bulk Metal Forming
 Cold rolling of gears and special profiles
 Hot forming of shafts by spin extrusion/extrusion
 Precision forging
 Material and Component Testing
 Component and Process Design, Simulation
Equipment
 Two rolling machines (cross rolling with 2/3 tools)
 Different Hydraulic Presses
 Lab for metallographic investigations
 FZG-torque change device (load capacity test gears)
 Pulsator test bench for gear/shaft tooth root strength analyses
 ZEISS gear measurement machine (acc. DIN 3960 / 3962)
Archivierungsangaben

 Simulation software: Forge 2009, Simufact


 4 engineers, 3 student assistants, 1 technician
Project cooperation (Industry, public research)
 Research from development studies (component and process optimization) to the serial production
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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Archivierungsangaben

Thank you very much for your attention.

Contact:
Frank Treppe:
Sven Schiller:
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
23

frank.treppe@iwu.fraunhofer.de
sven.schiller@iwu.fraunhofer.de

Resource Efficient Manufacturing by use of Innovative Technologies

Swaging and Axial Forming


pressure
rolls
work
piece

Archivierungsangaben

tool
segment

outer ring
Fraunhofer IWU
Prof. Neugebauer
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www.hmp.de

pressure
surges

compensation
plate
roll
cage