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# Stirred Tank Heater Case Study

## Dr. Kevin Craig

Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Stirred Tank Heater

K. Craig

## Stirred Tank Heater Case Study

Physical System
Tank Inlet
Tti

Tjo

Jacket Inlet
Tji

Tank
Jacket

Jacket Outlet
Stirred Tank Heater

Tt
Tj
Tank Outlet
Tto
K. Craig

## Mixing vessels are used in many chemical

processes. Often these mixing vessels are heated,
either by a coil or a jacket surrounding the vessel.
Example: A mixing vessel may serve as a chemical
reactor, where two or more components are reacted to
produce one or more products. Often this reaction must
occur at a certain temperature to achieve a desired
yield. The temperature in the vessel is maintained by
varying the flowrate of a fluid through the jacket or
coil.

## Objective: Raise the temperature of the inlet

stream to the tank to a desired value.
Stirred Tank Heater

K. Craig

## In this system, a heat-transfer fluid is circulated

through a jacket to heat the fluid in the tank.
In some processes, steam is used as the heat-transfer
fluid and most of the energy transported is due to the
phase change of steam to water. In other processes, a
heat-transfer fluid is used where there is no phase
change.

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## Physical Model Simplifying Assumptions

No change of phase occurs in either the tank fluid or the
jacket fluid.
Volume of fluid in the tank and jacket are constant.
Perfect mixing is assumed in both the tank and jacket,
therefore the temperatures of the fluid in the tank and
jacket are uniform and equal to the exit temperatures.
Liquids in the tank and jacket have constant density and
heat capacity.
Inputs to the system are:

## tank inlet flowrate

jacket inlet flowrate
tank inlet temperature
jacket inlet temperature
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## Rate of heat transfer from the jacket to the tank is

governed by the equation:
Q = hA ( Tj Tt )
h is the overall heat-transfer coefficient
A is the area for heat transfer

## Stirred Tank Heater

K. Craig

Mathematical Model
Conservation of Mass: Tank

dV + vidA
0=

t CV
CS
d
( t Vt ) = t Vti t Vto
Assume constant density.
dt
d
Assume constant volume in the tank.
( Vt ) = 0
dt
volume flow rate in = volume flow rate out
Vti = Vto

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## Conservation of Mass: Jacket

dV + vidA
0=

t CV
CS
d
jVj ) = jVji jVjo
(
Assume constant density.
dt
d
Vj ) = 0
(
Assume constant volume in the tank.
dt
Vji = Vjo
volume flow rate in = volume flow rate out

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## Conservation of Energy: Tank

Q+W =
edV + evidA

t CV
CS
v2
e = u + + gz
2
For most chemical processes where there are thermal
effects, kinetic and potential energy terms can be
neglected because their contribution is generally at least
two orders of magnitude less than that of the internal
energy term.
Rate of work done on Control Volume by surroundings:

W = Wshaft + Wnormal
Wnormal =

nn

vidA

nn p

CS

## Stirred Tank Heater

K. Craig

Q + Wshaft

p
=
udV + u + vidA

t CV

CS
dU
+ Vt t ( h to h ti )
dt
d ( H pV )
=
+ Vt t ( h to h ti )
dt

Q + Wshaft =
Q + Wshaft

But since the volume of the tank is constant and the mean
pressure change is negligible (good assumption for
liquids provided the pressure change is not too large), we
have:

d ( pV )
dt

## Stirred Tank Heater

dp
dV
=V +p
=0
dt
dt
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dH
= Vt t ( h ti h to ) + Q + Wshaft
dt
Neglect the work done by the mixing impeller and
assume single phase and a constant heat capacity:

h = c p T
dTt
t Vt c pt
= Vt t c pt ( Tti Tto ) + Q
dt
dTt Vt
Q
= ( Tti Tto ) +
dt Vt
t Vt c pt

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## Conservation of Energy: Jacket

Using the same assumptions as for the tank, the result is:

dTj

Vj

Q
= ( Tji Tjo ) +
dt Vj
jVjc pj

Q = hA ( Tj Tt )

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dTj
dt

Vj

T
(
V

ji

Tj )

hA ( Tj Tt )
jVjc pj

hA ( Tj Tt )
dTt Vt
= ( Tti Tt ) +
t Vt c pt
dt Vt

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## Physical Model Parameters and Steady-State

Values
Btu
t c pt = 61.3
F ft 3
Btu
jc pj = 61.3
F ft 3
Vt = 10 ft 3

Tts = 125 F

Vj = 1 ft 3

Tjis = 200 F

ft 3
Vtis = Vtos = 1
min
ft 3
Vjis = Vjos = 1.5
min
Stirred Tank Heater

Tjs = 150 F
Ttis = 50 F
Btu
hA = 183.9
F min

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## Simulink Diagram of Nonlinear Model

MatLab M-File
V_dot_t_s=1;
V_dot_j_s=1.5;
rho_cp_t=61.3;
rho_cp_j=61.3;
V_t=10;
V_j=1;
K1=1/(rho_cp_t*V_t);
K2=1/(rho_cp_j*V_j);
h_A=183.9;
T_t_i_s=50;
T_j_i_s=200;
T_t_s=125;
T_j_s=150;

## Stirred Tank Heater

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Linearization
Nonlinear
Equations

hA ( Tj Tt )
dTt Vt
= ( Tti Tt ) +
t Vt c pt
dt Vt
dTj
dt

Tt = f1 ( Tt , Tj , Vt , Vj , Tti , Tji )
Tj = f 2 ( Tt , Tj , Vt , Vj , Tti , Tji )

Vj

T
(
V

ji

Tj )

hA ( Tj Tt )
jVjc pj

## Taylor Series Expansion

retaining only linear terms

f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
Tt = f1 +
Tt +
Tj +
Vt +
Vj +
Tti +
Tji
Tt
Tj
Vt
Vj
Tti
Tji
f 2
f 2
f 2
f 2
f 2
f 2
Tj = f2 +
Tt +
Tj +
Vt +
Vj +
Tti +
Tji
Tt
Tj
Vt
Vj
Tti
Tji
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Vts
hA
Ttis Tts
hA

Tt = 0 +
Vt +
Tt +
Tj +

Vt t Vt c pt
t Vt c pt
Vt
Vts
 Vj + Tti +  Tji
Vt
hA
Vjs
hA

Tj = 0 +
Tt +
Tj + [ 0] Vt +
jVjc pj
Vj t Vt c pt
Tjis Tjs
Vjs

Vj + [ 0] Tti + Tji
Vj
Vj

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##  Vj + [0.1] Tti +  Tji

Tj = 0 + [3.0] Tt + [ 4.5] Tj + [ 0] Vt +
[50.0] Vj +  Tti + [1.5] Tji
State-Space Representation
x = Ax + Bu

V
t
T 0.4 0.3 T 7.5 0 0.1 0 V
t
j
t =

50 0 1.5 T
T 3.0 4.5 Tj 0
ti

j

Tji
Stirred Tank Heater

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V
t
y1 1 0 Tt 0 0 0 0 Vj
y = 0 1 + 0 0 0 0
Tj
Tti
2

Tji
y = Cx + Du

## Conversion: State-Space to Transfer Function

Y (s ) = G (s ) U (s )
G ( s ) = C ( sI A ) B + D
1

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## State-Space to Transfer Function

x( t ) = Ax( t ) + Bu( t )
y( t ) = Cx( t ) + Du( t )

Y(s)
= G ( s)
U( s)
sX(s) x(0) = AX(s) + BU(s)
Y(s) = CX(s) + DU(s)

Laplace Transform
sX(s) AX(s) = BU(s)

## Zero Initial Conditions

sI A X(s) = BU(s)
X(s) = sI A

Define:

BU(s)

(s) = sI A

Y(s) = C sI A

B + D U(s)

## Y(s) = C(s) B + D U(s)

Y(s)
= C(s) B + D = G (s)
U(s)

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## The poles of the transfer function are the eigenvalues of

the system matrix A.
sI A = 0

Characteristic Equation

## A zero of the transfer function is a value of s that

satisfies:
sI A B
=0
C
D
The transfer function can be written as:
sI A B
C
D
G(s) =
sI A
Stirred Tank Heater

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Transfer Functions

## Poles: -0.191, -4.709

Tj

Tt

7.5s 33.75
= 2
Vt s + 4.9s + 0.9

22.5
= 2
Vt s + 4.9s + 0.9

Tt

Tj

15
= 2
Vj s + 4.9s + 0.9

Vj

0.1s + 0.45
= 2
Tti s + 4.9s + 0.9

Tti

Tt

Tj

Tt

0.45
= 2
Tji s + 4.9s + 0.9

## Stirred Tank Heater

Tj

50s + 20
s 2 + 4.9s + 0.9

0.3
s 2 + 4.9s + 0.9

1.5s + 0.6
= 2
Tji s + 4.9s + 0.9
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## We are interested in the following transfer

functions:
Tt

15
15
= 2
=
Vj s + 4.9s + 0.9 ( s + 0.191)( s + 4.709 )
16.67
=
( 5.236s + 1)( 0.212s + 1)
50 ( s + 0.4 )
50s + 20
= 2
=
Vj s + 4.9s + 0.9 ( s + 0.191)( s + 4.709 )
Tj

=
Stirred Tank Heater

22.2 ( 2.5s + 1)

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## Comparison: Nonlinear vs. Linear

Step change of 0.1 in the jacket flow rate (from 1.5 to
1.6 ft3/min)

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2.5 ft3/min)

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1.4 ft3/min)

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0.5 ft3/min)

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150

145
140
135
Linear

130
125
120
115
110

## Stirred Tank Heater

Nonlinear
0

10

15
time (min)

20

25

30

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Observations:
For the nonlinear model, the gain (change in output /
change in input) varied as a function of both the input
magnitude and direction.
If small input changes were made, the gain did not
change much from the linear model case.
For large input changes, the gain of the nonlinear
system was less than the linear system for increases in
jacket flow rate, but more than the linear system for
decreases in jacket flow rate.
The response of the jacket temperature is faster than
that of the tank temperature. From a physical point of
view, this makes sense since the jacket volume is one
tenth of the heater volume.
Stirred Tank Heater

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## The jacket flowrate has a direct effect on jacket

temperature and an indirect effect on tank temperature.
Notice that the numerator time constant partially
cancels the slow denominator time constant for the
transfer function relating jacket flowrate to jacket
temperature.

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## Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

The eigenvalues of the A matrix in the state-space
model provide information about stability and the
relative speed of response.
The eigenvectors provide information about the
directional dependence of the speed of response.
The eigenvalues and eigenvectors for this system are:
1 = 0.1911

slow

2 = 4.7089

fast

0.8207
v1 =

0.5714

0.0695
v2 =

0.9976

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