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TAB 10 - UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE

PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
GLOSSARY OF COMMON TERMS .................................................................................................... 1
PRE-OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ................................................................................................. 2
Cleanup........................................................................................................................................... 2
Chemical Cleaning ......................................................................................................................... 2
Steam Line Blowing ....................................................................................................................... 2
Setting Safety Valves ..................................................................................................................... 2
COLD START-UP ................................................................................................................................ 2
Cold Start Conditions .................................................................................................................... 2
Preparations for Lighting Off ........................................................................................................ 3
Warm Water Filling of the Boiler ................................................................................................... 7
Water Recirculation via Boiler for Clean-up ................................................................................ 7
Start of the Boiler Recirculation Pump (BRP) .............................................................................. 8
Initial Firing Precautions ............................................................................................................... 8
Superheat Steam Temperature Control (Prior to Unit Synchronization) ................................... 9
Air Preheater Protection During Unit Start-Ups On Oil ............................................................... 9
Lighting Off .................................................................................................................................. 10
Rolling and Synchronizing the Turbine ...................................................................................... 16
Introducing Coal .......................................................................................................................... 17
Initial Load Increase to 40% ........................................................................................................ 19
NORMAL OPERATION - UNIT LOAD CHANGES ............................................................................ 22
Decreasing Load .......................................................................................................................... 22
Increasing Load ........................................................................................................................... 23
NORMAL SHUTDOWN TO COLD ....................................................................................................
23
Digitally signed

Signature Not
Verified
by AMIT
GUPTA

NORMAL SHUTDOWN TO HOT STANDBY .....................................................................................


27
Date: 2012.02.06
11:01:27 IST

WARM START-UP.............................................................................................................................
29
Reason: CAT
IVR
Warm Start Conditions ................................................................................................................
29
Location:
Preparations, Lighting Off, and Load Increase ..........................................................................
29
NTPCEOC
HOT START-UP ................................................................................................................................ 29
Hot Start Conditions .................................................................................................................... 29
Preparations, Lighting Off, and Load Increase .......................................................................... 30
Turbine Rolling and Synchronization ......................................................................................... 31
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 32
Reheater Protection ..................................................................................................................... 32
TURBINE VALVE CLOSURE (GRID DISCONNECT) ................................................................ 32
TURBINE TRIP .......................................................................................................................... 33
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POST-TRIP PROCEDURES ......................................................................................................33
TURBINE PROTECTION UPON LOSS OF LOAD .....................................................................34
Master Fuel Trip ...........................................................................................................................34
Low Waterwall Flow .....................................................................................................................38
High Waterwall Tube Temperature .............................................................................................38
Evaporator Inlet Sub-Cooling ......................................................................................................39
Loss of All Feedwater Pumps .....................................................................................................39
Low Airflow ...................................................................................................................................39
Furnace Pressure High/Low ........................................................................................................39
Separator Storage Tank Level High ............................................................................................40
Airheater Gas Outlet Temperature High .....................................................................................40
Both FD Fans Off or Both ID Fans Off ........................................................................................40
Both Secondary Airheaters Off ...................................................................................................40
Load Run-Backs ...........................................................................................................................40
Tube Failures ................................................................................................................................41
WATERWALL TUBES................................................................................................................41
ECONOMIZER TUBES ..............................................................................................................41
SUPERHEATER AND REHEATER TUBES ...............................................................................42
OPERATION WITHOUT BRP ............................................................................................................42
General Remarks ..........................................................................................................................42
Cold Start Without BRP ...............................................................................................................42
Shutdown Without BRP ...............................................................................................................43
Warm Start without BRP ..............................................................................................................43
Hot Start Without BRP .................................................................................................................43
APPENDIX A - FEEDWATER SPECIFICATIONS FOR ONCE THRU BOILERS .............................. 45

LIST OF FIGURES
TITLE
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:

PAGE NO.
Typical Air Flow Curve ....................................................................................................45
Mill Operating Diagram ...................................................................................................46
Startup Curves (Cold, Warm, & Hot Startups)...............................................................47
Boiler Cleanup Diagram..................................................................................................49
Recommended Startup, Shutdown, and Loading Guidelines ...................................... 50

LIST OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS


(In Order After Text In This Section)
TITLE

DRAWING NO.

Valve Operating Diagram Schematic (w/Operating Legends) - Sheet 1 ................... 00108-1E0413


Valve Operating Diagram Schematic (w/Operating Legends) - Sheet 2 ................... 00108-1E0414

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LIST OF REFERENCES
TITLE
Airflow Control and Distribution ....................................................... Part 6
Boiler Circulating Pump Operating Procedures .............................. Part 2
Recommended Burner Management System .................................. Part 7
Pressure Part Connection and Expansion Movement Diagrams ... Part 2
Process & Instrumentation Diagrams .............................................. Part 2
Pulverized Coal System ..................................................................... Part 6
Pulverizer Operating Procedures ..................................................... Part 6
Soot Blowing Philosophy .................................................................. Part 5
Steam Line Blowing ........................................................................... Part 2
Tilting Tangential Firing System ....................................................... Part 6
Water Treatment................................................................................. Part 2
SSC and Pulverizer Rejects System

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LOCATION
Section 4
Section 3
Section 1
Section 5
Section 7
Section 1
Section 2
Section 4
Section 3
Section 4
Section 3

Tab 9
Tab 1

Tab 2
Tab 8
Tab 3

III

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION
These procedures are intended to serve as a guide during the initial
stages of operation. They include precautions, which must be observed,
and the proper operating sequences of the steam generator, fuel firing
equipment and auxiliary equipment. Refer to the General Arrangement
Drawings. The sequential procedures do not include all detailed reference to equipment such as the feed pumps, condensate pumps, or the
turbine.
Because the steam generator is only one part of a complex power station and all equipment must operate in unison, all specific procedures
and detailed values cannot be included in this manual. As operating experience is gained and the controls are fine-tuned, the characteristics
and operating requirements of the unit will become apparent.
Refer to the manufacturers instructions in the Maintenance and Vendor
Manual for further operating details for specific equipment, including
pre-operational and operational procedures.
References to other sections included in these operating procedures
are listed in the Table of Contents.
GLOSSARY OF COMMON
TERMS
BRP

Boiler Recirculating Pump

SST

Separator Storage Tank

MEFCV

Minimum Economizer Flow Control Valve

HWL-1

High Water Limit Valve (Primary)

HWL-2

High Water Limit Valve (Secondary)

WKFCV

Warm-keeping Flow Control Valve

HP

High Pressure

LP

Low Pressure

SH

Superheat

RH

Reheat

BFPM

Boiler Feedwater Pump Motor Driven

BMCR

Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating

SOFA

Separated Overfire Air

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CCOFA

Close-Coupled Overfire Air

SSC

Submerged Scraper Conveyor

BMS

Burner Management System

PRE-OPERATIONAL
PROCEDURES
Cleanup
The furnace should be inspected and cleaned both internally and externally before initial firing and prior to each subsequent cold start-up after
maintenance. Remove all foreign material from the pressure parts.
Clear any grating, pipe lines and electric conduit which may restrict
normal expansion of the steam generator. All personnel should be clear,
and the access doors closed. A complete check list should be prepared
by operating personnel.
Chemical Cleaning
Specific pre-operational chemical cleaning procedures are included
elsewhere in this manual. The fuel firing and boiler circulating pump operating procedures, outlined under COLD START_UP, Lighting Off,
should be used as a guide when operating the fuel firing equipment.
Steam Line Blowing
Prior to starting up a new steam generator, or following a major pressure part repair, the main steam and reheat steam lines should be
blown out to remove scale and other foreign matter. Steam line blowing,
which prevents damage to the turbine, should be done prior to chemical
cleaning. Refer to Steam Line Blowing Procedures for recommended
operating procedures and precautions.
Setting Safety Valves
The safety valves may be set following Unit load increase to near full
load for the first time. Refer to the safety valve manufacturer's instructions for setting procedures. Popping pressures and blowdowns should
be adjusted to conform with design values.
COLD START-UP
Cold Start Conditions
1.

Boiler separator metal temperature < 212F (100C)


and

2.

Boiler pressure = 0 psig (0 kg/cm2)

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Preparations for Lighting
Off
Before lighting off the steam generator, verify that the following steps
have been completed:
CAUTION: The differential temperature between the
feedwater and boiler metal must never exceed 200F
(111C) (check the separator during initial filling or separator and superheater outlet header during filling for hydrostatic test).
If the metal temperature is less than 100F (38C) and
the feedwater temperature is higher, a minimum fill rate
should be used.
1.

The unit has been chemically cleaned, and the steam lines have
been blown and safety valves have been set (before initial turbine
operation).

2.

All control systems have been checked and are available for service.
All safety interlock systems should be checked prior to start-up to
ensure proper functioning. Exercise the systems by creating the
actual interlock actuating conditions. Simulate the activating condition if the actual condition cannot be created.

3.

All instrumentation and associated mechanical equipment has


been checked out and is available for service.

4.

The auxiliary fuel firing equipment has been checked out to ensure it is properly functioning. Recheck the following items to
make sure that:
a.

Auxiliary fuel available at require pressure.

b.

All quick disconnect couplings properly assembled.

c.

All manual valves are open.

d.

All control valves are closed.

5.

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The pulverizers and feeders have been checked out and are
available for service. Recheck the following items to ensure that:
a.

All pulverizer discharge gates are open.

b.

All hot air gates are closed and all hot air control dampers are
closed.

c.

All cold air gates are closed and the cold air control dampers
are open no more than 5%. If the PA fans have been off for
more than 5 minutes, the Cold Air Dampers are driven to a
100% airflow position.

d.

All bunker outlet valves are open and coal is available to the
feeders.

e.

All pulverizer and feeder seal air valves are open.


3

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


f.

The pulverizer lube oil systems are available for service.

6.

The windboxes have been checked for proper damper positioning


and the tilts are set at horizontal.

7.

The feedwater system and at least one feedwater pump, including the instrumentation and equipment, has been checked out
and is available for operation. During a start-up, the feedwater
flow should be controlled in automatic mode for best results.

8.

The deaerator auxiliary steam supply is operational and deaerated feedwater at 220F (104C) is available. To avoid oxygen
corrosion in the boiler, the use of deaerated feedwater with a
temperature of greater than 215F (102C) is recommended. Refer to Water Treatment instructions.

9.

The boiler recirculating pump (BRP) has been checked out, the
suction and discharge isolation valves are open, and all pump instrumentation is available for service. The pump differential pressure monitoring must be in service. Ensure that the proper trip
settings have been made.

Water treatment
instructions may please
be furnished.

10. The steam generator start-up system valves are ready for operation (MEFCV, HWL-1, HWL-2, WKFCV), with isolation valves
open. The SST level control using HWL-1 and HWL-2 valves has
been checked and is available for service.
11. The Startup system drain transfer system is ready for operation.
This system includes the flash tank, condensate receiving tank,
and drain transfer pumps.
12. Auxiliary steam is available from another operating boiler or
common system for supplying the deaerator, and feedwater tank.
13. Cooling water system is in operation.
CAUTION: The ID fans may be capable of developing
drafts that exceed furnace design pressure. Before starting an ID fan and before adjusting the ID flow control
device, an airflow path through the unit must be established and maintained by placing other dampers in the
system in the start-up positions indicated below.
The ID fan flow control device must be kept closed or at
the minimum open position until after the fan is started.
This minimizes the possibility of developing excessive
negative pressure in the unit during the starting procedure.
Furnace draft must be maintained within safe limits at all
times. Extreme care should be taken when draft and airflow controls are in the manual mode. Be alert for possible malfunctions of automatic control equipment resulting in abnormal excursions, negative or positive, in furnace pressure.

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NOTE: It is assumed that the unit will be started with two


ID fans, two FD fans, two PA fans, and two SA air heaters, and two PA air heaters in service. If the unit is
started with only one ID and FD fan, one PA fan in service, the following damper positions apply to the equipment to be started. Dampers associated with the idle
equipment should be closed. Refer to the fan manufacturer's instructions for operating details.

14. All air and gas handling equipment has been checked out and is
available for service. Air and gas duct dampers should be in the
start-up position as follows:
a.

For the first draft group to be started (ID and FD fans), the fan
outlet shutoff dampers are closed and the flow control device is
at minimum.

b.

For the second draft group (opposite ID and FD fans), the outlet shutoff dampers are open to provide a flow path through the
unit.

c.

The PA fan outlet shutoff dampers and flow control device are
closed or at the minimum position.

d.

The steam coil airheater inlet and outlet dampers are open and
the bypass dampers are closed. Alternately, if steam airpreheating is not desired, then the steam coil airheater inlet
and outlet dampers are closed and the bypass dampers are
open. Steam coil airheater usage should be based on maintaining average cold end temperature of the airheaters above
the recommended level for oil firing and coal firing. Refer to the
airheater operating manual for recommended setpoints.

e.

The air heater gas inlet isolation gates, gas outlet proportioning
dampers, and gas outlet isolation dampers are open for the
secondary APH, and closed for primary APH.

f.

The airheater air outlet isolation dampers are open

g.

The ESP isolation gates are open.

h.

The overfire air dampers (CCOFA and SOFA) are closed.

i.

The windbox auxiliary (secondary) air dampers are open or


modulating.

j.

One pulverizer seal air fan inlet shutoff damper is open with the
associated fan ready.

k.

The scanner/ignitor air fans are ready for operation.

15. The air heaters have been prepared for service and an adequate
means of extinguishing an air heater fire is available and ready
for use. Refer to the air heater instructions for details.
16. The soot blowing equipment has been checked for proper operation and the system is in the start-up mode with all blowers re-

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


tracted and the main supply valve closed. Refer to the soot blower instructions.
17. All desuperheater spray water control and block valves are
closed.
CAUTION: Prevent possible water damage to the turbine by taking extreme care to eliminate all water from
the main steam line(s), cold and hot reheat lines, and
the superheater and reheater elements and headers before the turbine is rolled. Refer to the turbine manufacturer's instructions and the Valve Operating Diagram for
proper drain valve settings.
18. Position superheater, and reheater and economizer drain valves,
and vent valves in startup position. Refer to the Valve Operating
table figure 6.
19. The auxiliary steam extraction line from superheater is isolated.
20. The warming-keeping system for the boiler start-up system is isolated (supply is from economizer outlet links and discharge is to
SH desuperheater).
21. The acoustic pyrometer or other measuring device for measuring
furnace outlet temperature is in working order and available for
service.
22. The HP and LP bypass stations are available for service, and hydraulic stations are in operation. The water supply for desuperheating has been established.
23. The condenser is available for service, with circulation water flow,
and vacuum has been established to accept water flow from the
drain transfer pumps and LP bypass (condenser has a pressure
interlock for LP bypass and drain transfer pump operation).
24. The turbine stop valves and combined reheat intercept valves are
closed. Drain valves on the main steam, cold reheat, and hot reheat lines are open.
25. The condensate polishing plant is available for operation.
26. The turbine generator has been prepared and is available for service as described in the turbine manufacturer's instructions.
27. The SSC/bottom ash hopper is filled with water to operating level
and the seal trough is full to operating level to provide a furnace
seal.
28. The pulverizer reject hoppers are ready for service (discharge
valves open, loop seal full, and inlet valves open), and sluice water system is ready for service.

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Warm Water Filling of the
Boiler
The entire economizer, furnace wall, and separator system must be
filled with warm deaerated water (220 F (104C)) and be free of air.
The following procedure shall be carried out to ensure the water system
is free of air:
1.

The economizer outlet vent valve and waterwall outlet vent valve
is open.

2.

BFPM is started at minimum setting and flow according to feed


pump operating procedures.

3.

The drain transfer pumps between receiving tank and condenser


are switched to automatic control in start-up position.

4.

If the water system of the boiler is empty (economizer, furnace


walls, separators), then the system is to be filled with approximately 10% BMCR feedwater flow. Feedwater flow is preferably
controlled using automatic feedwater control with a set point of
10% BMCR.

5.

Close the economizer outlet and waterwall outlet vent valve as


soon as a clear stream of water is discharged.

6.

When the level in the SST reaches the high water level setpoint,
the HWL-1 valve will begin to open. Increase boiler feedwater
flow to 30% BMCR and ensure that the HWL-1 valve reaches
>30% open for more than 2 minutes. The water system is considered full when:
a.

The SST water level remains stable for 2 minutes with feedwater flow at 30% BMCR
and
The HWL-1 valve has been actively limiting SST level during
the above 2 minutes.

7.

After filling the water system, the feedwater flow to the boiler can
be reduced to 0% (local recirculation).During boiler filling, the water level in the deaerator must be maintained and water temperature at 220 F (104C).

1.

When the feedwater quality at the outlet of the HP feedwater heaters and the separator is not within the required limits (based on
sample analysis), a feedwater clean-up recirculation via the boiler
is necessary.

2.

Establish flow through the economizer, evaporator, and separator, and discharge from the boiler through HWL-1 to the flash

Water Recirculation via


Boiler for Clean-up

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


tank and condensate drain pump back to the condenser (reference figure 4 phase II).
3.

Water flow circulation is continued through the entire pre-boiler


system, including the condensate polisher, to remove impurities.

4.

During this time, constant boiler feedwater flow of 10% BMCR or


more is maintained.

5.

The recirculation is continued until the water quality is within the


specified limits, based on samples taken at the HP feedwater
heater discharge and SST discharge.

1.

It is assumed that the following preparatory work has been completed:

Start of the Boiler


Recirculation Pump
(BRP)

a.

Feedwater quality within specified limits.

b.

Boiler Feedwater flow setpoint at 10% BMCR.

c.

Water SST level stable with HWL-1 at stable opening.

d.

Cooling water flow to the hp cooler of the BRP adequate.

e.

Suction valves and discharge valves are open.

2.

Set the MEFCV valve at minimum (pump start) position, select


MEFCV to auto, and start BRP per pump operating instructions.

3.

As soon as the BRP is running, SST level will decrease as the


upper circuits are filled. Maintain 10% BMCR boiler feedwater
flow until SST level shows sustained increase. Monitor the
MEFCV auto-action to establish economizer inlet flow at the nominal flow sestpoint (40% BMCR). As SST level attains normal
operational setpoint, reduce feedwater flow to the boiler to zero
and select to auto.

4.

With the BRP in operation, flow through the economizer and waterwall tubes increases substantially. It is recommended that the
water quality at the separator be re-checked. If necessary, continue to circulate water via the clean-up loop, including the polishing plant, until control limits are met at the separator outlet prior to
initial firing (reference figure 4 phase III).

Initial Firing Precautions


To ensure a maximum safety margin during start-ups, at least 30% of
the full load airflow must be maintained to produce the following conditions:

1.

An air-rich furnace atmosphere. This prevents the accumulation


of an explosive mixture due to poor or delayed ignition after fuel is
introduced to the furnace.

2.

High excess air through the air heaters. This minimizes the dilution of combustion air by inert gases carried over by the air heater
rotors.
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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

Superheat Steam
Temperature Control
(Prior to Unit
Synchronization)
The boiler will normally be started-up de-coupled from the turbine using
the HP and LP bypass systems, which provide a steam flow path
through the superheater, to the reheater, and to the condenser. This
provides additional flexibility for adjusting steam temperatures to match
turbine requirements at start-up. The primary methods for controlling
steam temperature will be firing rate and airflow adjustment.
Air Preheater Protection
During Unit Start-Ups On
Oil
It is ALSTOMs strong recommendation to have the airheater soot blowing system continuously in service when firing oil to start up a boiler.
This measure is intended to help avoid airheater fires due to accumulation of oil vapor on heating surfaces or ash particles in the airheater
baskets. A retractable soot blower is normally installed at the cold end
of the airheater on the gas side, arranged close to the changeover of air
to gas side when looking in direction of rotation, opposite the hot spot
detection device. This soot blower is primarily designed to reduce
and/or control ash build-up in the airheater surface. It is not a cleaning
device such as the stationary wash down nozzles.
Steam is the preferred soot blowing media. However, on some units
auxiliary steam sources are not available when starting a unit, and normal sootblowing steam requirements are not reached until a later stage
in the start-up process. In those cases, compressed air is an acceptable alternate blowing media, though less effective than steam. If neither
steam nor compressed air is available, then extra attention must be given to any possible fuel oil carryover which could deposit in the airheater.
A device to identify such carryover would be a water-cooled lance, temporarily located in the gas path leading from the economizer outlet to
the airheater gas inlet (102 mm / 4 oxygen test ports could be used).
This lance, maintained at 93oC (200oF) or below, will cause any oil vapor in the flue gas to condense on it. If the lance is periodically withdrawn by a plant observer, it will indicate if corrective action to the oil firing system has to be taken.
For those units where neither auxiliary steam nor compressed air is
available for cold starts on oil, the hot spot detection system must be in
service. This system will identify any possible start of a fire in the airheater. Also, the top oil elevations should not be utilized since they are
more prone to cause oil carryover. Special attention must be given to
the readings of gas and air temperatures leaving the airheater. An unusual increase in any of these temperatures must be investigated immediately. Any indication of an airheater fire must be reacted to immediately because once a fire is well under way it cant be stopped before
the airheater is severely damaged.

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For unit loads below 10% BMCR steam flow, excessive combustion air
(more than the required 30% minimum air flow) or unnecessary high
furnace draft (more negative than -.062 kPa / -0.25 w.g.) should be
avoided. Burner tilts should not go above the horizontal position.
Changes in the firing pattern should be closely observed in respect to
possible carryover. Also, any steam that is available - including saturated steam - can and should be used for airheater soot blowing as
long as sufficient steam pressure is available (at least 9 bar / 130 psig).
When this minimum steam pressure has been reached, continuous cold
end blowing should be initiated and continued until 10% BMCR steam
flow is reached. After that airheater soot blowing can be reduced to intermittent operation, once every four to eight hours or as required, depending on the fuel being fired.
Once the unit is above 10% BMCR steam flow, normal soot blowing can
be followed using the units own auxiliary steam source as temperature
and pressure is built up.
WARNING: The greatest danger of developing an airheater fire is in the initial stages of boiler operation, i.e.
chemical cleaning and steam blowing. Experience has
shown that during these stages more than the normal
precautions need to be taken. Continuous plant observations must be undertaken so the risk of a airheater fire
can be kept to its very minimum. Airheater surfaces
should be waterwashed between these initial start-ups if
auxiliary steam was not available or used to clean the
airheater prior to shutdown.
Once the unit has seasoned on coal, fly ash will have
been deposited in various areas of the boiler (especially
in the assemblies of the back pass). These ash deposits will absorb some of the vapor before it reaches the
airheater surfaces so the risk of airheater fires will be
somewhat diminished. It goes without saying that prolonged low-load operation firing oil without blowing the
airheaters should always be avoided.

Lighting Off
1.

10

Start the secondary and primary air heaters. Refer to the air heater instructions for operating details.

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CAUTION: The ID fans may be capable of developing


drafts that exceed the furnace design pressure. Therefore, an airflow path through the unit must be established and maintained before starting an ID fan and before opening the ID fan flow control device by ensuring
that other dampers in the system are in the start-up positions indicated in Preparations for Lighting Off, page 3.
The ID fan flow control device must be kept closed or at
the minimum open position until after the fan is started.
This minimizes the possibility of developing excessive
negative pressure in the unit during the starting procedure.
Furnace draft must be maintained within safe limits at all
times. Extreme care should be taken when draft and airflow controls are in the manual mode. Be alert for possible malfunctions of automatic control equipment resulting in abnormal excursions, negative or positive, in furnace pressure.
2.

Start the first draft group: Start one ID fan, then the corresponding FD fan. Open the outlet shut-off dampers. Adjust the ID fan
for proper furnace draft, and set furnace pressure control to automatic. Adjust unit airflow to minimum 30%, and set unit airflow
control to automatic.

3.

Start the second draft group: After closing the outlet shut-off
dampers, start the other ID fan, then the corresponding FD fan.
Open the shut-off dampers and adjust the flow control device to
balance the draft groups, and place the second group into automatic.

4.

Start the selected scanner/ignitor air fan.

5.

Adjust the fans to permit a purge airflow of at least 30% of total


airflow and a furnace draft of approximately -0.5 in. (-12.7 mm)
w.g. and adjust the windbox dampers to control windbox-tofurnace dP to 1.5 in.wg. (30.1 mm.wg). Refer to Initial Firing Precautions.
When lighting off an elevation on manual control, the auxiliary air
dampers should be opened 20% to 40% prior to lighting off. They
should be kept at this position until the fuel-air dampers are open.
The fuel-air dampers should be closed when lighting off an elevation. Once ignition of the main fuel is established, the fuel-air dampers should be opened in proportion to the fuel elevation firing rate.
When the fuel-air dampers are fully open, further damper adjustments should be made, if necessary, with the auxiliary air dampers
only. When changing the damper positioning, an entire elevation
should be treated simultaneously, that is, damper positioning at the
same elevation should always be identical in all windboxes.
When the steam generator reaches a firing rate at which additional
air is required to maintain the design operating excess air, increase
the airflow by increasing the FD fan flow. Refer to the Percent

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Excess Air Versus Load curve, and to Airflow Control and Distribution in the Tilting Tangential Firing System section.
6.

When the fans are started, the secondary air damper control
should modulate the auxiliary air dampers to maintain a programmed set point differential pressure between the windbox and
furnace.

7.

Check that all other purge permissives are satisfied.

8.

Place the thermoprobe into service to measure furnace exit gas


temperature.

9.

Initiate a furnace purge (timer in BMS).

10. Upon completion of the purge cycle, check that all firing prerequisites are satisfied, including the following control settings:
a.

Boiler feedwater control setpoint is maintained at 5% to 10%


BMCR with HWL-1 active and limiting SST level to continuously purge the solids that may concentrate in the separator storage tank during startup and thereby continuously cleans the
fluid in the furnace walls. If water quality is confirmed, this setpoint can be reduced to zero to reduce water losses.

b.

Start-up system (BRP and MEFCV valve) is on automatic


maintaining minimum economizer inlet flow setpoint.
CAUTION: It is extremely important that minimum economizer inlet (ie. Waterwall) flow be maintained at all
times when firing the boiler to prevent tube damage due
to overheating. If waterwall flow falls below the low setpoint, all fuel must be automatically tripped with a maximum time delay of 10 seconds. Waterwall flow is measured by flow element located at the economizer inlet.

c.

SST level control is in automatic (FW flow is controlling SST


level at normal setpoint), and the HWL-1, and HWL-2 valves
are all in automatic.

d.

Furnace pressure control is in automatic.

e.

Unit air flow is in automatic maintaining minimum unit air flow


of 30%.

f.

Place the HP bypass valve in operation per the manufacturers


instructions. Typical procedure is:
(1) Set to valve position control and desired preset position of app. 15% open.
(2) The minimum pressure (approximately 170 psig (12
kg/cm2)) is automatically controlled.
(3) Pressure and temperature controls are on automatic.

g.

12

Place the LP bypass valve in operation per manufacturers instructions. Typical procedure is:

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


(1) Open LP bypass stop valve after establishing sufficient condenser vacuum and water supply for desuperheating.
(2) Adjust to pre-set minimum position, and adjust pressure setpoint of LP bypass valve to minimum (app. 30
psig).
(3) Place control on automatic.
h.

Open SH backpass drain valves, and RH outlet vent valves.

11. Start one seal air fan.


12. When the seal air to pulverizer underbowl pressure dfferential is
adequate (>8 in.wg (203 mm.wg)), open the cold air gates to provide a purge air flow path through the pulverizers and confirm that
the cold air dampers are less than 5% open.
If the pulverizers are out of service, the pulverizer discharge gates
must be fully open. The cold air inlet control dampers must be set
to the minimum position. The pulverizer discharge gates are only
closed during pulverizer maintenance, or when the pulverizers are
idle and full of coal and other pulverizers are being started after a
unit trip. Refer to EMERGENCY PROCEDURES, Master Fuel Trip.
13. For cold start-ups, the fuel startup sequence should follow this table (A elevation is the bottom elevation in the windbox):
Sequence Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Elevation
AB warmup
CD warmup
B coal
C coal
D coal
E coal
F coal
G coal
H coal
J coal

Notes

If B coal not availiable, start A coal


If C coal not availiable, start A coal

14. Initiate a light-off sequence of elevation AB warm-up fuel. Refer


to the auxiliary fuel firing, and the Recommended Burner Management System instructions for details.
To minimize the possibility of adverse visible stack emission, it is
desirable to use the warm-up fuel until 500 psig (35 kg/cm2) steam
pressure is produced and 350F (177C) secondary air temperature before firing pulverized coal.
15. Set warm up fuel flow control to auto and adjust the setpoint to
5% of BMCR firing rate.
16. After a 5-minute stabilization period, progressively increase firing
rate toward 10%, as required to increase separator presBARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

13

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


sure/temperature at the desired rate (400F/hr max (222C/hr))
and without exceeding the furnace exit gas temperature limitation
(1100F (593C)).
17. To ensure stable operation of the water circulation system and to
ensure sufficient steam flow through the superheater, firing rate
should not be further increased until 100 psig (7 kg/cm2)is measured in the water separator.
18. As the pressure is raised and saturation temperature increases,
SST water level increase due to boiler water swell, and some
HWL-1 and HWL-2 action may occur to limit SST water level. As
pressure further increases, the HWL-2 and then HWL-1 valves
will start to close as the water level (swell) decreases.
19. During all start-ups, control the firing rate to keep the maximum
furnace exit gas temperature below 1100F (593C), as measured by the thermoprobe until approximately 10% steam generation or the turbine is synchronized or flow is established through
the HP/LP bypass system. Sufficient steam flow must be maintained at all times to assure clearing the superheater and reheater elements of condensate. Do not close the startup drains completely until steam flow through the HP/LP bypass is established.
Once flow is established, progressively close startup drains and
vents to transfer flow to the HP bypass.
20. The superheat backpass drain valve can be closed when separator pressure reaches 75 psig (5.3 kg/cm2) (or before as desired
after all condensate is removed).
21. Progressively increase LP bypass setpoint to 170 psig (12
kg/cm2). As the HP bypass opens, the reheater will be warmed
and pressurized as steam is passed through the LP bypass and
reheat drains. In parallel, progressively throttle the reheat drains
to transfer flow and pressure control to the LP bypass station.
22. Close the RH outlet drain valves when RH pressure reaches 75
psig (5.3 kg/cm2).
23. When steam pressure at HP bypass reaches 170 psig (12
kg/cm2), the HP bypass valve is released to pressure ramp
mode. The valves will move to nominal 30% position, then modulate to control the boiler pressure ramp-up to the required startup pressure (minimum 1200 psig (84 kg/cm2) see startup
curves). Firing rate can now be increased in accordance with the
allowable pressure/temperature ramp.
24. Initiate an elevation start command for warm up elevation CD.
25. After a 5 minute stabilization period, progressively increase firing
rate to 15% BMCR.
26. In parallel, close the SH outlet vents to transfer flow and pressure
control to the HP bypass station.
27. When boiler pressure reaches the required startup pressure, the
HP bypass valve is released to pressure control mode, and
14

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


maintains a constant pressure during turbine rolling, synchronization, and initial loading.
28. After the required startup pressure is attained, the firing rate can
be adjusted to achieve the required steam temperature for turbine
rolling. Refer to the start-up curves for the target steam conditions.
29. Do not exceed the furnace exit gas temperature limit of 1100F
(593C) below 10% boiler load. Above 10% boiler load, automatic
interlocks provide protection from over-firing. If it is desirable to
supplement the warm up fuel, the pulverizer serving a lower elevation of coal nozzles should be prepared for operation and
started in accordance with Introducing Coal,. Adjacent warm-up
fuel should be in service to supply the required ignition energy.
The feeder should be set to keep the furnace exit gas temperature from exceeding 1100F (593C).
The condition may exist when an upper elevation of coal will be
placed in service for start-up, with ignition provided by the associated elevation of warm-up fuel. Start-up by this procedure is allowable, however, if utilized, care must be exercised not to exceed
the furnace exit gas temperature limitation of 1100F (593C) as
applicable, or the steam temperature values shown in the Steam
Temperature Versus Load curve.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

NOTE: The steam pressure should be increased slowly


during the initial start of a new steam generator. This
allows sufficient time for checking expansion movements and permits the operators to become familiar with
the characteristics of the steam generator and auxiliary
equipment. Once these characteristics have been established, subsequent start-ups may be made at the fastest
possible rate consistent with maintaining the furnace exit
gas temperature limitation of 1100F (593C)

15

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


30. While the unit is heating up, check the boiler expansion movements frequently. Special attention should be given to expansion
of the boiler relative to the building steel. Expansion movements
should be recorded for comparison with future start-ups. Refer to
the Pressure Parts Connection and Expansion Movement Diagrams.
31. Maintain SST water level at normal setpoint via auto feedwater
flow control and check the water concentrations and constituents
as frequently as necessary to maintain proper boiler water conditions. Sample connections are located on the SST.
Rolling and
Synchronizing the
Turbine

16

1.

Confirm the steam conditions, pressure, temperature, and steam


purity, at the turbine are correct for turbine roll. (See turbine manufacturers recommendations and startup curves in figure 3).

2.

Roll the turbine per the Turbine manufacturers procedures .

3.

SH and RH steam temperatures are maintained by adjusting firing rate and airflow.

4.

When the turbine is warmed-up, synchronize the generator and


put on initial load according to turbine/generator startup instructions.

5.

If the startup is done without the HP/LP bypass, the restriction on


furnace gas temperature must be maintained until the turbine is
synchronized and RH flow is established.

6.

After synchronization, all superheat and reheat vent and drain


valves should be confirmed closed.

7.

As steam is transferred to the turbine during turbine loading, the


HP/LP bypass will close while maintaining the required main
steam startup pressure and RH pressure at 170 psig (12 kg/cm2).

8.

As turbine conditions permit, put feedwater heaters into service


per manufacturers instructions. Monitor fluid conditions at the
evaporator inlet to ensure that subcooled conditions are at least
10 deg F (6C). The HP feedwater heater should be put into service when turbine load is above 20% BMCR to avoid steaming
conditions at the evaporator inlet.

9.

Deaerator heating steam source is transferred from auxiliary


steam system to extraction when extraction pressure is adequate.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

CAUTION: Operators should be alert to detect the


symptoms of water carry-over from the boiler and introduction of water into the turbine, such as:
a. A sudden, unexplained drop in steam temperature in
either the main steam or hot reheat line.
b. Vibration in the steam piping resulting from water
hammer.
c. Abnormal vibration and differential expansion readings from the turbine supervisory instrumentation.
Operators must be prepared to take necessary steps to
prevent turbine damage upon detecting the introduction
of water. Refer to the turbine manufacturers instructions
for specific actions to be taken.
10. The firing rate should never exceed the rate necessary to match
the total steam generation (steam to bypass plus steam to turbine).
If the unit is put on line before design operating pressure/temperature is reached, a further increase of firing rate should
be in accordance with a gradual rate of pressure/temperature increase consistent with increasing load. Do not allow steam temperature to exceed the values shown in the Steam Temperature
Versus Load curve.
11. If the unit was started with one set of fans in service, start the
second set of fans as required. Refer to the fan manufacturer's
instructions for operating details.
Introducing Coal
1.

Coal firing can commence when steam flow reaches approx. 1520% BMCR, and PA temperature is approximately 350 deg F
(177C) (sufficient for mill operation).

2.

Start at least one PA fan. After fan(s) are started, open the PA
fan outlet dampers and primary APH isolation gates. Bring the
primary hot air duct pressure up to set point by manually adjusting the PA fan flow control device. Then, transfer to automatic
control.

3.

Place the SSC drag chain in service per manufacturers instructions. Place the economizer hopper ash removal system in service according to manufactures instructions.

4.

Pulverizer B or alternately pulverizer A, serving the lower elevations of coal nozzles, should be prepared for operation at this
time so it can be readily started. Refer to pulverizers and pulverized coal system and the Control System instructions for start-up
sequences and controls.
The condition may exist when an upper elevation of coal will be
placed in service for start-up, with ignition provided by the associated elevation of warm-up fuel. Start-up by this procedure is al-

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

17

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


lowable, however, if utilized, care must be exercised not to exceed
the steam temperature values shown in the Steam Temperature
Versus Load curve.
5.

Confirm that the pulverizer reject hopper is ready for service (discharge valve closed, loop seal full, and inlet valve open). Place
the pulverizer reject sluicing system in service (refer to SSC and
Pulverizer Reject System ..)

6.

Check that the pulverizer start permissives are satisfied. Refer to


the Control System instructions. The coal fuel-air dampers should
remain closed until ignition is established. Refer to Airflow Control
and Distribution in the Tilting Tangential Firing System section.
Maintain the nozzle tilts at horizontal (+/- 10 degrees). At least
one PA fan must be in service.
If the unit start-up follows a master fuel trip, the pulverizer may not
be empty. Clear the pulverizer of excess coal per recommended
clearing procedures before starting the pulverizer. Refer to the Design and Operation manual, for the pulverizer clearing procedures.
During this procedure, the pulverizer discharge gates of all other
idle pulverizers must be closed. This prevents hot furnace gases
from entering the coal piping and the idle pulverizers. (See EMERGENCY PROCEDURES,.) When the coal has been removed from
the pulverizer, the feeder can be started at minimum speed and
then adjusted to a speed which provides the stable flame required
to meet unit load requirements. Be sure the ignition energy in the
furnace is established before starting the pulverizer.

7.

Start the pulverizer. Open the hot air shutoff gate. Place the pulverizer airflow and temperature control on automatic.and bring
the pulverizer up to the required operating temperature without
coal. When ready to fire coal, manually start the feeder at minimum rating. Ignition of the pulverized coal should take place immediately. When the pulverizer is proven in service, the fuel-air
dampers should open automatically. Maintain the fuel feed at a
minimum rate consistent with stable ignition. Visually observe the
ignition point of the flame. If ignition does not take place within 5
seconds after coal appears at the coal nozzles, stop the feeder.
Determine the cause of ignition failure before attempting to restart
the feeder
Pulverizer start-up will cause a sudden and sharp increase in
steam pressure. The pressure will level out rapidly as the HP bypass station responds.
Check the pulverizer oil temperature. The oil temperature should
never exceed 158F (70C).

8.

18

Maintain the proper coal/air temperature leaving the pulverizers.


Regulate the hot and cold air dampers to keep the temperature at
170F (77C) at the pulverizer outlet. At no time should this temperature exceed 200F (93C) . If this should occur, close the hot
air gate, and operate the pulverizer with 100% cold air until the
discharge temperature returns to normal.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


9.

Increase unit load as required by increasing the boiler inputs:


feedwater, fuel, and air in coordinated automatic mode.

10. When the feeder rating of the first pulverizer has reached approximately 80%, place the second pulverizer, which supplies the adjacent elevation of coal nozzles, in service in a similar manner.
When the second adjacent pulverizer is proven in service, equalize the feeder rating of both. The warm-up fuel must remain in
service until both feeders achieve 50% rating.
If the adjacent pulverizer is not available for service, place the pulverizer serving the next closest elevation of coal nozzles in service.
Do not remove the warm-up fuel from service until the two adjacent
coal elevations are in service with feeder ratings greater than 50%.
11. When the unit load reaches 30% of full load, the Burner Management System and secondary air damper controls should close
the auxiliary air dampers which serve the compartments adjacent
to the coal nozzles out of service. The Windbox to Furnace Differential Controller, provided in the Closed Loop Control System
should gradually increase the windbox-to-furnace differential
pressure to approximately 4 in. w.g.(102 mm H2O) as load is increased per the prescribed curve.
12. The airflow to the furnace must be sufficient for the firing rate. Automatic control equipment is normally arranged to maintain such
a balanced condition. The operation of the O2 measuring devices,
often tied in with the airflow control, should be checked periodically for proper operation.
Initial Load Increase to
40%
1.

Increase unit load as required by increasing the boiler inputs:


feedwater, fuel, and air in coordinated fashion. The rate at which
load is increased will be a function of the turbine load requirements.. Windbox nozzle tilt should be held approximately horizontal (+/- 10 degrees) until load has reached 30%.

2.

Place additional mills in service in a similar manner as required to


support load increase. Initiate an elevation start command. After
each coal elevation is proven in service (signal from BMS), the
feeder can be put into automatic mode and included in the fuel totalizer.

3.

Place the superheat steam temperature controls (spray) in automatic at 20% load. The spray block valves are interlocked to remain closed below 20% load.

4.

After reaching 30% BMCR load and firing is stable with at least 2
adjacent coal elevations at 50% rating , auxiliary fuel can be removed from service. Elevation AB is issued an elevation stop
command.

5.

After elevation AB is stopped, ensure coal elevation A or C shows


flame per flame scanner indications (BMS signal).

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

19

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


6.

Reduce warm up fuel firing to minimum. Warm up elevation CD is


issued an elevation stop command.

7.

At app. 40% BMCR, the firing rate matches the economizer inlet
flow. The steam temperature at the separator outlet will reach a
stable superheated condition, causing the level in the SST to decrease, and the boiler will enter the once-through (dry) mode. The
boiler is proven in once-through (dry) mode when all the following
conditions exist:
a.

Steam flow > 40% for 5 minutes.

b.

Separator storage tank level < 39 inches (1 meter).

c.

Separator outlet temperature is superheated by >30F (17C).

d.

The difference between economizer inlet temperature and feed


water temperature leaving the HP feedwater heater < 10F
(6C).

When the controls swithch from wet to dry mode, FW flow control
will be released from SST level control to FW-Firing Rate coordination to control separator outlet steam temperature, and the BRP will
be auto-stopped (note that BRP operation can continue with the
unit is dry mode if desired).
8.

When the BRP stops, the warm-keeping system for the start-up
system should be put into operation. The warm-keeping system
maintains the start-up system in a warm condition so that it can
be immediately put into service. This system uses water from the
economizer outlet link as the source of heat. A wet-leg fluid level
is maintained in the startup system by automatically draining fluid
to the superheat desuperheaters via the WKFCV valve.

9.

Put into service additional BFPs per the manufacturer procedures


to support further load increase, and equalize loading between
the BFPs.

NOTE: Before increasing the total firing rate above 30%


BMCR, feedwater quality must be verified to be within
the limits for normal firing as defined in Appendix A.

10. Place the pollution control equipment in service according to the


manufacturers instructions.
11. The Unit is now ready for automatic load dispatch.
12. Place additional pulverizers in service as the unit load demand increases. The pulverizer serving the lowest coal nozzle elevation
not already in service should be started, if available, when the
feeders in service reach the 80% rating. As each pulverizer is
placed in service, the required ignition energy must be available.
When the unit firing conditions are stabilized, all warm-up fuel
may be taken out of service. Refer to the Recommended Burner
Management System instructions.
13. Start the second PA fan (if not already in service) before placing
the fifth pulverizer in service.
20

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


14. Place the feedwater-firing rate ratio control in auto. Place windbox
tilts in auto control (RH temperature) at 30% load. Place combustion control on automatic when firing conditions are stable. Refer
to the control manufacturer's instructions for specific procedures.
15. Make frequent visual observations of furnace conditions to ensure
that no excessive slag build-up is developing. This is especially
important when burning coal with low ash fusion temperatures.
Operate the soot blowers as required to keep the steam temperature control (nozzle tilts, desuperheaters) within operating range.
If response to soot blowing is sluggish or insignificant, reduce unit
load or increase excess air to assist in lowering steam temperature and take steps to eliminate the cause of the erratic steam
temperatures. Refer to Soot Blowing/Water Cannon Philosophy.
WARNING: The coutant bottom of the furnace is designed only to transfer ash to the bottom ash removal
system and is not designed to store accumulated ash.
Under no circumstances should the level of ash in the
bottom ash hopper or submerged scrapper conveyor be
allowed to reach the level of the coutant opening, thus
blocking further removal of ash from the furnace.
Under no circumstances should ash or slag be allowed
to bridge across the coutant opening.
If bridging starts to occur, load should be reduced in an
attempt to shed the buildup.
If complete bridging across the coutant opening does
occur, immediate steps should be taken to shut the
steam generator down to cold following normal shutdown procedures. The ash should then be removed by
means which preclude damage to the waterwall tubes.
Refer to Procedures for Preventing Furnace Bottom
Overloading for additional operating recommendations.
If excessive slagging of furnace walls is experienced, make sure
that the bottom ash removal system is in good working condition to
handle the increased quantity of bottom ash that accompanies
higher slagging rates.
16. Close-coupled overfire air and Separated overfire air is used for
NOX control and is automatically controlled as a function of total
unit air flow using pre-programmed control curves to control the
proportion of overfire air. As unit load is increased, additional
overfire air is introduced or additional elevations of overfire air are
opened. Refer to operating recommendations in the Tilting Tangential Firing System section.
17. The airheater outlet gas proportioning dampers can be placed in
automatic. These dampers are used to proportion the gas flow
between the PA and SA airheaters. In auto control, the dampers
are controlled to equalize the outlet gas temperatures.
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

21

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


NORMAL OPERATION UNIT LOAD CHANGES
The normal load range under automatic control is 40% to 100%. The
boiler load change rates should not exceed 3% per minute (20 MW per
minute) between 40% and 50% load, and should not exceed 5% per
minute (33 MW per minute) above 50% load. These maximum load
change rates can only be achieved if control actions are well coordinated and well tuned. Below 40% load, the change rates should not exceed that shown on the prescribed start-up curves.
During normal operation, unit load changes may alter pulverizer loading
rate and/or the number of pulverizers in service. A wide range of load
control can be achieved with the pulverizers on automatic.
During normal operation, the FD fans are modulated to supply the required combustion airflow and excess air as a function of unit load. The
PA fans are modulated to supply the required airflow to the pulverizers
that are in service.
Decreasing Load
If the unit load decreases to a point at which the feeder rating of the
pulverizers in service is reduced to 40%, a pulverizer should be taken
out of service. Normally the pulverizer serving the lower-most coal elevation is removed in order to maximize steam temperature by maintaining heat release higher in the furnace.
To remove the pulverizer from service, proceed as follows:
1.

Ensure that pulverizer ignition energy is available in the furnace.


Start the warm-up elevation associated with the coal elevation
served by the selected pulverizer.

2.

Select the feeder to manual and Gradually reduce the feeder rating of the selected pulverizer to minimum.

3.

When the feeder rating is at minimum, close the hot air damper
and shutoff gate and adjust the cold air damper to maintain 100%
pulverizer airflow.

4.

Allow the pulverizer coal/air temperature to drop to 130F (54C)


(20 deg F (11 deg C) below normal setpoint), and then take the
feeder out of service.

5.

Make sure the pulverizer is completely empty by running it for at


least 3 minutes. Then, stop the pulverizer.

6.

The associated warm-up fuel may be shut down when the furnace
conditions have stabilized.

Additional pulverizers can be taken out of service in a similar manner


when the feeder ratings again drop to 40%. PA fan flow will be reduced
as pulverizers are taken out of service.
Every effort should be made to keep adjacent pulverizers in service. If,
due to maintenance, a pulverizer is not available, skipping the coal elevation served by that pulverizer is permissible. Skipping two coal eleva22

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


tions is not recommended and is only permissible through the use of the
associated warm up fuel elevation(s) to provide support ignition energy.
If the unit load is reduced to a point at which only two pulverizers are
required, the associated warm up fuel adjacent to the coal nozzles in
service must be placed in service to ensure support ignition when the
feeder ratings drop to 50% or less. Auxiliary supporting fuel should be
used whenever, in the operator's judgment, ignition stabilization is necessary.
Increasing Load
If, after several pulverizers have been taken out of service due to a load
decrease, load increases again to a point at which the feeder rating of
the pulverizers in service exceeds 80% of maximum, place an additional
pulverizer in service as follows
1.

Establish the ignition energy required for the coal elevation


served by the selected pulverizer.

2.

Start the pulverizer.

3.

Open the hot air shutoff gate and place the Pulverizer Airflow and
Temperature Control into automatic and bring the pulverizer up to
operating temperature (Refer to the Pulverizer and Pulverized
Coal System sections of this manual).

4.

Start the coal feeder. The feeder control should be on manual


and at minimum feeder rating.

5.

When the pulverizer is grinding and coal ignition has been established, gradually increase the feeder rating until it equals that of
the other feeders in service. Then, place the feeder on automatic
control.

6.

The associated warm up fuel elevation may be taken out of service when the furnace conditions have stabilized and at least two
pulverizers are in service, each with a feeder rating of at least
50%.

7.

Place additional pulverizers in service in the same manner.

PA fan flow will increase as additional pulverizers are placed in service.


NORMAL SHUTDOWN TO
COLD
The following procedures for normal shutdown assume that the unit is
operating at full load on automatic control, and the intention is to reduce
the unit pressure to zero and cool the boiler completely.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

23

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

CAUTION: Exercise care to prevent water from entering


the turbine through the main steam line(s), the hot reheat line(s), or the cold reheat line(s) during and after
the shutdown process. This prevents water damage to
the turbine during a subsequent restart. Possible water
sources are:
a. Overflow from the separator into the superheater
when a high water level exists.
b. Water entering the superheater or reheater through
the desuperheaters due to open desuperheater control valves or valve leakage with the feed pumps
running.

24

1.

The rate at which load is reduced will be a function of the turbine


requirements. The operator determines the required trip load and
the rate of load decrease as input, then the control system will automatically reduce boiler inputs at the required rate. Feedwater,
air flow, fuel flow, and steam temperature should remain on automatic control during the shutdown for best coordinated control.

2.

Reduce the unit load to 60% Tmcr following the prescribed sliding
pressure vs. load curve (for a shutdown to hot, a higher pressure
may be desirable to preserve energy in the unit).

3.

To maintain constant steam temperature while the turbine is


shutdown, decouple the turbine and boiler using the HP/LP bypass. Hold boiler load constant, transfer pressure control to the
HP bypass, reduce turbine load at a rate prescribed by the turbine
supplier while transfering steam flow from the turbine to the
HP/LP bypass.

4.

Shutdown the turbine as prescribed by the turbine supplier.

5.

When the turbine is shutdown and CVs are closed, reduce boiler
load at a controlled rate <3% per minute following the sliding
pressure curve to 110 kg/cm2. Hold pressure constant and continue to shutdown the boiler as prescribed below.

6.

Leave the steam temperature, combustion and feedwater controls


on automatic to 30% load. Steam temperatures will automatically
follow the predetermined program. At approx 20% load the superheat spray valves are automatically closed and steam temperature will be controlled solely by biasing between fuel and feedwater flow. Reduce the firing rate in line with the decreasing
steam flow.

7.

When the feeder rating on all pulverizers is reduced to 40%, put


the upper elevation of warm-up fuel in service. Place the pulverizer supplying the upper coal elevation on manual control. Gradually reduce the feeder rating. When minimum rating is reached,
close the hot air shutoff gate and adjust the cold air damper to
maintain 100% pulverizer airflow. Stop the feeder when the
coal/air temperature has dropped to approximately 130F (54C).
Close the coal shutoff gate above the feeder, run the feeder until
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


the spout and feeder are empty, and then stop the feeder. Make
sure the pulverizer is completely empty by running it for at least 3
minutes. Then, stop the pulverizer. Unless an emergency condition exists, the pulverizer should always be emptied in this manner before being stopped. Refer to the shutdown procedures in
the Pulverizer and Pulverized Coal System sections in of this manual.
8.

As pulverizers are taken out of service, the secondary air damper


control system should close the associated windbox dampers and
adjust the other dampers to compensate for the reduced firing
rate.

9.

Take the second pulverizer supplying the next highest elevation


of coal nozzles out of service when the feeder rating on all remaining pulverizers reaches 40%. Continue taking additional pulverizers out of service in the same manner. When only two pulverizers remain in service, the adjacent warm up fuel must be
placed in service prior to reducing the feeder rating of either pulverizer to below 50%.
It is recommended that this consecutive elevation shutdown sequence be followed. Firing coal at separated coal nozzle elevations
without auxiliary supporting fuel is not permitted.

10. Overfire air will be reduced automatically as the unit load is reduced per the prescribed control curves. Below approximately
30% load, overfire will be closed to a minimum position. Keep the
overfire air dampers at minimum open position to prevent the
nozzle tips from overheating.
11. Operate all soot blowers as load is reduced. Refer to the Soot
Blowing/Water Cannon Philosophy section and to the soot blower
manufacturers instructions.
12. Normally the unit controls will be on automatic during the shutdown, which will automatically maintain the design fuel-air balance. If it is necessary to use manual control, reduce the airflow
by reducing FD fan flow in line with the fuel reduction until 30%
airflow is reached. Do not reduce the airflow below this rating until
all fires are out, a furnace post firing purge has been completed
and the unit is off the line (Refer to Figure 1, typical air flow curve
in the back of this section, and the Percent Excess Air Versus
Load curve, as found in the Design and Operation manual, To
avoid firing instability during this period of high airflow, the auxiliary air dampers at all elevation should open and the windbox-tofurnace differential pressure reduced to its lower setting per the
prescribed control curve.
13. Check the boiler expansion movements as the load is reduced.
14. Remove the pollution control equipment from service according to
the manufactures instructions.
15. At app. 40% steam flow, feedwater flow will be higher than the firing rate. The steam temperature at the separator outlet will fall
below the superheated region, and a water level will develop in
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25

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


the SST. The boiler will now be returned to recirculation (wet)
mode. The boiler is proven in recirculation (wet) mode when all
the following conditions exist:
a.

Steam flow < 40%,

b.

Separator storage tank level > 39 inches (1 meter)

c.

Separator outlet temperature < saturation temperature + 30F


(17C),

d.

Difference between economizer inlet temperature and feedwater inlet temperature >10F (6C).

When recirculation mode is logically proven, FW flow control will


switch from coordination of FW-Firing Rate controlling steam temperature to SST level control.
The BRP will be auto started to provide minimum waterwall flow.
16. Continue to reduce load to the predetermined load where the turbine will be taken off-line.
17. After the last pulverizer is shut down, remove the warm up fuel
from service. All fires should be extinguished when the unit is off
the line.
With no pulverizers in service, the PA fans and the pulverizer seal
air fans may also be shut down. The PA fans should not be shut
down if the air heater gas inlet temperature is above 400F (205C)
18. After all fuel firing is removed, close the HP and LP bypass
valves.
19. Immediately after closing the HP/LP bypass valves, open the superheater outlet vents and drains and all reheater vents and
drains. Open other drains in the superheater system, as required,
for further pressure reduction. Open the steam line and turbine
drains per the turbine manufacturer's instructions.
20. Close the desuperheater isolating valves.
21. Do not exceed a cool down rate of 300F/hr (104C) of fluid temperature change anywhere in the unit.
22. Operate the SSC drag chain until the SSC is completely empty of
ash. It can then be shutdown. refer to SSC and Pulverizer Reject
System . for details.
23. Empty each pulverizer reject hopper. When all hoppers are empty, the sluicing system can be shutdown. refer to SSC and Pulverizer Reject System . for details.
24. Empty each economizer hopper. Refer to manufacturers instructions.
25. If the steam generator will not be entered during the shutdown
period, a slower rate of pressure and temperature decay may be
desirable. This can be accomplished as follows:

26

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


a.

Complete a post trip purge of the unit by running the ID and FD


fans for at least 5 minutes at 30% airflow after the fires are extinguished.

b.

If not already done, reduce the airflow through the unit to 30%
minimum airflow. Keep the fans and air heaters in service until
the unit has cooled to the desired temperature. Air heaters and
fans should not be taken out of service until the air heater gas
inlet temperatures have dropped below 400F (205C).

c.

Keep the BRP in service until the boiler water temperature is


reduced to the desired point. Keep the water level near normal
in the SST, adding makeup water as required.

26. If the cooling process must be accelerated to permit entry into the
steam generator for maintenance, proceed as in step 25, except:
a.

Continue running the fans at the desired rate to cool the unit.
The air heaters may be shut down when the gas entering temperature has dropped below 400F (205C). Refer to the air
heater instructions.
With the air heaters stopped and the fans running, deposits of
fly ash may accumulate in the air heater and cause a rotor unbalance.

b.

Keep the BRP in service to increase recirculation. Keep the


water level near normal in the separator storage tank. Shut
down the pump when the boiler water temperature is reduced
to the desired level.

27. Do not shut down the scanner/ignitor air fan until the furnace
temperature has dropped to below 300F (149C).
28. If the boiler is to be laid up wet, refer to Lay-up Procedures.
29. If the boiler will be emptied, the boiler water temperature should
be reduced to at least 200F (93C) before draining.
NORMAL SHUTDOWN TO
HOT STANDBY
CAUTION: Exercise care to prevent water from entering
the turbine through the main steam line(s), the hot reheat line(s), or the cold reheat line(s) during and after
the shutdown process. This prevents water damage to
the turbine during a subsequent restart. Possible water
sources are:
a. Overflow from the separator into the superheater
when a high water level exists.
b. Water entering the superheater or reheater through
the desuperheaters due to open desuperheater control valves or valve leakage with the feed pumps
running.

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27

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


During a shutdown to hot standby, it is assumed that the unit will be
shut down for a relatively short period of time and that the existing pressure and temperature conditions will be substantially maintained. A procedure similar to that for normal shutdown should be used, with the following exceptions:
1.

Reduce steam pressure in line with unit load reduction, following


the prescribed sliding pressure curve. To preserve energy in the
boiler, maintain a higher pressure (approximately 2000 psig (141
kg/cm2)) until the boiler is taken off line. After the boiler is off the
line and fires removed and HP/LP bypass closed, the boiler may
be bottled up by closing all superheater drains and vents. Reheater drains and vents should be opened to relieve pressure in the
reheater.

2.

It is not necessary to close the feeder inlet gates and run the
spouts and feeders empty. As each pulverizer is taken out of service, close the hot air shutoff gate. Stop the feeder when the
coal/air temperature drops to 130F (54 deg C). Run the pulverizer for a 3 minute period until it is empty, and then stop the pulverizer.

3.

The BRP should be kept in operation to ensure uniform boiler


metal temperatures. This will prevent possible local overheating
due to hot slag deposits.
WARNING: If the fans are shut down with an air heater
gas inlet temperature above 400F (205C), the air heater must be kept rotating. However, running an air heater with the gas inlet temperature above 400F (205C)
and no air flow through it will cause seal damage followed by excessive leakage during operation. (Refer to
air heater instructions.) The decision to bottle up the
unit above 400F (205C) must be made with this in
mind.
CAUTION: If combustible deposits are present in the air
heater elements, the air heater gas inlet temperature
must be reduced to 400F (205C) before the FD fans,
ID fans and air heaters are shut down. The air heaters
must be thoroughly cleaned to remove any combustible
products before they are shut down.

28

4.

After the fires are extinguished, keep the ID, FD and PA fans and
air heaters running until the air heater gas inlet temperatures
have dropped to below 400F (205C). Close all gas duct and
secondary air duct dampers after the air heaters and fans are
shut down. Keep the scanner air fan running.

5.

Shut down the BRP after the unit has been bottled up. However,
if an immediate hot restart is anticipated, keep the BRP in service
for more effective warm-up circulation.

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

CAUTION: The differential temperature between the


feedwater and boiler metal must never exceed 200F
(111C) (separator storage tank during initial filling or
separator storage tank and superheater outlet header
during filling for hydrostatic test).
6.

The operator should observe the SST level periodically so that he


is always aware of the actual level and can take the appropriate
action to re-establish the water level when the unit is being restarted.
When the BRP is shut down, the water level will rise. As the unit
cools and the water shrinks, makeup water should be added intermittently to prevent the water from dropping below normal level.
Adding relatively cold feedwater will establish a reservoir of cooler
water in the system. If the BRP is then started, this cooler water will
produce a cycle of cool and hot temperature transients to the pump
casing and other pressure parts of the boiler. The BRP should be
operating when makeup water is added to minimize the temperature stratification.

WARM START-UP
Assuming that the unit has been down for a short period of time (less
than approximately 36 hours), the unit can be re-started in a similar sequence to Cold Start-up procedure as outlined below:

Warm Start Conditions


1.

Boiler separator metal temperature > 212F (100C).


and

2.

Boiler pressure < 400 psig (28 kg/cm2).

1.

Warm start-up is carried out following the same procedure as for


cold start-ups. Refer to the section on cold start-up for details.

Preparations, Lighting
Off, and Load Increase

HOT START-UP
Assuming the unit has been down for a comparatively short period of
time (<8 hours) following a normal unit shutdown and considerable
steam pressure has been maintained, use the following procedures to
restart the unit:
Hot Start Conditions
1.

Boiler separator metal temperature >= 600F (316C).


and

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29

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


2.

Main steam pressure >= 1200 psig (84 kg/cm2).


and

3.

Turbine requirements are met.

1.

Make a general inspection of the steam generator and check the


points outlined in the Preparations for Lighting Off for Cold Start
Ups.

2.

The BRP should still be in service.

3.

If the air heaters and fans were shut down at reduced temperature (see NORMAL SHUTDOWN TO HOT STANDBY,), start the
air heaters and fans as outlined under COLD START-UP, Lighting Off. If the unit was bottled up hot with the air heaters still running, start the fans in the normal sequence.

Preparations, Lighting
Off, and Load Increase

CAUTION: Prevent possible water damage to the turbine by using extreme care to eliminate all water from
the main steam line(s), cold and hot reheat lines, and
superheater and reheater elements and headers before
the turbine is rolled. Refer to the turbine manufacturer's
instructions and to the Valve Operating Diagram for the
proper drain valve settings.
4.

Open wide all superheater drains to allow complete draining of


superheater headers and/or elements. After draining, close all
drains except the superheater back pass lower header drains and
the start-up drains (main steam line vents and drains). Keep the
back pass header drains open until only steam is discharged.
Keep the start-up drains open. Reheater drains and vents are
open.

5.

Set the HP and LP bypass control set-point to the existing pressure in auto mode per manufactures instructions.

6.

For hot start-ups, the fuel startup sequence should follow this table (A elevation is the bottom elevation):

Sequence Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

30

Elevation
CD warmup
EF warmup
C coal
D coal
E coal
B coal
A coal
F coal
G coal
H coal

Notes

If C coal not availiable, start D coal


If D coal not availiable, start E coal
If C coal not availiable, start AB to support B coal.

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UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


7.

Initiate a furnace purge and a normal light off sequence of the


warm-up fuel following the sequence noted above.

8.

Set warm-up flow control to auto and increase fuel flow set point
to 5% of BMCR firing rate.

9.

After a 5 minute stabilization period, Progressively increase firing


rate to 10% BMCR. Increase separator pressure/temperature at
the desired rate (400 F/hr (222C/hr)) and without exceeding the
furnace exit gas temperature limitation (1100F (593C)).

10. When steam pressure at HP bypass begins to increase, the HP


bypass valve is released to pressure ramp mode. The valves will
then control the boiler pressure ramp-up to startup pressure or to
existing pressure if greater than startup pressure.
11. As the HP bypass opens, the reheater will be pressurized as
steam is passed through the reheat vents and drains. Set the LP
bypass station to minimum setpoint in auto mode. The LP bypass
will open in response to increasing reheat pressure. Progressively
throttle the reheat vents and drains to transfer flow and pressure
control to the LP bypass station.
12. Initiate an elevation start command for warm-up elevation EF.
13. Progressively increase firing rate to 15% BMCR.
14. Increase the firing rate, as prescribed, to raise the pressure and
steam production. The rate of pressure rise should follow the prescribed start-up curves.
15. When boiler pressure reaches startup pressure (or existing pressure), the HP bypass valve is released to pressure control
mode, and maintains a constant pressure during turbine rolling,
synchronization, and initial loading.
16. After startup pressure (or existing pressure) is attained, the firing
rate can be adjusted to achieve the desired steam temperature
for turbine rolling. Refer to the start-up curves for the target
steam conditions.
17. When steam is admitted to roll the turbine, there should be a minimum steam-to-turbine metal temperature differential. This can be
achieved by raising boiler load while on HP/LP bypass.
Turbine Rolling and
Synchronization
1.

Confirm the steam conditions, pressure, temperature, and steam


purity (See turbine manufacturers recommendations), at the turbine are correct for turbine roll.

2.

Roll the turbine per the Turbine manufacturers procedures.

3.

SH and RH steam temperatures are maintained by adjusting firing rate and airflow.

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31

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


4.

Synchronize the generator and put on initial load according to turbine/generator startup instructions.

5.

During a hot restart, the turbine metal temperature will normally


require a rapid reloading of the unit.

6.

After synchronization, all superheat and reheat vent and drain


valves should be confirmed closed.

7.

As steam is transferred to the turbine, the HP/LP bypass will


close while maintaining main steam pressure and RH pressure at
170 psig (12 kg/cm2).

8.

As turbine conditions permit, put feedwater heaters into service


per manufacturers instructions. Monitor the fluid condition entering the evaporator to ensure that subcooled conditions are at
least 10 deg F (6C). The HP heater should be put into service
when load is above 20%.

9.

Deaerator heating steam source is transferred from auxiliary


steam system to LP extraction when LP extraction pressure is
adequate.

10. Commence coal firing as required to support load increase.


11. Coal firing and load increases generally follow the procedures
outlined for cold start-ups and normal load changes.
EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES
Reheater Protection
Stopping or significantly reducing steam flow through the reheater when
the entering gas temperature is above 1100F (593C) can cause overheating and damage to the reheater tubing. To prevent this condition,
the following measures are taken with the automatic reheat protection
interlocks:
TURBINE VALVE CLOSURE (GRID DISCONNECT)
If a loss of load should cause the turbine valves to close, the turbine will
be rundown to house load and the boiler should be rundown to match
the HP bypass capacity (65%) plus house load demand.
For the case of unit runback to house load:
1.

32

Initially the SG is runback to 70%Tmcr (equal to bypass capacity)


at a target rate of 50% per minute at constant MS pressure = 210
kg/cm2 (refer to Alstom Unit Operating Procedures and control
logic drawings for details). Simultaneously, the ST is runback to
house load at rate determined by the ST supplier. The bypass

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


quick-opens and the balance of SG flow (70%Tmcr less ST
house load) is transferred to the bypass.
2.

SG Load is held at 60%Tmcr for a stabilization period.

After stabilization, if desired the SG load and pressure can be reduced


at a controlled rate of <3% per minute within SG temperature gradient
limitations and within the bypass capacity limitation. ST load is maintained at house load, while the balance of SG flow is controlled by the
bypass.
If the HP bypass is not proven open within a short time delay, then all
fuel should be tripped automatically and instantaneously.
When a master fuel trip is caused by turbine control valve closure, an
immediate restart is feasible in most instances because the turbine is
still rolling and will be available to take steam as soon as the governor
has the turbine speed under control. (Refer to turbine manufacturer's
instructions for no-load operating procedures and limitations.) If an immediate turbine restart is not possible and the turbine is tripped, the reheater condenser drains should be opened (refer to Turbine Trip below).
TURBINE TRIP
If a loss of load occurs in which the turbine is tripped, then boiler should
be rundown to match the capacity of the HP bypass (65%).
For the case of ST trip from 100%Tmcr:
1.

Initially the SG is runback to 70%Tmcr (equal to bypass capacity)


at a target rate of 50% per minute at constant pressure MS pressure = 247 kg/cm2 (refer to Alstom Unit Operating Procedures
and control logic drawings for details). The bypass quick-opens
and the total SG flow is transferred to the bypass.

2.

SG is held at this condition for a stabilization period.

3.

After stabilization, if desired the SG load and pressure can be reduced at a controlled rate of <3% per minute within SG temperature gradient limitations and within the bypass capacity limitation.

If the HP bypass is not proven open within a short time delay, all fuel
should be tripped automatically and instantaneously.
The superheater and reheater safety valves will protect against overpressure. The reheater drains to the condenser should be opened to
evacuate the steam in the reheater in the event of a unit trip.
POST-TRIP PROCEDURES
The furnace must be purged immediately following a master fuel trip.
Empty any pulverizer containing coal as soon as possible. Refer to Master Fuel Trip.
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33

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


To permit firing during start-up, the initiating fuel trip circuits associated
with the turbine must be disarmed before opening the turbine valves.
They must then be rearmed at a suitable point in the start-up sequence,
such as when synchronizing the turbine.
CAUTION: Operators should be alert to detect the
symptoms of water carry-over from the boiler and introduction of water into the turbine, such as:
a. A sudden, unexplained drop in steam temperature in
either the main steam or hot reheat line.
b. Vibration in the steam piping resulting from water
hammer.
c. Abnormal vibration and differential expansion readings from the turbine supervisory instrumentation.
Operators must be prepared to take necessary steps to
prevent turbine damage upon detecting the introduction
of water. Refer to the turbine manufacturers instructions
for specific actions to be taken.
TURBINE PROTECTION UPON LOSS OF LOAD
Extreme care must be taken following a trip of the turbine and boiler to
prevent water from entering the turbine during a unit restart. Condensation may cause water to collect in the main steam line(s) and cold reheat lines. Water may be introduced into the superheater due to overflow from the separator (inadvertent high water level). Water may be introduced into the superheater and/or reheater through the desuperheaters due to open or leaking spray water control valves.
Inadvertent introduction of water into the steam lines must be prevented. The lines must be drained prior to opening the turbine stop
valves. Refer to the turbine manufacturer's instructions and the Valve
Operating Diagram.
Master Fuel Trip
When a master fuel trip occurs automatically through normal interlocks,
or is initiated manually by an operator, all fuel shall be tripped instantaneously. If coal is being fired, the pulverizers shall be tripped immediately. The master fuel trip will automatically trip the feeders and close
the hot air gates and close the cold air shutoff gates on pulverizers that
were in service at the time of the trip. (Refer to Pulverizer Emergency
Shutdown Procedures). Also refer to the pulverizer clearing procedure
located in the steam inerting section of the Design and Operations manual. If warm-up fuel was being fired, the fuel trip valves and individual
nozzle shutoff valves should be closed immediately.
The following steps should be taken immediately following an emergency fuel trip:

34

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


1.

Maintain the unit airflow at the pre-trip value for at least 1 minute
and then gradually reduce the airflow to the purge rate (30% airflow) and complete a unit post trip purge.

2.

Procedure after Master Fuel Trip when all ID and FD Fans are off:
The ID and FD fans discharge dampers shall be opened to allow
natural ventilation of the unit. Opening of fan(s) dampers shall be
timed or controlled to avoid excessive furnace pressure excursions
during fan(s) coast-down. The fans discharge dampers shall remain open for a period of at least 15 minutes.
During this 15-minute period, the ID and FD fans shall not be
started.
At the end of the 15-minute period, the ID/FD fans may be started
in accordance with ID/FD fan(s) start-up procedures.
If the unit will not be re-started for an extended time, a flow of air
through the unit shall be maintained.

3.

If warm-up fuel is in service when the fuel trip occurred, make


sure the warm-up header trip valve and individual nozzle shutoff
valves are closed.

4.

If all auxiliaries are lost during a fuel trip, refer to the Boiler Circulating Pump Operating Procedures for handling the low pressure
cooling water. The cooling flow must be maintained.

5.

If all auxiliary power sources were lost during a trip, after completing the 15 minute natural draft purge described above, start the
fans and air heaters when power is restored, increase the unit airflow to the purge rate and complete a 5 minute purge. Observe
the hot restart precautions in the air heater instructions. The BRP,
if available, should be placed in service during the purge, and the
boiler should be refilled. (See Boiler Circulating Pump Operating
Procedures for restarting procedures).

6.

If pulverizers are in service when the fuel trip occurs, all operating
pulverizers will be automatically inerted. Refer to section on Pulverizer Inerting and Fire Fighting for details. The pulverizers must
remain under inerting until they can be cleared of coal or cooled
to ambient.

7.

After a boiler trip at a high pressure, a controlled pressure reduction is carried out to the highest pressure with which a restart is
possible (to approximately 160 bar) to obtain reliable SST level
indication.

8.

The BRP should be placed back in service and recirculation established to maintain uniform temperatures throughout the boiler
circulation system and to enable a restart of the boiler. The boiler
must be refilled to re-establish normal SST level for BRP restart
and the minimum recirculation flow must be re-established as a
pre-requisite for re-firing. This process will naturally cause pressure to decay, concurrent.with the controlled pressure reduction.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

35

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


9.

Check that the startup system is ready for operation (HWL-1 isolation valve open, HWL-2 is interlocked to prevent opening at high
pressure to protect the flash tank) and the drain transfer system
is ready for operation. Place the BFPM in service, stabilize deaerator conditions, and establish feedwater flow of 10% BMCR to
the boiler to refill to normal SST level. Follow the same procedure
for boiler filling as outlined previously. When SST level is stable
with HWL-1 at stable opening and all BRP start permissives are
satisfied, start the BRP (Refer to Boiler Circulating Pump Operating Procedures). Zero the feedwater flow as SST level recovers
and attains the operational setpoint. If restart of the BRP is delayed, excessive HWL action will result in draining of water at
pressure, oscillatory dump-feed action, with further reduction in
boiler pressure and extension of startup time

10. The pre-firing furnace purge can be initiated once all purge permissives are met.
11. If the boiler can be immediately restarted, then raise load to
>20% on auxiliary fuel utilizing the HP/LP bypass and successively clear the pulverizers serving at least the 2 lower coal elevations
using the steam transport system prior to re-synchronizing the
turbine. The remaining pulverizers can be cleared using steam
transport before or after the turbine is synchronized. Refer to the
pulverizer clearing procedure located in the steam inerting section
of the Design and Operations manual for additional details:

36

a.

Close the pulverizer discharge gates on all other idle pulverizers containing coal during each steam transport procedure.
This prevents hot furnace gases from being carried back into
the pulverizers in the event of a furnace pressure rise when a
pulverizer is started.

b.

Start the lower elevation of warm-up fuel and establish the ignition energy required to start a pulverizer. Refer to, COLD
START-UP, and to the Control System suppliers instructions
for ignition energy requirements and permissives.

c.

If RH flow has not been established via the HP bypass or via


turbine synchronization, then reduce furnace exit gas temperature to 900-950 deg F (482-510C) by adjusting warm-up fuel
flow before transport steam flow is initiated.

d.

Clear pulverizer A by following the pulverizer transport procedure located in the steam inerting section of the Design and
Operations manual

e.

Shut down pulverizer A.

f.

Clear pulverizer B per the same procedure.

g.

Continue with normal unit start up sequence until both pulverizers are in service and the turbine is synchronized.

h.

When boiler load is approximately 20%, the remaining pulverizers may be cleared one at a time using the steam transport

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


procedure and returned to normal service or shut down in a
normal fashion if not required for load regulation.
i.

If the pulverizer will be retained in service, when the pulverizer


has completed the clearing process, open the hot air shutoff
gate, bring the pulverizer up to normal operating temperature
and start the associated feeder

j.

If the pulverizer will not be retained in service, stop it after


completely clearing the coal. The pulverizer discharge gates
should remain open to allow a flow of cooling air through the
empty pulverizer.

12. If, due to load conditions and/or requirements to the Burner Management System, it is impossible to establish ignition permissives
to allow steam transport, inerting steam shall be maintained until
each pulverizer can be cleared of coal using steam transport or
cooled to ambient
13. If the boiler cannot be re-started and the aurxiliary steam source
cannot be continued indefinitely, then the pulverizers (those still
containing coal) must be switched to an alternate steam inerting
source or to an alternate inerting medium until they can be cooled
to ambient and manually emptied. Refer to the clearing procedure
located in the Pulverizer Inerting and Fire Fighting section of the
Design and Operations manual for additional details.

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37

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

Low Waterwall Flow


The flow entering the economizer is monitored continuously to direct
and alert the operator of abnormal flow conditions. Low flow could be
the result of a malfunction of BRP, MEFCV, feedwater pump, controls,
or operator neglect. Low flow subjects the waterwall tubing to overheating, and potential for failures. The minumum operational setpoint is 40%
BMCR flow.
If the flow drops below the alarm setpoint of 39% BMCR, the operator
must investigate the above listed items.
If the flow continues to drop below the trip setpoint of 38% BMCR, automatically trip the fuel following a maximum 10 second time delay. The
time delay allows for momentary fluctuations due to valve transfers,
etc.:
1.

Trip all fuel immediately.

2.

Shut off all steam being discharged from the unit (trip turbine,
steam driven auxiliaries, and such).

3.

Leave the BRP in service as long as it is operating normally.


CAUTION: The differential temperature between feedwater and boiler metal must never exceed 200F
(111C) (separator during initial filling or separator and
superheater outlet header during filling for hydrostatic
test.)

4.

If the problem is rectified, re-establish minimum waterwall flow.

5.

If the BRP cannot be kept in service, do not admit feedwater to


the unit.

6.

Maintain a high airflow at first to hasten the cooling process.

7.

If pressure part damage is suspected, reduce the steam pressure


gradually by opening the superheater start-up drains. As the boiler cools, reduce the airflow. Shut down the air heaters and fans
as soon as the unit is cool enough to enter. When the separator
metal temperature is 200F (93C), drain the boiler following normal draining procedures. Determine the cause of low water flow
and examine the boiler for signs of overheating, such as leaks
and distorted pressure parts.

8.

Repair any leaks.

9.

Hydrostatically test the boiler before putting the unit back in service.

High Waterwall Tube


Temperature
Permanent thermocouples are installed on selected furnace spiral and
vertical tubes. The purpose of these thermocouples is to direct and alert

38

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


the operator to any abnormal condition of excessive heat absorption or
low fluid flow.
High waterwall tube temperatures are an indication of an imbalance between firing rate and waterwall flow (over-firing, low waterwall flow, or a
combination of both). Over-firing could be a result of extreme load
change rates. Low waterwall flow could be a result of excessive SH
spray flow, BRP trouble, MEFCV trouble, feedwater pump trouble, control system trouble, or tube blockage.
If any spiral waterwall tube metal temperature exceeds the alarm setpoint of 463C, then the operator should investigate the above listed
items.
If any 4 spiral waterwall tube metal temperatures exceed the trip setpoint of 477C, automatically trip the fuel following a maximum 3second time delay. This trip protects the tubes from overheating damage, and potential failure, and therefore immediate action is required.
Investigate the above listed parameters and their control before re-firing
the boiler.
Evaporator Inlet SubCooling
The fluid condition entering the evaporator is monitored to alert the operator to abnormal conditions. If the fluid entering the evaporator is allowed to rise into the saturation region, the flow distribution in the evaporator will be detrimentally affected, causing tube temperatures to increase.
If the fluid condition at the evaporator inlet is sub-cooled by less than
10F (6C), an alarm is generated. The operator should take steps to
reduce the temperature of feedwater entering the economizer or increase the flow of feedwater entering the economizer.
Loss of All Feedwater
Pumps
If all feedwater pumps are tripped at any time, cooling of all boiler circuits will be lost. All fuel must be automatically tripped with a maximum
20 second time delay.
Low Airflow
If airflow drops below 25% at any time, combustion conditions could become dangerously unstable. All fuel shall be automatically tripped immediately.
Furnace Pressure
High/Low
If furnace pressure exceeds the high-high or low-low setpoint at any
time, all fuel shall be automatically tripped immediately. A warning alarm
is generated at high and low setpoints.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

39

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

Separator Storage Tank


Level High
If the SST level exceeds the high-high level setpoint 548 inches (13.9
meters), then all fuel shall be tripped immediately. A warning alarm is
generated at high setpoint of 509 inches (12.9 meters), at which time
the operator should check operation of the HWL valves, SST level control, or the balance of feedwater and firing rate (possible that firing rate
is too low for feedwater flow).
Airheater Gas Outlet
Temperature High
If the gas temperature leaving the airheater exceeds the high setpoint,
all fuel shall be tripped immediately. This is to protect downstream
equipment from over-temperature.
Both FD Fans Off or Both
ID Fans Off
If at any time both FD or both ID fans are off while firing the boiler, then
all fuel shall be automatically tripped immediately.
Both Secondary
Airheaters Off
If at any time both secondary airheaters are off while firing the boiler,
then all fuel should be automatically tripper immediately.
Load Run-Backs
Upon loss of the following equipment, load must be automatically reduced to a level that can be supported by the remaining equipment. The
load reduction is typically at a rate of 50% per minute (except for individual pulverizer trips). The reduction in fuel input is accomplished by
equal decrease of coal feeder speed or by tripping of pulverizers (for
loss of PA fan or BFP)
One out of two FD fans.
One out of two ID fans.
One out of two PA Fans.
One out of two feedwater pumps.
Any pulverizer(s).(depending on boiler load and number of pulverizers in
service)
One out of two PA or SA air heaters
Turbine trip
Disconnection from the grid
BOP equipment runbacks

40

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Tube Failures
If any water or steam carrying tube fails, the best shutdown method will
be dictated by the size of the failure, the ability to maintain a normal water flow (or level if the boiler is in the recirculation mode) and the demand for the unit to remain in service.
The following instructions are general since most of the conditions will
require the judgment of the operators.
WATERWALL TUBES
If a leak or tube failure does not involve a serious drain on the feedwater supply, the water flow/level should be maintained and the unit taken
out of service in the normal manner:
1.

Operate the soot blowers if conditions permit.

2.

Switch the combustion control equipment to manual control and


proceed to reduce the firing rate and air flow in a normal manner.

3.

When all fires are extinguished continue the airflow through the
unit at a reduced rate to purge all combustible gases, vapors, etc.
Shut down the fans when the unit is cooled sufficiently.

4.

Feed water to the boiler by manual control. To speed cooling, boiler pressure can be reduced by opening the superheater outlet
drains.

5.

Allow the boiler to cool at least to 200F (93C) (separator metal


temperature); before draining.

If there is a serious water loss and the water flow/level cannot be maintained with the feedwater supply available. Use the following method:
1.

Trip all fuel.

2.

Shut off the feedwater to the boiler.

3.

Maintain only enough airflow to carry the escaping steam up the


stack.

4.

Leave the fans and air heaters in service until pressure is off the
unit.

5.

Once the unit is cool enough to enter, inspect the pressure parts for
damage caused by the loss of water level. After the necessary repairs have been made, apply a hydrostatic test and obtain the approval of the proper authorities before putting the unit back in service.

ECONOMIZER TUBES
An economizer tube leak can be detected by sound and/or increased
makeup water requirements. Check the leak as soon as possible. Water
leaks in the economizer can cause considerable erosion damage to adjacent tubes. Water carried over from an economizer tube leak may
cause plugging of hoppers and air heaters. Any decision to continue
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

41

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


operation with known leaks should be made with this in mind. The unit
should be shut down in a normal manner.
SUPERHEATER AND REHEATER TUBES
A leak in a superheater or reheater element should be checked as soon
as possible. Steam leaks in the superheater or reheater can cause considerable erosion damage to adjacent tubes. Any decision to continue
operation with known leaks should be made with this in mind. The unit
should be shut down in a normal manner.
A major superheater or reheater tube failure may require an emergency
unit shutdown. The operator must judge the degree of failure, its consequences, and then decide what type of shut down is required.

OPERATION WITHOUT
BRP
General Remarks
Starting the boiler without the BRP is an unusual activity, and should
therefore be carried out in exceptional cases only.
The minimum economizer flow must be supplied by the BFPM, and in
lieu of recirculation, water is drained through the start-up system HWL
valves to the flash tank, receiving tank, transfer pumps, and returned to
the condenser.
Because there is no water recirculation, heat and water losses will be
much higher. So to compensate, additional make-up water should be
available and additional heat input (both quantity and length of time) will
be required. Adequate preparations should be made before attempting
this type of startup.
Cold Start Without BRP

42

1.

Prepare the unit for light-off following the normal procedure.

2.

Close the BRP suction and discharge isolation valves, and the
BRP bypass valve.

3.

The boiler is filled in auto mode, following the normal procedure.

4.

The pre-boiler and boiler recirculation for clean-up is carried out


following the normal procedure.

5.

Increase the feedwater flow setpoint to 40%. The HWL-1 and


HWL-2 will open in auto mode when the level in the SST reaches
the high setpoint, and will drain the full capacity of 40%.

6.

Light-off the boiler in the usual manner. When the first ignitor is
proven in service, the feedwater flow setpoint will automatically be
controlled to 40%. Warm-up the boiler in the usual manner. Drain
flow will increase above 40% as the boiler water swells.
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


7.

When the pressure in the reheater reaches approximately 70 psig


4.9 kg/cm2) with the HP/LP bypass system in operation, feedwater heater no. 7 can be placed into operation to preheat the feedwater and raise steam production. Care must be taken to control
the steam flow to FWH no. 7 during this period such that the LP
bypass valve does not close too much, disabling both the cooling
flow through the reheater and LP pressure control. In addition,
monitor the fluid condition entering the evaporator. If sub-cooling
is less than 10 deg F (6C), then increase the economizer inlet
flow or decrease the feedwater temperature.

8.

Roll and synchronize the turbine following the normal procedure.

9.

Increase load to 40% following the normal procedure.

10. At approximately 40% load the boiler will enter the once-through
mode. When once-through mode is proven, the warm-keeping
system should be put into operation.
11. Follow normal operation for unit load changes.
Shutdown Without BRP
1.

Reduce load in auto mode following the normal procedure.

2.

At approximately 40% load, the boiler will transfer to the recirculation mode. With the BRP off, the feedwater flow setpoint will automatically control the BFP loading to maintain the minimum economizer flow setpoint.

3.

The HWL-1 will open in auto mode when the level in the SST
reaches the high setpoint. If additional drain capacity is needed,
HWL-2 will open when HWL-1 reaches full open and level continues to rise.

4.

Note that the start up system valves (HWL-1, HWL-2) are interlocked to prevent opening above 2100 psig (148 kg/cm2) to protect the flash tank, so pressure must be reduced to less than this
value before the transfer to recirculation mode is made.

5.

Continue to reduce load and shutdown the unit following the normal procedure.

6.

Keep the BFP in service with the feedwater flow at minimum setpoint of 40% until the boiler water temperature is reduced to the
desire point. Keep the water level near normal in the SST, draining water via HWL valves as required.

Warm Start without BRP


Warm start-up without the BRP follows the same process as for a cold
start-up.
Hot Start Without BRP
It is possible to perform a hot start or re-start without the BRP, but the
pressure and temperature loss in the boiler will be higher caused by the
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

43

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


fact that cold water will be fed to the economizer, instead of recirculated
water from the SST via the BRP.
1.

Prepare the unit for light-off following the normal procedure.

2.

Close the BRP suction and discharge isolation valves, and the
BRP bypass valve.

3.

Set the feedwater flow setpoint to 40%. The HWL-1 and HWL-2
will open in auto mode when the level in the SST reaches the
high setpoint, and will drain the full capacity of 40%.

4.

Note that the start up system valves (HWL-1, HWL-2) are interlocked to prevent opening above 2100 psig (148 kg/cm2) to protect the flash tank, so pressure must be less than this value before initiating the startup.

5.

Light-off the boiler following the normal procedure. When the first
ignitor is proven in service, the feedwater flow setpoint will automatically be controlled to 40%. Warm-up the boiler following the
normal procedure.

6.

When the pressure in the reheater reaches approximately 70 psig


(4.9 kg/cm2) with the HP/LP bypass system in operation, feedwater heater no. 7 can be placed into operation to preheat the feedwater and raise steam production. Care must be taken to control
the steam flow to FWH no. 7 during this period such that the LP
bypass valve does not close too much, disabling both the cooling
flow through the reheater and LP pressure control. In addition,
monitor the fluid condition entering the evaporator and ensure
that this temperature is always sub-cooled at least 10 deg F. If
sub-cooling is less than 10 deg F (6 deg C), then increase the
economizer inlet flow or decrease the feedwater temperature.

7.

Roll and synchronise the turbine following the normal procedure.

8.

Increase load to 40% following the normal procedure.

9.

At approximately 40% load the boiler will enter the once-through


mode. When once-through mode is proven, the warm-keeping
system should be put into operation.

10. Follow normal operation for unit load changes.

44

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

APPENDIX A FEEDWATER
SPECIFICATIONS FOR
ONCE THRU BOILERS

Refer to Water Chemistry Control for Once-Through Utility Boiler SYstems.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

45

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

Figure 1. Airflow Curve.

AIR FLOW CURVE


FOR COLD START-UP

AIRFLOW - % OF MAX. DESIGN

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
PURGE
AIRFLOW

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110

BOILER LOAD - % OF MAX. DESIGN

LIGHTING
OFF

ON THE
LINE

WARMING
UP

46

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Figure 2. Mill Operating Diagram
NTPC BARH II
PREDICTED PERFORMANCE
Mill Operating Diagram with Design Coal
150
140

NOMAL OPERATING RANGE


40% TO 85% MILL CAPACITY

130

Boiler Load - %BMCR

120

Seven Mills
Six Mills

110
100

Five Mills

90
80

Four Mills

70
60

Three Mills

50
40
Two Mills

30
20

One Mill

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Mill Capacity - %
Curve S-xxxx

Alstom Power, Inc. Contract 00108

NTPC BARH II
PREDICTED PERFORMANCE
Mill Operating Diagram with Worst Coal
150
NOMAL OPERATING RANGE
40% TO 85% MILL CAPACITY

140
130
120

Eight Mills

Boiler Load - %

110

Seven Mills

100
90

Six Mills

80

Five Mills

70
Four Mills

60
50

Three Mills

40
30

Two Mills

20
One Mill

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Mill Capacity - %
Curve S-xxxx

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

Alstom Power, Inc. Contract 00108

47

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Figure 3: Startup Curves

48

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

49

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Figure 4: Boiler Cleanup Diagram

START-UP SYSTEM WITH RECIRCIRCULATION PUMP


WATER CLEAN-UP
4

2
5

MEFCV
8
16

ECONOMIZER

WATERWALLS

WATER SEPARATOR STORAGE TANK

CONDENSER

CONDENSATE PUMPS

CONDENSATE DEMINERALIZER

LP HEATERS

FEEDWATER TANK WITH DEAERATOR

FEED PUMPS

10 HP HEATERS
11 RECIRCULATION LINE FOR
PRE-BOILER CLEAN-UP
12 FLASH TANK
M

HWL1

13 RECEIVING TANK
14 MIXING PIECE / FILTER

14

HWL2

16 CIRCULATING PUMP

12

17 DRAIN TRANSFER PUMP

10
HWL-1
HWL-2
MEFCV

LEVEL CONTROL VALVE


LEVEL CONTROL VALVE
MINIMUM ECONOMIZER
FLOW CONTROL VALVE

13
M

17

PHASE II
PHASE III

50

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Figure 5: Recommended Startup, Shutdown, and Loading Guidelines

RECOMMENDED STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, and LOADING GUIDELINES and LIMITATIONS


Material Temperature Gradient Limitation
All Boiler Components

Temperature <450F (232C)


increasing

400F (222C )/hr

100F (56C)/15 minutes

decreasing

300F (167C )//hr

75F(42C )//15 minutes

increasing

600F (333C )//hr

150F(83C )//15 minutes

decreasing

600F(333C )//hr

150F(83C )//15 minutes

Temperature >450F (232C)

Startup Firing Rate Limitation


(to avoid overheating SH/RH tubing)

<1100F(593C )/ furnace exit gas temperature prior to establishing RH flow


(via turbine synchronization or HP/LP Bypass open)

Typical Coordinated Startup Load Gradients


(%MCR/min)
(refer to the relevant startup curves)

Maximum Load Gradients

Load Range

Cold

Hot
0.50%

0-10%

0.50%

10-40%

1%

1%

40-100%

1-2%

3-4%

Load Range

Sliding Pressure Operation

40-50%

3% MCR/min

50-100%

5% MCR/min

Steam Generator in Recirculation Mode

<40%MCR

Steam Generator in Once-through Mode

>40%MCR

HP Feedwater Heater I/S - last to be placed I/S (to


avoid steaming conditions at econ. outlet/evap. inlet)

>20%MCR

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

(avoid turbine holds, etc near 40% load during transition from recirculation to once-through mode)

51

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

52

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

FIGURE 6 VALVE OPERATION FOR UNIT COLD START

Description/Location

Valve Open

Valve Closed

Separator High Water Limit Valves


HWL-1, HWL-2
Isolation Valves for HWL-1. HWL-2

Open for SST high level control

Closed all other times

Open for SST high level control

Closed all other times

Minimum Economizer Flow Control Valve, MEFCV

Closed when in once-through mode

Boiler Recirculation Isolation

Open for control of minimum economizer flow


when in recirculation mode
Open before starting BRP

BRP Suction Isolation

Open before starting BRP

Close if BRP trips

BRP Discharge Isolation

Open before starting BRP

Close if BRP trips

Warmkeeping System Supply Isolation

Closed when in recirculation mode

Open when in once-through mode

Warmkeeping System Control, WKFCV

Closed when in recirculation mode

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Closed when in recirculation mode

Open for control of warm-keeping flow when in once-through


mode
Open when in once-through mode

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Open at all other times

Closed for maitaianance

SH Connecting Link Vents

Open before lighting off

SH Furnace Roof Inlet Header drain

Open before lighting off

SH Backpass lower rear Header Drains

Open before lighting off

SH Backpass lower front Header Drains

Open before lighting off

Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when


separator pressure > 5 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 25 psig
Close immediately after synchronization of the unit. See note
1.
Operate in conjunction with SH Backpass lower front Header
Drains

Closed when transfer to once-through mode is complete

Link to steam inerting system


SH link from Desuperheater 1 vents

Open before lighting off

SH link to SH Platen

Open before lighting off

Main steam line vents

Open before lighting off

Main steam line drains

Open before lighting off

Cold reheat line drains

Open before lighting off

Hot reheat line drains

Open before lighting off

Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when


separator pressure > 50 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 25 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 75 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, close completely when turbine
is under light load
Keep open to condenser until turbine is under light load. See
note 2.
Keep open to condenser until turbine is under light load. See
note 2.

Note 1: Valves may be used during warmup to obtain the required outlet steam temperatures (approx 100 deg F superheat) for turbine rolling. Steam is diverted by sequencing valves open
and closed. Valves should be either fully open or fully closed. Valves must be closed immediately upon synchronization (before appreciable load is picked up) to prevent possible overheating
of superheater elements. If additional backpass system valves are supplied by the customer, they may be used in place of these valves for superheat control.
Note 2: Reheater drains and vents that are not connected to the condenser must be closed prior to establishing vacuum.
BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

VALVE OPERATION FOR UNIT HOT START

Description/Location

Valve Open

Valve Closed

Separator High Water Limit Valves


HWL-1, HWL-2
Isolation Valves for HWL-1. HWL-2

Open for SST high level control

Closed all other times

Open for SST high level control

Closed all other times

Minimum Economizer Flow Control Valve, MEFCV

Closed when in once-through mode

Boiler Recirculation Isolation

Open for control of minimum economizer flow


when in recirculation mode
Open before starting BRP

BRP Suction Isolation

Open before starting BRP

Close if BRP trips

BRP Discharge Isolation

Open before starting BRP

Close if BRP trips

Warmkeeping System Supply Isolation

Closed when in recirculation mode

Open when in once-through mode

Warmkeeping System Control, WKFCV

Closed when in recirculation mode

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Closed when in recirculation mode

Open for control of warm-keeping flow when in once-through


mode
Open when in once-through mode

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Open at all other times

Closed for maintainance

SH Connecting Link Vents

Open before lighting off

SH Furnace Roof Inlet Header drain

Open before lighting off

SH Backpass lower rear Header Drains

Open before lighting off

SH Backpass lower front Header Drains

Open before lighting off

Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when


separator pressure > 25 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 25 psig
Close immediately after synchronization of the unit. See note
1.
Operate in conjunction with SH Backpass lower front Header
Drains

Closed when transfer to once-through mode is complete

Link to steam inerting system


SH link from Desuperheater 1 vents

Open before lighting off

SH link to SH Platen

Open before lighting off

Main steam line vents

Open before lighting off

Main steam line drains

Open before lighting off

Cold reheat line drains

Open before lighting off

Hot reheat line drains

Open before lighting off

Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when


separator pressure > 25 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 25 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, verify closed completely when
separator pressure > 50 psig
Throttle as pressure increases, close completely when turbine
is under light load
Keep open to condenser until turbine is under light load. See
note 2.
Keep open to condenser until turbine is under light load. See
note 2.

Note 1: Valves may be used during warmup to obtain the required outlet steam temperatures (approx 100 deg F superheat) for turbine rolling. Steam is diverted by sequencing valves open
and closed. Valves should be either fully open or fully closed. Valves must be closed immediately upon synchronization (before appreciable load is picked up) to prevent possible overheating
of superheater elements. If additional backpass system valves are supplied by the customer, they may be used in place of these valves for superheat control.
Note 2: Reheater drains and vents that are not connected to the condenser must be closed prior to establishing vacuum.

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES

GENERAL VALVE OPERATION

Descritpion/Location

Valve Operation

Separator High Water Limit Valves


HWL-1, HWL-2
Isolation Valves for HWL-1. HWL-2

Open for SST high level control, closed at all other times

Link to Flash Tank drains

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Economizer Flow Control Valve, MEFCV

Modulated to control minimum flow to economizer,

SST Downcomer Sampling

Open for water sampling, closed at all other times

Boiler Recirculation Isolation

Open before starting BRP, close when transfer to once-through mode is complete

BRP Suction Isolation

Open before starting BRP

BRP Discharge Isolation

Open before starting BRP

BRP Motor Cavity drains

Open when filling or draining BRP, locked closed at all other times

BRP Motor Cavity Fill lines

Open when filling BRP, closed at all other times

Warmkeeping System Supply Isolation

Open when startup system is out of service above 30% load, closed at all other times

Warmkeeping System Control, WKFCV

Modulated to control warmkeeping system flow

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Open when startup system is out of service above 30% load, closed at all other times

Warmkeeping System Discharge Isolation

Closed for maintainance, open at all other times

Warmkeeping System Drains

Open when draining warm-keeping system, closed at all other times.

Furnace Lower Sphere Drains

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Furnace lower Header Drains

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Furnace Wall Riser Vent

Open when filling and draining unit, closed at all other times

Economizer inlet header drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times.

Economizer outlet link vents

Open when filling and draining unit, closed at all other times.

BRP Discharge Line Drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

MEFCV Discharge Line Drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Boiler Recircuation link to Economizer drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Boiler Main FW Line Drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

Open for SST high level control, closed at all other times

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11

UNIT OPERATING PROCEDURES


Boiler Recirculation link to Mixing Sphere drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

FW Check Valve drain

Open when draining unit, closed at all other times

SH Connecting Link Vents

Open when filling the SH for hydrostatic test. See operating recommendations for cold or hot start.

SH Furnace Roof Inlet Header drain

Open when draining the unit. See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

SH backpass lower rear header drains

See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

SH backpass lower front header drains

See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

Link to steam inerting system

Open when filling the SH for hydrostatic test, closed at all other times.

SH link from Desuperheater 1 vents

Open when filling the SH for hydrostatic test. See operating recommendations for cold or hot start.

SH link to SH Platen

Open when filling the SH for hydrostatic test. Operate in conjunction with SH link from Desuperheater vents

Main steam line vents

Open when filling the SH for hydrostatic test. See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

Main steam line drains

See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

Cold reheat line drains

See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

RH link from Desuperheater vents

Open when filling the reheater for hydrostatic test, closed at all other times

Hot reheat lead vents

Open when filling the reheater for hydrostatic test, closed at all other times. See operating recommendations for cold or hot
start.
See operating recommendations for cold or hot start

Hot reheat lead drains

BARHII_00108_ UOP_REV02A.DOC-6/2/11