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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters

Installation and Operation Manual

PV Powered Grid-Tied Residential Inverters

INSTALLATION & OPERATION MANUAL

80801.3.0

Preface

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

PV Powered

Contact Information

PV Powered, Inc.
150 SW Scalehouse Loop
Bend, OR 97702
Tel: 541-312-3832
Customer Service and Technical Support: 1-877-312-3832
Fax: 541-383-2348
www.pvpowered.com
email: support@pvpowered.com

PREFACE

PV Powered designs, manufactures, and markets the solar power industrys most
reliable photovoltaic solar inverter solutions. Weve assembled a highly experienced
solar power electronics design team. Our vision is to spur the widespread adoption and
success of solar power, by assisting our distributors, dealers and installers in this dynamic
market while ensuring that our products are the best supported, easiest to install, and
most reliable solar inverters in the industry. Our innovative approach to performance
monitoring provides secure and easy access to system performance and inverter status
over the Internet.

Revisions and Certication

For applicability of technical information with your specic product, contact PV


Powered Customer Service and Technical Support at support@pvpowered.com.
Safety Information and Conventions
Designation of Danger, Warning and Caution

DANGER

The Danger statement is used to inform the installer/operator of a situation requiring


the utmost attention. Failure to heed this warning will result in serious injury or death to
personnel and destruction of equipment.

WARNING

The Warning statement is used to inform the installer/operator of a situation requiring serious attention. Failure to heed this warning may result in serious injury or death to personnel and destruction of equipment.

CAUTION

The Caution statement is used to inform the installer/operator of a situation requiring attention. Failure to heed this Caution may result in injury to personnel and damage
to equipment.

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Acronyms and Abbreviations

A/D

Analog to Digital Converter

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

CFM

Cubic Feet per Minute

DSP

Digital Signal Processor

EMI

Electromagnetic Interference

ESD

Electro Static Discharge

GFDI

Ground Fault Detector Interruptor

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IGBT

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

LOTO

Lockout Tagout

MCM

1000 circular mils utilized in wire sizing

MPPT

Maximum Power Point Tracking

NEC

National Electric Code

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

PCB

Printed Circuit Board

PLL

Phase Lock Loop

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

PV

Photovoltaic

PWM

Pulse Width Modulation

VFD

Vacuum Fluorescent Display

iii

Document Copyright

Grid Tied Residential Inverter Installation and Operations Manual (Models 1100, 2000,
2500, 2800, 3000, 3500, 4600, 4800, 5200) 2008 PV Powered. All rights reserved.
This manual may not be reproduced or distributed without written permission from PV
Powered.

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Table of Contents

1. Introduction and Safety.................................................................................................1


1.1 General Safety................................................................................................................1
1.2 FCC Compliance............................................................................................................2
2. Planning ..........................................................................................................................3
2.1 Select a Location for the Inverter ..................................................................................3
2.2 Mounting the Inverter ...................................................................................................4

4. Operations ....................................................................................................................17
4.1 Start Up Procedures .....................................................................................................17
4.2 Inverter Front Panel Status Indicators ........................................................................18
5. Maintenance and Troubleshooting .............................................................................21
5.1 Red and Green LED Lights ON ..................................................................................21
5.2 Ground Fault ................................................................................................................21
5.3 Displayed Fault Codes .................................................................................................22
6. Limited Warranty ........................................................................................................25
6.1 Term of Coverage ........................................................................................................25
6.2 Coverage ......................................................................................................................25
6.3 What is Not Covered....................................................................................................26
6.4 Disclaimer and Limitation of Liability ........................................................................26
6.5 Arbitration ....................................................................................................................27
6.6 Miscellaneous Provisions ............................................................................................28
7. Return Procedure.........................................................................................................29
7.1 Information about Your System ...................................................................................29
Appendix A- Specications ...............................................................................................31
Index ..................................................................................................................................33

TABLE
of CONTENTS

3. Installation ......................................................................................................................5
3.1 Mounting and Anchoring ...............................................................................................5
3.2 Electrical Connections ...................................................................................................7

List of Figures and Tables

Danger Symbol ................................................................................................................... ii


Warning Symbol ................................................................................................................. ii
Caution Symbol .................................................................................................................. ii
Figure 3-1 V-shaped Mounting Bracket..............................................................................5
Figure 3-2 T-shaped Mounting Bracket ..............................................................................6
Figure 3-3 Inside Screw (below the power board) .............................................................6
Figure 3-4 Inverter with Mounting Bracket in Place ..........................................................7
Figure 3-5 Communications, AC and DC Ports .................................................................9
Figure 3-6 System Block Diagram Showing Single-Point Ground ..................................11
Figure 3-7 Example Ground Fault Message .....................................................................11
Figure 3-8 AC and PV Grounding ....................................................................................12
Figure 3-9 AC Wiring for the Line 1, Line 2 and Ground Wires ......................................13
Figure 3-10 Positive and Negative Jumpers .....................................................................15
Figure 3-11 Power Board Connections .............................................................................16
Figure 4-1 Normal Startup Screens .................................................................................20
Figure 4-2 Running Screens .............................................................................................20
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4

Faulted .............................................................................................................22
Starting Up From a Faulted State ....................................................................22
AC Voltage High/DC Voltage Low Fault ........................................................23
Power Low Fault .............................................................................................23

Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4

Required Branch Circuit Protection....................................................................8


Inverter Voltage Frequency Limits .....................................................................8
Grounding Electrode Sizing .............................................................................10
PV Open Circuit Voltages .................................................................................14

Table 5-1 Fault Codes .......................................................................................................24


Table A-1 Specications ............................................................................................. 31-32
Table A-2 Abnormal Specications ..................................................................................32

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

1. Introduction and Safety

The PV Powered Grid Tied Residential Inverters is a utility interactive inverter for
photovoltaic (PV) systems.
The inverter is tied to an electrical source provided by the local utility company as well
as to the PV system. The inverter contains everything needed to convert the DC voltage
generated by the PV arrays into the AC voltage required to power a house.
This manual provides information necessary for the successful installation and use of the
PV Powered Grid Tied Residential Inverters.
1.1 General Safety
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS: This product has been engineered and manufactured to ensure your personal safety. Improper use may result in potential electrical
shock or burns. Read and follow all instructions for installation, use and servicing of
this product. Read all safety warnings before installing or operating the inverter.

SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS: This manual contains important instructions


for the Grid Tied Residential Inverters that must be followed during installation
and maintenance of the Grid Tied Residential Inverters.

CAUTION

All electrical installations should be done in accordance with local electrical


codes and the National Electrical Code (NEC), ANSI/NFPA 70.

Before connecting the inverter to the electrical utility grid, your utility
company must grant approval. Only qualied electricians should make the
connection.

When exposed to light, photovoltaic (PV) arrays create electrical energy that
could cause a hazardous condition. To avoid this, completely cover the surface
of all PV arrays with opaque (dark) material before wiring them.

The inverter contains no user-serviceable parts. Refer maintenance to qualied


service personnel.

Do not touch the heat sink located at the top of the inverter, temperatures can
exceed 158F (70oC).

1. INTRODUCTION
& SAFETY

NOTE: A locking tab has been designed into Grid Tied Residential Inverters
It is the sole responsibility of the end user to provide a locking
mechanism that utilizes the tab and secures the cover on the
inverter.

1.2 FCC Compliance


The Grid Tied Residential Inverters have been tested and found to pass FCC Class B
radio interference standards with proper installation of the inverter. This is not a guarantee
that there will be no interference at every installation. If you notice interference at your
installation, try the following potential solutions:

Move or re-orient the affected device.

Increase the distance between the devices.

Connect the device to a different AC circuit.

CAUTION
Read all safety warnings and instructions before installing or operating the inverter.

2. Planning

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

2.1 Select a Location for the Inverter


When choosing a location for the inverter, consider the following criteria:

The inverter is suitable for both indoor and outdoor installation; the inverter
enclosure has a NEMA 3R rating.

The optimum location of the inverter is outside, shielded from direct exposure to sunlight (i.e. not on the south facing side of the building).

The heat sink temperatures can exceed 158F (70oC). The inverter must be
installed so that people will not touch the top of the unit.

The inverter is designed to handle the temperature extremes of most climates.


The operating and non-operating environmental ambient temperature range
is -15F to 105F (-25oC to 40oC).

Location and Clearances

The following clearances are recommend for proper placement of the inverter:

A minimum of 36 inches between the bottom of the inverter box and the
ground.

A minimum of 12 inches above the heat sink.

Visibility of the operating LEDs and display located at the top front of the
inverter box should also be considered.
If the inverter is installed in an enclosed space, adequate ventilation must be
provided.

2. PLANNING

2.2 Mounting the Inverter


The inverter should be mounted vertically to a at, solid surface such as wallboard,
concrete, or wood siding. It should be located near the PV arrays to minimize the DC
wire length.
The bracket provided makes mounting the inverter quick and simple. The two screw
holes at either end of the top of the bracket are 16 inches apart and are designed to
match standard stud locations. Anchor the bracket to the wall studs once you have
located them.

WARNING

Before drilling holes to mount the inverter, verify that there are no electrical wires or
plumbing in the area

3. Installation

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

3.1 Mounting and Anchoring


Models PVP4600, PVP4800 and PVP5200

1. Locate the wall studs in the desired location and align the mounting bracket over the
studs. Mark the mounting holes. Ensure that locations A and B (see Figure 3-1) are
aligned over the wall studs.
2. VERIFY THE BRACKET IS LEVEL. Ensure points A and B are aligned with the wall
studs. Drill 1/8 pilot holes for the screws.
Use heavy-duty 1/4 inch x 2 inch coarse thread lag screws to secure points A and
B to the wall.
Use an 1/8 screw to secure point C (see Figure 3-1).

Figure 3-1 V-shaped Mounting Bracket

3. Carefully hang the inverter on the upper part of the bracket. The hooks located at the
rear of the inverter should hang over the bracket.
4. Verify inverter is level.
5. For the PVP4600, PVP4800, or PVP5200 models, remove the four screws on the lower
lid to access the electrical connections.

6. Locate the two inverter mounting holes below the power board (see Figure 3-2).
Insert the two mounting screws through the inverter and tighten securely.

3. INSTALLATION

There are no user serviceable parts in the upper portion of the inverter.

Models PVP1100, PVP1100EVR, PVP2000, PVP2000EVR, PVP2500, PVP2800, PVP3000, PVP3500

1. Locate the wall studs in the desired location and align the mounting bracket over a single
stud. Mark the mounting holes ensuring holes C, D, E and F are directly over the single
stud (see Figure 3-2).
2. VERIFY THE BRACKET IS LEVEL. Ensure points C through F are aligned with the
wall studs. Drill 1/8 pilot holes for the screws.
Use heavy-duty 1/4 x 2 coarse thread lag screws to secure points C through F to
the wall.
Use an 1/8 screw to secure points A and B (See Figure 3-2).

E
F
Mounting Hole

Figure 3-2 Mounting Bracket

3. Carefully hang the inverter on the upper part of the bracket. The hooks located at the rear
of the inverter should hang over the bracket.
4. Verify inverter is level.
5. Remove the front cover of the inverter by unscrewing the four cover screws located
around the front perimeter of the inverter.
6. Locate the inverter mounting hole below the power board (see Figure 3-3). Insert the
mounting screw through the inverter and tighten securely.

Figure 3-3 Inside Screw (below the power board)

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Figure 3-4 Inverter with Mounting Bracket in Place

NOTE: Leave the inverter cover off to allow for electrical connection
described in 3.2 Electrical Connections.

3.2 Electrical Connections

CAUTION

The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that the inverter be connected to a
dedicated circuit with no other outlets or devices connected to the same circuit.
See NEC Section 690-64(b)(1). The NEC also places limitations on the size of the
inverter and the manner in which it is connected to the utility grid. See NEC Section
690-64(b)(2).
To reduce the risk of re, connect the inverter to the appropriate size breaker (See
Table 3-1 for required branch circuit protection). Maximum branch-circuit overcurrent protection calculated in accordance with the National Electrical Code (NEC),
ANSI/NFPA 70.

Inverter Model

Circuit Breaker Required


1 pole 15A

PVP1100
PVP2000
PVP2500
PVP2800
PVP3000
PVP3500
PVP4600
PVP4800
PVP5200

2 pole 15A
2 pole 20A
2 pole 20A
2 pole 20A
2 pole 20A
2 pole 30A
2 pole 30A
2 pole 30A

Table 3-1 Required Branch Circuit Protection


Inverter Voltage and Frequency Limits

The inverter is factory-calibrated to the voltage and frequency limits specied in Table
3-2. This adjustable range can be set by PV Powered eld technicians.
Condition

Voltage phase high


Voltage phase low
Voltage phase fast high
Voltage phase fast low
Voltage high line to line
(240V inverters)
Voltage low line to line
(240V inverters)
Voltage high line to line
(208V inverters)
Voltage low line to line
(208V inverters)
Line frequency low
Line frequency high

Factory
Setting
132.0
105.6
144.0
60.0
264.0

Adjustable Range
(VAC) Models 2500,
3500, 4600, 4800, 5200
132.0 - 138.0
99.6 - 105.6
144.0 - 150.0
54.0 - 60.0

Adjustable Range
(VAC) Models 1100,
2000, 2800, 3000
132.0 - 142.0
95.6 - 105.6
144.0 - 156.0
< 60.0

Maximum
Trip Time(s)
< 1 second
< 2 seconds
< 160ms
< 160ms

211.0
228.8
183.0
59.3 Hz
60.5 Hz

n/a
n/a

Table 3-2 Inverter Voltage Frequency Limits

< 160ms
< 160ms

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Do not proceed with the electrical connection of the inverter until it has been properly
mounted.

WARNING

Electrical connections must be completed in accordance with local electrical codes


and the National Electrical Code (NEC), ANSI/NFPA 70. Use 10 AWG, minimum
90oC (194oF), copper wire for all inverter electrical connections. Voltage drop as well
as other considerations may dictate using larger wire sizes.
NOTE: PV Powered recommends sizing wire of one percent voltage drop for
AC and one percent voltage drop for DC.

WARNING

Make sure the main breaker in the main utility breaker box is switched OFF before
wiring the inverter. This breaker should be switched ON only after all wiring has been
completed as described in this manual.

WARNING

Follow the order listed below to wire the inverter. Failure to do so may result in
hazardous voltages or disconnection of contacts.
IMPORTANT: When mounting the inverter outside, use rain-tight or wet-location conduit
hubs that comply with the requirements in the Standard for Fittings for Conduit and Outlet
Boxes, UL 514B.
Terminal connections for the inverter are located inside the inverter on the circuit board at
the bottom of the cabinet. The AC and DC terminals accept wires up to 6 AWG.

CAUTION

The input and output circuits are isolated from the enclosure. System grounding,
when required by Sections 690-41, 690-42, and 690-43 of the National Electric Code
(NEC), ANSI/NFPA 70-1999, is the responsibility of the installer.

Figure 3-5 Communications, AC and DC Ports

Separation of Circuits

The lower part of the inverter circuit board is divided into three sections:
1. The left side is dedicated to the low voltage DC communications.
2. The center is dedicated to the AC.
3. The right side is dedicated to the DC.
Each section has two to three knockouts. UL 1741 standard requires a straight run of
wire, with no loops or crossover to the other circuits (sections) and low voltage versus
high voltage in each section.
1. Left knockouts (up to the divider) are for low voltage communications only
(PVM1010 Data Monitoring Module).
2. Center knockouts are for AC.
3. Right knockouts are for DC.
Grounding

A single-point ground connection is located in the lower right-hand side of the inverter
cabinet. This is where the PV array grounding wire is terminated. The AC ground
connection is terminated next to the Line 1 and Line 2 connections on the circuit board.
The PV ground connector is attached to the cabinet with a 10-32 bolt. This ground lug is
provided to allow for the PV safety ground to be bonded to the cabinet. This is the only
place the PV ground should be connected to the inverter.

Do not tie the safety ground to the PV array positive or negative. That would defeat
the PV ground fault protection circuit. Refer to Figure 3-8 for additional information.

See Table 3-3 for appropriate sizing of the grounding electrode. Use the maximum
current AC or DC - whichever is larger - and multiply it by 1.25 to get the maximum
current rating per NEC 690.
Maximum
Current Rating

Minimum Size of Grounding


Electrode Conductor AWG
Copper

15
20
30
40
60

8
8
8
8
8

Aluminum
Copper Clad
6
6
6
6
6

Table 3-3 Grounding Electrode Sizing

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Figure 3-6 is a schematic representation of the PV Powered single-point grounding. The


front cover is grounded through the cover mounting screws.

PVP3500 & PVP2500


+

Control pcb

Power Distribution PCB

GF Detect Circuit

PV
DC input

120/240 VAC
60Hz

1A

Line
Filter

L1
20 A SB

DC
Power
Supply

PV GND

L2
GND

GND

System Block Diagram


Figure 3-6 System Block Diagram Showing Single-Point Ground
GFI Circuit

The purpose of the Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) circuit is to detect a ground fault
(unintended current ow from the PV arrays to earth ground).

For the GFI circuit to function as designed, the PV array safety ground must be connected only at the ground terminals provided.

Bonding the safety ground to the grounded leg of the array anywhere but through the
inverter will bypass the GFI circuit. This creates an unsafe operating condition.

The GFI works by using a fuse to connect or bond the PV array negative (or the PV
array positive if using a positively grounded array) to earth ground through the 1A
fuse.

If current is greater than 1A between the grounded array terminal and the earth
ground, the fuse will blow. A blown or open fuse will disconnect the PV arrays
from their ground reference and interrupt the ground fault current. In this situation,
the inverter will cease operation and display a fault message as shown in Figure 3-7.

Fault 0400 0000


Ground Fault

Figure 3-7 Ground Fault Message

11

If the inverter displays Ground Fault, turn OFF the AC and DC to the inverter and refer to
the fault examples in this manual.

PV Ground

Figure 3-8 AC and PV Grounding


Connecting the Inverter to the Electrical Grid

Two circuit boards are located inside the inverter:


1. The Control Board (at the top of the inverter).
2. The Power Distribution Board (at the bottom of the inverter) with the following
terminals:
The AC connection terminal.
The DC connection terminal.
The internal Ground Fault Interrupt fuse.

WARNING: Replace the GFI fuse with the same type and rating of

WARNING fuse. The inverter uses only Littelfuse KLKD001 1A/600V.

Replace the GFI fuse with the same type and rating of fuse. The inverter uses only
Littelfuse KLKD001 1A/600V.

The inverter is connected to the electrical grid using 3 wires - LINE 1, LINE 2 and
GROUND.

NOTE: To avoid an increase in AC voltage to unacceptable values while the


inverter is exporting power, the grid impedance value at the connection
point should be as low as possible. By keeping the grid impedance
value low, the inverter will achieve higher system efciency and avoid
nuisance shutdowns. The total impedance of the grid plus the
interconnecting AC wires should be less than 1.25 Ohm.
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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

WARNING

Ensure the main 240V (or 208V for the PVP2800 and PVP4600 or 120 for PVP1100
or PVP1100EVR) breaker at the circuit breaker panel is switched OFF before connecting to the AC terminal block.

To wire the inverter to the main utility grid, follow these steps and refer to Figure 3-9:
1. Run the conduit from the main breaker panel to the bottom of the inverter. Insert the
tting in the center opening of the inverter and fasten it with a locking nut.
2. Feed the LINE 1, LINE 2 and GROUND wires through the conduit and into a center
opening of the inverter.
3. Connect the GROUND wire to the terminal marked earth ground inside the
inverter.
4. Connect the LINE 2 wire to the terminal marked line 2 inside the inverter.
5. Connect the LINE 1 wire to the terminal marked line inside the inverter.
6. Ensure all connections are wired correctly and properly torqued. Tighten the terminal block screws to 0.5 Nm (0.37 ft/lb).

NOTE: In the PVP1100 units. Line 1 wire is the only phase voltage wire.
LINE 2 is neutral and LINE 3 is the AC GROUND.

Figure 3-9 AC Wiring for the Line 1, Line 2 and Ground Wires

13

Connecting DC Wires/PV Panels

WARNING

Before proceeding with the DC wiring, completely cover the surface of all PV panels
with dark material to avoid the production of electrical current.

WARNING

Make sure the polarity and the PV panel voltage between the positive and the negative cable connectors of the PV panels are correct before connecting the panels to the
DC terminal block on the power distribution board.

The PV array open circuit voltage should be at or below the listed voltages in Table 3-4
under all circumstances. Each DC input to the DC terminal block must be less than the
voltages listed in Table 3-4.

Inverter
Model

Maximum Inverter
Start Voltage

Absolute Maximum
Input Voltage

PVP1100

450VDC

500VDC

PVP2000

450VDC

500VDC

PVP2500

450VDC

500VDC

PVP2800

450VDC

500VDC

PVP3000

450VDC

500VDC

PVP3500

450VDC

500VDC

PVP4600

450VDC

500VDC

PVP4800

450VDC

500VDC

PVP5200

450VDC

500VDC

Table 3-4 PV Open Circuit Voltages


Open Circuit Calculations

The PV array open circuit voltage should be at or below 500 VDC under all
circumstances. Each DC input to the DC terminal block must be less than 500 VDC.
DC Connections

Each DC input connection must carry the same input voltage. The inverter allows up to
three connections for both the positive and negative poles.
To wire the DC inputs from the PV array to the inverter (see Figure 3-11):
1. Calculate the maximum open circuit voltage (Voc) for each series of modules based
on the VOC_TC, in accordance with the expected lower temperature, and accepted
industry practice.

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

NOTE: For all temperature conditions, the Voc for each series
connection must total less than the VDC indicated in Table
3-4 for all residential inverter models.
Review the PV panels data sheet for operating temperature ranges.
2. Keep track of the array positive and negative leads and mark them clearly.
3. Route the PV array leads through the far right opening in the inverter.
4. Connect each series positive DC lead to the positive terminals of the power
distribution board.

WARNING

Negative grounded array: On a standard negatively grounded PV array, break only


the positive wire(s) in the DC disconnect. Do NOT break the negative wire(s).
Positive grounded array: On a positively grounded PV array, break only the negative wire(s) in the DC disconnect. Do NOT break the positive wire(s).

5. Connect the negative DC leads directly to the negative terminal on the power
distribution board.
6. Connect the ground wire(s) to the ground lug.

WARNING

Do not connect or disconnect the jumper while the inverter is supplied with
DC or AC power.

7. Remove the 1A fuse and select the negative or positive grounding jumper included
with the inverter (see Figure 3-10).

Positive ground
jumper has a
red wire

Negative ground
jumper has a
black wire

Figure 3-10 Positive and Negative Jumpers

8. Install the grounding jumper (see Figure 3-11) with the white wire on the right into
connector J3 on the power board.

15

GFI Jumper (J3)

Fuse Clips

PV Negative

PV Positive

Figure 3-11 Power Board Connections

9. Conrm that the DC disconnect is turned OFF and remove the material from the array.
10. With a voltmeter, check the PV array positive leads in the DC disconnect and conrm
that the voltage is positive when referenced to the negative leads. The reading should
match your series Voc total.
11. Measure the DC voltage potential between the two fuse clips (see Figure 3-11) for the
1A fuse.
12. The voltage should be less than 25 volts absolute value. The DC and AC disconnects
can be turned OFF and the 1A fuse installed.
If the voltage is outside of this range (-25V to 25V), wait 10 minutes and check
again.
If (after 10 minutes) the voltage is still not in the range of -25V to 25V, check for
a ground fault or other incorrect wiring.
If the problem persists, contact PV Powered Technical Support at
1-877-312-3832.

16

4. Operations

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Before turning on the inverter, ensure that the front panel is closed properly.

WARNING

The heat sink can reach temperatures in excess of 158F (70C). Do not touch the heat
sink when in use, and do not place anything on top of the heat sink.
4.1 Start up Procedures

To start up the inverter, complete the following steps in the order indicated:
1. Turn the AC breaker ON.
2. Verify that the RED LED light is illuminated.
3. Verify the PV is wired in accordance with the grounded scheme (either positive or
negative). Conrm that the PV array open circuit voltage is at or below the level
specied in Table 3-4.
4. Turn the DC disconnect ON.

NOTE: PV Powered recommends that a padlock be attached to prevent


unauthorized access or damage to the inverter.
5. After ve minutes, the inverter will start to produce power if all necessary operating
conditions are met.

17

4. OPERATIONS

WARNING

4.2 Inverter Front Panel Status Indicators

The inverter has two LED indicator lights visible through the upper left corner of the
front panel. These lights indicate the inverters status.

If the inverters operating environment is safe to export power into the AC grid, the
GREEN LED is illuminated.

If the operating environment moves outside the safe operating limits governed by UL
1741, IEEE 1547, and IEEE 519, the RED LED indicator is illuminated.

The inverter continuously monitors:


1. The AC grid connection, to ensure the AC voltage and frequency levels are within
safe operating limits per UL1741.
2. The DC voltage and current from the PV array ensuring safe operating conditions per
UL 1741.
3. The inverters internal operational parameters, to ensure safe operating conditions
exist within the operating environment.
If all three conditions are met, the inverter displays the GREEN LED.
If any one of the operating conditions are not met, there is a fault condition. The inverter
will then ash the RED LED.
A solid RED LED illuminates when the PV array voltage is not within required operating
limits. The following conditions may cause this to occur:

At sunset, when the inverter turns OFF for the night.

When clouds reduce the amount of available sunlight or when portions of the PV
array are covered with debris.

Any time the DC output from the PV array drops below the inverters minimum DC
operating voltage, the inverter turns OFF.

When the array is once again exposed to enough sunlight, the GREEN LED illuminates,
the inverters auto-start feature begins, and after ve minutes the inverter begins to export
power.

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Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

If the RED LED continues to illuminate when there is sufcient sunlight for operation,
verify that no wiring connections are loose. If the wiring is tight, see 5. Maintenance and
Troubleshooting for additional information.
The vacuum uorescent display (VFD) indicates the inverters status and real-time
power output into the AC Grid. This display provides the following information:

Inverter model number.

AC power produced in real-time (Watts).

Lifetime energy produced (kWh).

AC voltage in real time (VAC).

PV voltage input in real-time (VDC).

During start-up, a count down timer.

Fault code message if a fault exists or recently occurred.

Normal Display Cycle


The display will change screens every two seconds to show a different set of information
as shown in Figures 4-1 and 4-2.
If a fault occurs, the display also provides a corresponding fault code. Refer to
5. Maintenance and Troubleshooting for additional information.

19

Normal Display Cycle

The display will change screens every two seconds to show a different set of information
as shown in Figures 4-1 and 4-2.

PVP 3500
Start in 269 sec

0 Watts
3212 kWh

240 VAC
297 VDC

Screen 1

Screen 2

Screen 3

Figure 4-1 Normal Startup Screens

PVP 3500

1245 Watts
3212 kWh

241 VAC
255 VDC

Screen 1

Screen 2

Screen 3

Figure 4-2 Running Screens

If a fault occurs, the display also provides a corresponding fault code. Refer to
5. Maintenance and Troubleshooting for additional information.

20

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

5. Maintenance & Troubleshooting


The inverter provides two indicator lights that help troubleshoot problems:
1. The light on the left is a RED LED.

The RED LED illuminates any time the DC voltage is below the inverters startup
DC voltage, such as at night. The RED LED blinks if the inverter has had a fault
condition, and the vacuum uorescent display (VFD) displays a fault code. Possible
faults are listed in Table 5-1.
2. The light on the right is a GREEN LED.

5.1 Red and Green LED Lights ON


If this condition occurs (both lights are on solid at the same time), contact PV Powered
Technical Support for assistance.

5.2 Ground Fault


A ground fault inverter reports a ground fault error if it senses a voltage potential
between ground and the grounded terminal of the PV array. This condition can only
occur if the ground fault fuse in the inverter has opened.

A ground fault happens because the grounded conductor of the PV array is broken
in the DC disconnect. Ground faults are typically caused by a pinched wire connecting some part of the array or DC wiring to earth ground.

A less likely cause is limited to multiple inverter installations, when the array
strings are mismatched.
Example: Inverter A has the positive from array 1 and the negative from
array 2.

21

5. MAINTENANCE
& TROUBLESHOOTING

The GREEN LED illuminates any time the DC voltage is above the inverters
DC start voltage and all operational parameters are met. When the GREEN light
illuminates, the inverter tries to invert power from the PV array.

3. Check for continuity (ohms). It should be zero or 1-2 ohms. If the meter indicates no
continuity, then a ground fault likely exists.
4. If the fuse is blown, replace it with a like fuse rated at 600VDC and 1A. DO NOT
insert the new fuse until there is no ground fault present.
5. Check the DC voltage between the grounded terminal of the array and earth ground.
The voltage should be less than 25 volts with the GFI fuse removed. If the voltage is
higher than that, check the array wiring (there may be a ground fault). For the best
results, perform this test with the DC disconnect ON and OFF. If you are not comfortable conducting this test, DO NOT ATTEMPT IT.
6. Make sure the grounded leg of the PV array is not broken in the DC disconnect.

5.3 Displayed Fault Codes


The vacuum uorescent display (VFD) provides the codes shown in Figures 5-1 and 5-2
when a fault has occurred.

Fault 1000 0400


AC Voltage High

0 Watts
1400 kWh

Screen 1

267 VAC
300 VDC

Screen 2

Screen 3

Figure 5-1 Faulted

PVP 3500
Start in 269 sec

Fault 1000 0400


AC Voltage High

Screen 1

Screen 2

0 W
1400 kW-hr

240 VAC
300 VDC

Screen 3

Screen 4

Figure 5-2 Starting Up From a Faulted State

22

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

NOTE: In this case the fault refers to the last fault detected.
If the inverter is in a faulted state, the RED LED blinks and the VFD scrolls through the
screens shown in the faulted example above. The text of the fault describes the specic fault
condition that the inverter experienced.
If the inverter is no longer experiencing the condition that caused it to fault (e.g. the AC
voltage climbs above 264V then drops below 264V), the RED LED stops blinking and the
inverter starts the ve minute count-down timer. During these ve minutes, the display will
also show the last fault.
Multiple Faults

If the inverter detects multiple faults at one time, the inverter displays the text of the rst
fault detected.
For multiple faults, the numerical values of the fault codes are added as shown in Figure 5-3.

Fault 1000 0420


AC Voltage High

Figure 5-3 AC Voltage High/DC Voltage Low Fault

Figure 5-3 displays the AC Voltage High fault (1000 0400), plus a DC Voltage Low fault
(1000 0020). This might occur at night, when the panel voltage is low (because of darkness)
and the utility voltage was above the limits dened in Table 3-2.

Fault 1200 0040


Power Low

Figure 5-4 Power Low Fault

Figure 5-4 shows a Power Low fault. After the fault occurrence, the inverter had a DC
Voltage High fault. In this case, the display added the fault codes 0200 0000 plus 1000 0040
to become 1200 0040.
If the faults have the same rst digit (such as 1000 XXXX) the 1 remains the same and only
the second block of four numbers will add to the original fault code.

WARNING

These servicing instructions are for qualied personnel only. To reduce the risk of
electric shock, do not perform any servicing other than that specied in the operating
instructions unless you are qualied.

23

Fault Codes
Fault Code

VFD Text

Fault Description

8000 0000

Power Module

Generated by the power electronics to protect the module.

4000 0000

Power Module

Generated by the power electronics to protect the module.

1000 0800

PLL Fault

The inverter was unable to match the grid frequency. This is usually
caused by an unstable power grid.

1000 0400

AC Voltage High

The grid voltage exceeded the limits in Table 3-2.

1000 0200

AC Voltage Low

The grid voltage dipped below the AC limits in Table 3-2.

1000 0100

AC Freq Low

The grid frequency went below the limits in Table 3-2.

1000 0080

AC Freq High

The grid frequency went above the limits in Table 3-2.

1000 0020

DC Voltage Low

The DC voltage is below the startup voltage. This fault is only seen in
conjunction with another fault (ex. 1000 0220 is an AC low and a DC
low fault). DC could be low because of low light conditions or the DC
disconnect is turned off.

1000 0010

DC Voltage High

DC Voltage is above 500V. Turn the DC disconnect off immediately.


The inverter will restart when the voltage is back within safe operating
conditions.

1000 0002

Power Supply +15

Housekeeping DC power supply 15VDC is out of tolerance.

1000 0001

Power Supply +5

Housekeeping DC power supply 5VDC is out of tolerance.

0400 0000

Ground Fault

The inverter detected that the GFI fuse is blown. This fault requires an
AC power cycle to reset.

0200 0000

Power Low

The inverter shut down because it was producing less than 60W for 5
minutes. It will try to restart in 10 minutes.

0100 0000

CPU Fault

The inverter encountered a problem in the CPU. This fault requires an


AC power cycle to reset. If this fault reoccurs, contact PV Powered
Technical Support for service.

0040 0000

Over Current

Safety protection.

0020 0000

Pre-charge

The inverter experienced trouble starting up the transformer. If this


reoccurs, contact PV Powered Technical Support for service.

0004 0000

Heatsink Temp

The heat sink is above or below the operating limits of -15oF to 200oF
(-25oC to 95oC).

0002 0000

Watchdog Fault

The CPU experienced a watch dog fault. This fault requires an AC


power cycle to reset. If this reoccurs, contact PV Powered Technical
Support for service.

0001 0000

Ambient Temp

The temperature detected inside the inverter is outside the normal


operating limits of -15oF to 200oF (-25oC to 95oC).

Table 5-1 Fault Codes

24

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

6. Limited Warranty

PV Powered, Inc. provides a limited warranty for your residential or commercial inverter
and optional data monitoring module for defects caused by material or manufacturing
aws. The inverter and the data monitoring module must be installed and maintained by a
qualied installer in order for the warranty to be valid.

6.1 Terms of Coverage


The warranty period for the inverter is ten years, and the warranty on the data monitoring
module is one year, each beginning on the date of purchase by the original end user.

6.2 Coverage

PV Powered will, at its option, use new and/or reconditioned parts in performing
warranty repair and in building replacement products. PV Powered reserves the right to
use parts or products of original or improved design in the repair or replacement. If PV
Powered repairs or replaces a product, its warranty continues for the remaining portion
of the original warranty period or 90 days from the date of the return shipment to the
customer, whichever period expires later. All replaced products and all parts removed
from repaired products become the property of PV Powered.
For defects covered by this limited warranty, PV Powered will provide, at no additional
cost to the customer, both parts and labor necessary to repair the product, and return
shipment to the customer via a PV Powered selected, non-expedited, surface freight
carrier within the United States and Canada.

25

6. LIMITED
WARRANTY

PV Powered will, at its option, repair or replace the defective component(s) free of
charge, provided that you notify PV Powered of the defect during the warranty period,
have a dated proof of purchase, and PV Powered determines that the defect is covered
by the limited warranty set forth above. PV Powered reserves the right to inspect the
defective component(s) and determine if the defect is due to material or manufacturing
aws. PV Powered also reserves the right to charge a fee for service time expended if the
defect is not due to material or manufacturing aw or is not for some other reason subject
to this limited warranty.

6.3 What is Not Covered


PV Powered does not warrant its products from any and all defects or damage caused by:

Normal wear and tear.

Shipping or transportation damages.

Improper installation.

Improper maintenance.

Excessive voltage or current conditions from the electrical grid or PV panels.

Exposure to unsuitable environmental conditions (including but not limited to damage due to lightning strikes, storm, re, ood, etc.).

Unauthorized or abnormal use, repair, modication, or operation.

Negligence or accidents.

Material or workmanship not provided by PV Powered or its authorized service


centers.

This warranty also does not cover costs related to the removal, installation, or
troubleshooting of your electrical systems.

6.4 Disclaimer and Limitation of Liability


EXCEPT FOR THIS EXPRESS LIMITED WARRANTY, PV POWERED EXPRESSLY
EXCLUDES ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE INVERTER AND DATA
MONITORING MODULE, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, THE WARRANTY OF
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ANY WARRANTIES THAT MAY
HAVE ARISEN FROM COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, PV POWEREDS
AGGREGATE MONETARY LIABILITY TO THE CUSTOMER FOR ANY REASON
AND FOR ANY AND ALL CAUSES OF ACTION, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT
OR OTHERWISE, WILL NOT EXCEED THE AMOUNT PAID TO PV POWERED
FOR THE INVERTER OR DATA MONITORING DEVICE. PV POWERED WILL
NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU UNDER ANY CAUSE OF ACTION, WHETHER
IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, EVEN IF PV
POWERED HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
THE ORIGINAL PRICE FOR THE INVERTER AND DATA MONITORING MODULE
AND PV POWEREDS OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS EXPRESS LIMITED
WARRANTY ARE CONSIDERATION FOR LIMITING PV POWEREDS LIABILITY.

26

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

IF THIS PRODUCT IS A CONSUMER PRODUCT, FEDERAL LAW DOES NOT


ALLOW AN EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES. TO THE EXTENT YOU
ARE ENTITLED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES UNDER FEDERAL LAW, TO THE
EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW THEY ARE LIMITED TO THE
DURATION OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. SOME STATES AND PROVINCES
DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSIONS ON IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OR ON THE DURATION OF AN IMPLIED WARRANTY OR ON THE LIMITATION
OR EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE
ABOVE LIMITATION(S) OR EXCLUSION(S) MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS
LIMITED WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS. YOU MAY HAVE
OTHER RIGHTS WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE OR PROVINCE TO
PROVINCE.

6.5 Arbitration
IN THE EVENT OF A DISPUTE BETWEEN PV POWERED AND ANY PURCHASER
COVERED UNDER THIS WARRANTY, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED
BY LAW, THE PURCHASER AGREES TO RESOLVE ANY AND ALL SUCH
DISPUTES USING BINDING ARBITRATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
RULES AND PROCEDURES OF THE ARBITRATION SERVICE OF PORTLAND,
INC., AND JUDGMENT UPON AWARD RENDERED PURSUANT TO SUCH
ARBITRATION SHALL BE BINDING ON THE PARTIES. THE LOCATION FOR
ANY ARBITRATION HEARINGS SHALL BE BEND, OREGON. THE PRICE FOR
THE INVERTER OR PVM1010 DEVICE AND PV POWEREDS OBLIGATIONS
UNDER THIS EXPRESS LIMITED WARRANTY ARE CONSIDERATION FOR THIS
BINDING ARBITRATION PROVISION.

27

6.6 Miscellaneous Provisions


This limited warranty will be governed and interpreted exclusively in accordance
with the laws of the state of Oregon, without reference to provisions concerning
conicts of laws. If any provision of this limited warranty is found by any court
or arbitrator to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and
enforceability of the remaining provisions will not be affected thereby. This
limited warranty constitutes the entire contract between the parties concerning
the subject matter of this warranty and supersedes all marketing brochures
and other expectations, understandings, communications, representations and
agreements, whether verbal or written, between the parties.

28

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

7. Return Procedure

Before returning the product directly to PV Powered, you must rst obtain a Return
Materials Authorization Number (RMA) from PV Powered. You must also pre-pay for
shipping. When you contact a PV Powered representative, please have the following
information ready:
1.

The serial number of the product

2.

The reason for the return

3.

A copy of your dated proof of purchase

When you return the product to PV Powered, PV Powered advises that you use the
original packaging or its equivalent, and that you fully insure the shipped product. PV
Powered is not responsible for damage to the product due to improper packaging.
On the packaging, please include the following:
1.

Clearly mark the Return Materials Authorization Number (supplied by PV Powered) on the outside of the box.

2.

A return address where the product can be shipped.

3.

A telephone number where you can be reached during business hours.

4.

A brief description of the problem.

Ship the product prepaid to the address provided by your PV Powered representative.
7.1 Information about Your System

Serial Number ___________________________________________________________

Purchased From _________________________________________________________

Date of Purchase _________________________________________________________

29

7. RETURN
PROCEDURE

Note the following information for your records, and retain your dated proof of
purchase:

Notes

30

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

Appendix A - Specifications

The specications detailed below are expected operational parameters, and should
be used in designing your PV system in accordance with the NEC.
PVP1100
EVR

PVP1100

PVP2000
EVR

DC Voltage Operating Range (V)

115VDC450VDC

150VDC450VDC

115VDC450VDC

DC MPPT Range (V)

115VDC380VDC

150VDC380VDC

10A

8A

Specications

PVP2500

PVP2800

150VDC450VDC

140VDC450VDC

180VDC450VDC

115VDC380VDC

150VDC380VDC

140VDC380VDC

180VDC380VDC

18A

14A

20A

16A

211V264V

183V229V

240V

208V

< 2.0A

8.4A

< 2.0A

0.99 - 1.0 at >50% Power

0.95 - 1.0

0.99 - 1.0 at
>50% Power

Maximum DC Input Voltage (VOC)

DC Imp Maximum Current (A)

PVP2000

500VDC

DC Isc Maximum Current (A)

26A
105.6V132.5V

AC Operating Range (V)

211V264V

AC Frequency Range (Hz)

59.3Hz-60.5Hz

AC Nominal Voltage (V)

120V

240V

Normal Output Frequency

60Hz

Synchronization in Rush Current


Power Factor
AC Maximum Continuous Current (A)

9.5A

9A

Recommended Breaker Size

12A

15

Output Overcurrent Protection

14A
20

26A

20A

Continuous Output Power (Watts)

1100

20A
2000

2500

2800

Maximum Continuous Output Power


(Watts)

1100

2000

2500

2800

Enclosure

Steel- NEMA 3R to UL 50 Standards

Dimensions (W x D x H)

16 x 7.5 x 21.75

Weight (lbs.)

55lbs

65lbs

Cooling
Relative Humidity

0% to 100% Condensing
-25oC to + 40oC

Ambient Temperature Range


Environmental Rating
Listings

70lbs

Natural Convection - Heat Sink

NEMA 3R
UL 1741, IEEE 1547, IEEE 519, IEEE 929, IEEE 620

Table A-1 PVP1100 through PVP2800 Specications

APPENDIX A

31

Specications

PVP3000

PVP3500

Maximum DC Input Voltage (VOC)

PVP4600

PVP4800

PVP5200

500VDC

DC Voltage Operating Range (V)

170VDC-450VDC

200VDC450VDC

205VDC450VDC

200VDC450VDC

240VDC450VDC

DC MPPT Range (V)

170VDC-380VDC

200VDC380VDC

205VDC380VDC

200VDC380VDC

240VDC380VDC

18A

18A

25A

26A

25A

183V229V

211V264V

211V264V

240V

240V

DC Imp Maximum Current (A)


DC Isc Maximum Current (A)
AC Operating Range (V)

26A

26A

211V264V

211V264V

240V

240V

AC Frequency Range (Hz)

48A

59.3Hz-60.5Hz

AC Nominal Voltage (V)

208V

Normal Output Frequency

60Hz

Synchronization in Rush Current


Power Factor
AC Maximum Continuous Current (A)
Recommended Breaker Size

< 2.0A

8.4A

0.99 - 1.0 at
>50% Power

0.95 - 1.0

13A

15A

23A

20

30

Output Overcurrent Protection

20A

Continuous Output Power (Watts)

3000

3500

4600

26A
4800

5200

Maximum Continuous Output Power


(Watts)

3000

3500

4600

4800

5200

Steel - NEMA 3R to UL 50
Standards

Aluminum - NEMA 3R to UL 50
Standards

Dimensions (W x D x H)

16 x 7.5 x 21.75

18.125 x 8.875 x 26.375

Weight (lbs.)

80lbs

Enclosure

85lbs

Cooling

135lbs

Natural Convection - Heat Sink

Relative Humidity

0% to 100% Condensing
-25oC to +40oC

Ambient Temperature Range


Environmental Rating

NEMA 3R

Listings

UL 1741, IEEE 1547, IEEE 519, IEEE 929, IEEE 620

Table A-1 (continued) PVP3000 through PVP5200 Specications

Abnormal Specications
The specications listed below are classied as abnormal and are not representative of
normal operation.
Abnormal Specications
Momentary current transient obtained
during abnormal operation

PVP1100
EVR

PVP1100

100 A-pk / 0.54 ms

PVP2000
EVR

142 A-pk / 0.663 ms

Maximum input source backfeed current


to input source

Abnormal Specications
Momentary current transient obtained
during abnormal operation

PVP2000

PVP2500

PVP2800

88 A-pk

166 A-pk /
0.608 ms

0A

PVP3000

PVP3500

PVP4600

PVP4800

PVP5200

166 A-pk /
0.608 ms

88 A-pk

88 A-pk

88 A-pk

88 A-pk

Maximum input source backfeed current


to input source

0A

Table A-2 Abnormal Specications

32

Index

Grid-Tied Residential Inverters


Installation and Operation Manual

A
Acronyms and Abbreviations iii

INDEX

C
Connecting DC Wires/PV Panels 14
DC Connections 14
Open Circuit Calculations 14
Connecting the Inverter to the Electrical Grid 12
Contact Information i
F
Fault Codes 24
G
GFI Circuit 11
Grounding 10
I
Islanding Prevention- Electrical Safety Features 2
L
LED Indicator Lights 18
Location and Clearances 3
M
Multiple Faults 23
R
Revisions and Certication ii
S
Safety Information and Conventions ii
Designation of Danger, Warning and Caution ii
Separation of Circuits 10
V
Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD) 19
Normal Display Cycle 20
Voltage and Frequency Limits 8

33

34

150 SW Scalehouse Loop U Bend, OR 97702 U P: 541-312-3832 U www.pvpowered.com