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- Abhay Kumar Singh I E Irodov Solutions to I.E. Irodov_'s Problems in General Physics. Volume 1 1998 (1)
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17

Applications of Biot Savarts Law

* Magnetic Field Intensity H

* Divergence of B

* Curl of B

A straight infinitely long wire

is carrying a steady current I.

Point P is at

a perpendicular distance (AP=) R from the wire.

Consider a small element

at the point O on the wire.

The line joining points O to P (OP=vector r)

makes an angle

with the direction of the current element d .

(b) Derivation of dB

The magnetic field dB due to the current element of

length d at P is observed to be given by

It is directed perpendicular to both d and r. i.e.

it is perpendicular to the plane of the paper and going into it,

according to the right handed corkscrew rule

(direction in which a right handed corkscrew advances

when turning from d to r).

The expression for the total magnetic field B due to the wire

can be obtained by integrating the above expression as

or equivalently,

It is called as the BiotSavart law which gives

the Magnetic field B generated by a steady Electric current I

when the current can be approximated as

running through an infinitely-narrow wire.

If the current has some thickness i.e. current density is J,

then the statement of the Biot Savarts law is:

or equivalently,

Where d= differential current length element

dV = volume element

0 = the Magnetic constant,

r = displacement vector

= the displacement unit vector,

The magnetic field B at a point P due to

an infinite (very long) straight wire

carrying a current I is proportional to I, and

is inversely proportional to

the perpendicular distance R

of the point from the wire.

The vector field B depends on

the magnitude, direction, length, and

proximity of the electric current, and also on

a fundamental constant called the Magnetic constant 0

It plays a role similar to Coulombs Law in Electrostatics.

The Biot-Savart Law relates Magnetic fields to

the electric currents which are their sources just as

Coulombs Law relates electric fields to

the point charges which are their sources.

the cause (moving charge) and

the effect (magnetic field)

in magnetism.

It is an empirical law

(formulated from the experimental observations)

like the Coulombs law.

Both are inverse square laws.

In spite of this parallel situation,

one important distinction between

the Coulombs law and the Biot Savarts law is that

the magnetic field B, is in the direction of

the vector cross product d x r i.e.

along the perpendicular direction of the plane constituted by

the current length element d and displacement vector r

while electrostatic field E is along the displacement vector.

This necessitates representation of B-Field by

vector notation and

3-D space for its visualization.

The magnetic field B as computed

using the Biot-Savart law

always satisfies Amperes Circuital Law and

Gauss Law for Magnetism

or

a macroscopic current element,

it can be applied in the calculation of magnetic field

even at the atomic/molecular level

(in which case quantum mechanical calculation or theory

is used for obtaining the current density).

Biot-Savarts law is stated for

a small current element (Id) of wire

Not for the extended wire carrying current.

However, magnetic field due to

extended wire carrying current

can be found by using the superposition principle i.e.

the magnetic field is

a vector sum of the fields created by

each infinitesimal section of the wire individually.

For calculating the magnetic field due to

an extended wire carrying current

The point in space at which

the magnetic field is to be computed is chosen,

it is held fixed and integration is carried out

over the path of the current(s)

by applying the equation of Biot Savarts Law.

Magnetic Field at the Centre of the Current Loop

Consider a circular loop of radius r carrying a current I

At the center of the loop,

the magnitude of the magnetic field B is given by

B=

The direction of the magnetic field is indicated by

The Right Hand Rule

The magnetic field changes away from the center

in both magnitude and direction

can be obtained as follows

Consider a circular loop of radius a having its centre at O.

Point P is situated on the axis of loop at a distance R

from the centre O of the loop.

The loop carries a current I.

The magnitude of the fields dB & dB due to

small current elements d and d of the circle,

centered at A and A

(at diagrammatically opposite points) respectively

is given by Biot Savarts law as

The direction of the field dB is normal to a plane containing

d and AP i.e. along PQ and that of dB is along PQ.

The fields can be resolved into two components in mutually

perpendicular directions along the axis and

Perpendicular to axis i.e. along PS/ PS.

Their Components dB cos along PS and

dBcos along PS are

equal and opposite and get cancelled.

Components along the axis dB sin and dB sin

both have the same direction and are added up.

This applies to all such pairs of elements.

Thus the resultant field due to the loop

is directed along the axis of the loop and

its magnitude is obtained by integrating the expression

The magnetic field B due to the circular current loop

of radius a at a point on its axis and a distance R away

is given by integrating the above expression as

(i

the Biot Savarts Law can be used to advantage

in calculating the Magnetic field resulting from

an Electric current distribution are as follows

Magnetic Field of an Infinitely Long Wire

The magnetic field B at a point distance r from

an infinitely long wire carrying current I has magnitude

is given by the Right-hand rule.

Magnetic Field of a Long Solenoid

The magnetic field B inside the long solenoid of length L

with N turns of wire wrapped evenly along its length is

uniform throughout the volume of the solenoid (except

near the ends where the magnetic field becomes weak)

and is given by

uniform over cross-section of solenoid

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

According to the Gauss law in electrostatics,

divergence of the static electric field is equal to

the total density of a stationary electric charge/s

at a given point.

div. E =

However in magnetostatics a magnetic charge

(i.e. monopole) is not found to exist.

(The source of magnetic fields is

moving electric charges, Not the static ones).

Due to the absence of magnetic charges,

the magnetic field is divergenceless.

In Differential form

denotes Divergence)

(though this term is not universally adopted).

It states that the magnetic field B

has divergence equal to zero i.e.

magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field

Magnetic Monopole

(i.e. isolated North or South magnetic pole)

does not exist.

The basic quantity for magnetism is

the Magnetic Dipole

Not the magnetic charge or monopole.

Hence, the law is also called as

"Absence of Free Magnetic poles ".

in integral form is given as

(the boundary enclosing a three-dimensional volume);

dA is a vector, having magnitude equal to

the infinitesimal area of the surface S and

direction along the surface normal pointing outward.

the net flux of the magnetic field out of the surface.

The law implies that the net magnetic flux

into and out of a volume is zero.

Thus Gauss's law for magnetism can be written in

both- differential and integral- forms.

These forms are equivalent due to the Divergence theorem

The magnetic field B, like any vector field,

can be represented by field lines.

Gauss's law for magnetism also implies that

the field lines have neither a beginning nor an end.

They either form a closed loop,

or extend to infinity in both directions.

Circulation is the amount of

pushing, twisting or turning force

along a closed boundary / path

when the path is shrunk down to a single point.

Circulation is the integral of a vector field along a path.

A vector field is usually the source of the circulation.

Curl is the circulation per unit area,

circulation density, or

rate of rotation (amount of twisting at a single point

The curl of a force F

is calculated as follows

Direction at position r =

Total pushing force =

Curl =

magnitude equal to the maximum "circulation" at each point

and to be oriented perpendicularly

to this plane of circulation for each point.

The magnitude of

The physical significance of the curl of a vector field is

the amount of "rotation" or angular momentum of

the contents of given region of space.

It arises in fluid mechanics and elasticity theory.

It is also fundamental in the theory of electromagnetism

In magnetostatics, it can be proved that

the curl of magnetic field B is given by

0 times the current density J at that point.

This simple statement relates the magnetic field

and moving charges.

The equation is mathematically equivalent to

the line integral equation given by Amperes law.

Divergence and Curl of magnetic B-field

are also called as the laws of Magnetostatics.

They correspond to

the curl and divergence of

electric field E respectively in electrostatics as follows

Electrostatics

Field is without curl

Magnetostatics

Field is without divergence

Field E Source relation

The equations for divergence and curl for vector fields

are extremely powerful.

Expressions for divergence and curl of a magnetic field

describe uniquely any magnetic field from

the current density j in the field in the same manner that

the equations for the divergence and curl for the electric field

describe an electric field from

the electric charge density in the electric field.

The four equations involving Curl and Divergence for

Electric and Magnetic fields are

the versions of Maxwells equations for

static electromagnetic fields.

They describe mathematically the entire content of

Electrostatics and Magnetostatics.

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